Oct 02 2012

Coolmuster PDF Password Remover Crack

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Coolmuster PDF Password Remover for Mac Publisher's Description

Remove owner password for printing, copying and editing PDF files without entering any password.
Decrypt user password from PDF files with entering the authorized Coolmuster PDF Password Remover Crack Remove PDF password and restrictions for multiple encrypted PDF files at one time. This is a good way for improving working efficiency.
Drag and drop operation allows you to import a large amount of PDF files into the program for decrypting.
A user password is to control the permission of opening a PDF. If a PDF is protected by a user password, you can enter the correct user password and save the PDF to a new PDF file without user password.
After saving a new PDF file, you can share the PDF with anyone you want more easily.

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Can i watch netflix on mac mini

Contents:

  • More MacRumors Stories
  • can i watch netflix hd on mac mini - Apple Community
  • Netflix Download Manual: Get Movies & Shows to Watch Offline on iPhone or iPad (12222)
  • The computer in the living room: setting up a Mac mini media center

  • The Silverlight installation file will be downloaded onto your Mac. When installation is complete, wait for around seconds and a test video should start playing if the installation has been successful. If you can see the video, Silverlight for Mac Coolmuster PDF Password Remover Crack working correctly in Firefox and you should be able to watch Netflix in Coolmuster PDF Password Remover Crack. If you want to know how to record Netflix on Mac, you might also be interested in our article on how to capture Netflix videos on Mac.

    For any other issues or problems you are having with Netflix on your Mac, let us know in the daemon tools lite crack download below. I am having troulbe getting Silverlight to show up on my MacBook pro using Firefox, in order to stream Netflix movies. I tried all of the above. Any other suggestions? Thanks, Mac How. Thus, I am unable to Enable it. Uninstall both Silverlight and Firefox. Reinstall them both and it should work. Let me know if not. Any other ideas? Hi Inga, It could be a proxy issue. Go to Preferences in Safari and select Advanced. Click on Change Settings next to Proxies.

    Are you using Safari? Try downloading and installing Firefox instead. Hi, there is no Auto Proxy Discovery option under my Proxies. Lilyanne, Try the solutions suggested in the comments below. It is important all traces of Silverlight are removed from your Mac before reinstalling. In particular, make sure that the following are definitely removed:. I did as you said by searching for the above documents and extensions, and used App Cleaner to remove the app. Reinstalled, restarted the computer, and still get the same error. I mean, i does, but when I go back to the main menu it gets automatically deselected.

    I get black page, no control players.

    More MacRumors Stories

    It is strongly advised that to help Netflix run properly on your Mac, you upgrade to at least OS X You may find this fixes the problems you are having anyway because OS X There are not extensions blocking Silverlight because the two I have were disabled. Make sure that Auto-Detect is selected and click OK. Restart Firefox if Coolmuster PDF Password Remover Crack and let me know if it works. Krystal, Can you give us a bit more information. What exactly are you seeing when you try to play Netflix films on your Mac? Which browser are you using?

    • How to Watch Netflix in 4K on a Mac.
    • How to watch Netflix in 4K on Mac (Hint: It's not through Safari)

      Coolmuster PDF Password Remover Crack

      Coolmuster PDF Password Remover Crack

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      Coolmuster PDF Password Remover 2.1.10 Crack is effective software that Removes passwords quickly as you want. Sometimes you need to edit your pdf data and you forgot your password and you lost your password from some accidents. Don’t worry now you have the best, the solution to remove the password from your documents easily with Coolmuster PDF Password Remover.

      Coolmuster PDF Password Remover

      Coolmuster PDF Password Remover For Mac is an ideal software that helps you to remove the password to copy, edit, change your PDF documents. It supports viewing Pdf files, copy save edit add, and delete images, text, and also print documents as you want. It is a protective password as it does not allow remover to remove password work automatically while it takes keywords or hints to remove the password. It allows to Handover of data from PDF to other different formats. It allows us to manage large size files with speed. It is the latest modern and effective software that is specially designed to work with modern styles. Its system allows users to works effectively without any issue and difficulty. It is easy and time saver software as it works within minutes and removes your own password. It has its own backup to save data. It has also the power to maintain damage and encrypt data easily.

      Coolmuster PDF Password Remover Crack + Registration Code Download

      Coolmuster PDF Password Remover Activation Key works so easily and speeds without hurdles and errors. It has less chance of errors so the user chooses it with peace. Used for multiple purposes such as home, office work educational purposes, training programs, and other various aspects. It makes it user professional, skillful. It is helpful for both professionals and learners to make their work more classy more effective and professional. This software is a revolutionary gift for those who work in different fields to manage data and passwords. By the way, there is a lot of software Coolmuster PDF Password Remover Crack in the market and completing all requirements of the user thus this software is a wonderful working activity providing the user full efficient security and unbelievable safety.

      Coolmuster PDF Password Remover Keyis a simple tool. You can easily download and install your PC and complete your all needs Moreover, it is a good password protection software and it can secure all types of text and folder, files in any way. Many people using on a daily basis for securing the content so I recommend you to download install and your PC and complete your all needs and Enjoy.

      Feature of Coolmuster PDF Password Remover Crack:

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      Coolmuster PDF Password Remover

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      Advantages:

      • You can easily Convert Your documents.
      • Rich of Latest Features and Functions
      • It is easy to manage
      • User-Friendly Interface 

      Disadvantage:

      • Speed slows down due to burdon
      • This tool takes time when downloading and Coolmuster PDF Password Remover Crack new customer can face tension

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      System Essentials:

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      Coolmuster PDF Password Remover Registration Code:

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      How To Install Coolmuster Coolmuster PDF Password Remover Crack Password Remover Crack?

      • Firstof all, Search theLinkfor Downloading
      • Now install it into your system or PC
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      Summary

      Reviewer

      king live

      Review Date

      Reviewed Item

      Coolmuster PDF Password Remover Crack

      Author Rating

      Software Name

      Coolmuster PDF Password Remover Crack

      Software Name

      Windows and MAC

      Software Category

      Crack And Mac

      Источник: https://okproductkey.com/coolmuster-pdf-password-remover-crack/

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      Coolmuster PDF Password Remover 2.1.10 Crack + Registration Code Download

      Coolmuster PDF Password Remover 2.1.10 Crack is effective software that Removes passwords quickly as you want. Sometimes you need to edit your pdf data and you forgot your password and you lost your password from some accidents. Don’t worry now you have the best, the solution to remove the password from your documents easily with Coolmuster PDF Password Remover.

      Coolmuster PDF Password Remover

      Coolmuster PDF Password Remover For Mac is an ideal software that helps you to remove the password to copy, edit, change your PDF documents. It supports viewing Pdf files, copy save edit add, and delete images, text, and also print documents as you want. It is a protective password as it does not allow remover to remove password work automatically while it takes keywords or hints to remove the password. It allows to Handover of data from PDF to other different formats. It allows us to manage large size files with speed. It is the latest modern and effective software that is specially designed to work with modern styles. Its system allows users to works effectively without any issue and difficulty. It is easy and time saver software as it works within minutes and removes your own password. It has its own backup to save data. It has also the power to maintain damage and encrypt data easily.

      Coolmuster PDF Password Remover Crack + Registration Code Download

      Coolmuster PDF Password Remover Activation Key works so easily and speeds without hurdles and errors. It has less chance of errors so the user chooses it with peace. Used for multiple purposes such as home, office work educational purposes, training programs, and other various aspects. It makes it user professional, skillful. It is helpful for both professionals and learners to make their work more classy more effective and professional. This software is a revolutionary gift for those who work in different fields to manage data and passwords. By the way, there is a lot of software available in the market and completing all requirements of the user thus this software is a wonderful working activity providing the user full efficient security and unbelievable safety.

      Coolmuster PDF Password Remover Keyis a simple tool. You can easily download and install your PC and complete your all needs Moreover, it is a good password protection software and it can secure all types of text and folder, files in any way. Many people using on a daily basis for securing the content so I recommend you to download install and your PC and complete your all needs and Enjoy.

      Feature of Coolmuster PDF Password Remover Crack:

      • You will see in this software two modes for removing the password from PDF files.
      • It is the best rescue PDF file on your PC.
      • Give your high processing speed without any difficulty.
      • It is a time and money saver software for you.
      • It has a user-friendly interface.
      • It can support different types of Windows.
      • It can fulfill all needs.

      Coolmuster PDF Password Remover

      What is New in Coolmuster PDF Password Remover Crack?

      • You can easily edit, copy, and modify your content.
      • Best software for the new User.
      • Simple and easy working system.
      • It can start with a just click.
      • It is a gifted software for your PC.

      Advantages:

      • You can easily Convert Your documents.
      • Rich of Latest Features and Functions
      • It is easy to manage
      • User-Friendly Interface 

      Disadvantage:

      • Speed slows down due to burdon
      • This tool takes time when downloading and Installing
      • A new customer can face tension

      Other Free Download:

      System Essentials:

      • Windows for 7,8,8.1,10 is most Important
      • RAM// 2GB or 4GB or Increase
      • CPU// 2.5 GHz
      • Many MBs Needed

      Coolmuster PDF Password Remover Registration Code:

      OUIYT-REWER-TYUIO-PIUYT-ERWQEPOIUY-TREWR-YUIOP-ITRWE-ERTYU OIUYT-ERWER-TYUIO-YUTRE-TRYUIRTYUI-YTREW-ERTYU-IYTRE-WRTYU

      How To Install Coolmuster PDF Password Remover Crack?

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      • Now install it into your system or PC
      • Extract from zip file easy
      • Run with exactly
      • Enjoy
      • Done

      Download Official Link

      Summary

      Reviewer

      king live

      Review Date

      Reviewed Item

      Coolmuster PDF Password Remover Crack

      Author Rating

      Software Name

      Coolmuster PDF Password Remover Crack

      Software Name

      Windows and MAC

      Software Category

      Crack And Mac

      Источник: https://okproductkey.com/coolmuster-pdf-password-remover-crack/

      Wikipedia

      Multilingual free online encyclopedia

      This article is about Wikipedia. For Wikipedia's home page, see Main Page. For the English edition, see English Wikipedia. For a list of Wikipedias in other languages, see List of Wikipedias. For other uses, see Wikipedia (disambiguation).

      Wikipedia (wik-ih-PEE-dee-ə or wik-ee-) is a free content, multilingual online encyclopedia written and maintained by a community of volunteers through a model of open collaboration, using a wiki-based editing system. Individual contributors, also called editors, are known as Wikipedians. It is the largest and most-read reference work in history,[3] and consistently one of the 15 most popular websites ranked by Alexa; as of 2021,[update] Wikipedia was ranked the 13th most popular site.[3][4] A visitor spends an average time on Wikipedia of 3 minutes and 45 seconds each day.[5] It is hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation, an American non-profit organization funded mainly through small donations.[6]

      Wikipedia was launched on January 15, 2001, by Jimmy Wales[7] and Larry Sanger; Sanger coined its name as a blending of "wiki" and "encyclopedia".[8] Initially available only in English, versions in other languages were quickly developed. Its combined editions comprise more than 57 million articles, attracting around 2 billion unique device visits per month, and more than 17 million edits per month (1.9 edits per second).[10][11] In 2006, Time magazine stated that the policy of allowing anyone to edit had made Wikipedia the "biggest (and perhaps best) encyclopedia in the world", and is "a testament to the vision of one man, Jimmy Wales".[12]

      Wikipedia has received praise for its enablement of the democratization of knowledge, extent of coverage, unique structure, culture, and reduced amount of commercial bias, but criticism for exhibiting systemic bias, particularly gender bias against women and alleged ideological bias.[13][14]Its reliability was frequently criticized in the 2000s, but has improved over time and has been generally praised in the late 2010s and early 2020s.[3][13][15] Its coverage of controversial topics such as American politics and major events such as the COVID-19 pandemic has received substantial media attention. It has been censored by world governments, ranging from specific pages to the entire site. It has become an element of popular culture, with references in books, films and academic studies. In 2018, Facebook and YouTube announced that they would help users detect fake news by suggesting fact-checking links to related Wikipedia articles.[16][17]

      History

      Main article: History of Wikipedia

      Nupedia

      Main article: Nupedia

      Logo reading "Nupedia.com the free encyclopedia" in blue with the large initial "N"
      Wikipedia originally developed from another encyclopedia project called Nupedia.

      Other collaborative online encyclopedias were attempted before Wikipedia, but none were as successful.[18] Wikipedia began as a complementary project for Nupedia, a free online English-language encyclopedia project whose articles were written by experts and reviewed under a formal process.[19] It was founded on March 9, 2000, under the ownership of Bomis, a web portal company. Its main figures were Bomis CEO Jimmy Wales and Larry Sanger, editor-in-chief for Nupedia and later Wikipedia.[1][20] Nupedia was initially licensed under its own Nupedia Open Content License, but even before Wikipedia was founded, Nupedia switched to the GNU Free Documentation License at the urging of Richard Stallman.[21] Wales is credited with defining the goal of making a publicly editable encyclopedia,[22][23] while Sanger is credited with the strategy of using a wiki to reach that goal.[24] On January 10, 2001, Sanger proposed on the Nupedia mailing list to create a wiki as a "feeder" project for Nupedia.[25]

      Launch and early growth

      The domainswikipedia.com (later redirecting to wikipedia.org) and wikipedia.org were registered on January 12, 2001,[26] and January 13, 2001,[27] respectively, and Wikipedia was launched on January 15, 2001[19] as a single English-language edition at www.wikipedia.com,[28] and announced by Sanger on the Nupedia mailing list.[22] Its policy of "neutral point-of-view"[29] was codified in its first few months. Otherwise, there were initially relatively few rules, and it operated independently of Nupedia.[22] Bomis originally intended it as a business for profit.[30]

      The Wikipedia home page on December 20, 2001

      English Wikipedia editors with >100 edits per month[31]

      Wikipedia gained early contributors from Nupedia, Slashdot postings, and web search engine indexing. Language editions were also created, with a total of 161 by the end of 2004.[33] Nupedia and Wikipedia coexisted until the former's servers were taken down permanently in 2003, and its text was incorporated into Wikipedia. The English Wikipedia passed the mark of two million articles on September 9, 2007, making it the largest encyclopedia ever assembled, surpassing the Yongle Encyclopedia made during the Ming Dynasty in 1408, which had held the record for almost 600 years.[34]

      Citing fears of commercial advertising and lack of control, users of the Spanish Wikipediaforked from Wikipedia to create Enciclopedia Libre in February 2002.[35] Wales then announced that Wikipedia would not display advertisements, and changed Wikipedia's domain from wikipedia.com to wikipedia.org.[36][37]

      Though the English Wikipedia reached three million articles in August 2009, the growth of the edition, in terms of the numbers of new articles and of editors, appears to have peaked around early 2007.[38] Around 1,800 articles were added daily to the encyclopedia in 2006; by 2013 that average was roughly 800.[39] A team at the Palo Alto Research Center attributed this slowing of growth to the project's increasing exclusivity and resistance to change.[40] Others suggest that the growth is flattening naturally because articles that could be called "low-hanging fruit"—topics that clearly merit an article—have already been created and built up extensively.[41][42][43]

      In November 2009, a researcher at the Rey Juan Carlos University in Madrid found that the English Wikipedia had lost 49,000 editors during the first three months of 2009; in comparison, it lost only 4,900 editors during the same period in 2008.[44][45]The Wall Street Journal cited the array of rules applied to editing and disputes related to such content among the reasons for this trend.[46] Wales disputed these claims in 2009, denying the decline and questioning the study's methodology.[47] Two years later, in 2011, he acknowledged a slight decline, noting a decrease from "a little more than 36,000 writers" in June 2010 to 35,800 in June 2011. In the same interview, he also claimed the number of editors was "stable and sustainable".[48] A 2013 MIT Technology Review article, "The Decline of Wikipedia", questioned this claim, revealing that since 2007, Wikipedia had lost a third of its volunteer editors, and that those remaining had focused increasingly on minutiae.[49] In July 2012, The Atlantic reported that the number of administrators was also in decline.[50] In the November 25, 2013, issue of New York magazine, Katherine Ward stated, "Wikipedia, the sixth-most-used website, is facing an internal crisis."[51]

      Milestones

      Cartogramshowing number of articles in each European language as of January 2019.[update]One square represents 10,000 articles. Languages with fewer than 10,000 articles are represented by one square. Languages are grouped by language family and each language family is presented by a separate color.

      In January 2007, Wikipedia first became one of the ten most popular websites in the US, according to comscore Networks. With 42.9 million unique visitors, it was ranked #9, surpassing The New York Times (#10) and Apple (#11). This marked a significant increase over January 2006, when Wikipedia ranked 33rd, with around 18.3 million unique visitors.[52] As of March 2020[update], it ranked 13th[4] in popularity according to Alexa Internet. In 2014, it received eight billion page views every month.[53] On February 9, 2014, The New York Times reported that Wikipedia had 18 billion page views and nearly 500 million unique visitors a month, "according to the ratings firm comScore".[10] Loveland and Reagle argue that, in process, Wikipedia follows a long tradition of historical encyclopedias that have accumulated improvements piecemeal through "stigmergic accumulation".[54][55]

      On January 18, 2012, the English Wikipedia participated in a series of coordinated protests against two proposed laws in the United States Congress—the Stop Online Piracy Act (SOPA) and the PROTECT IP Act (PIPA)—by blacking out its pages for 24 hours.[56] More than 162 million people viewed the blackout explanation page that temporarily replaced its content.[57][58]

      On January 20, 2014, Subodh Varma reporting for The Economic Times indicated that not only had Wikipedia's growth stalled, it "had lost nearly ten percent of its page views last year. There was a decline of about two billion between December 2012 and December 2013. Its most popular versions are leading the slide: page-views of the English Wikipedia declined by twelve percent, those of German version slid by 17 percent and the Japanese version lost nine percent."[59] Varma added, "While Wikipedia's managers think that this could be due to errors in counting, other experts feel that Google's Knowledge Graphs project launched last year may be gobbling up Wikipedia users."[59] When contacted on this matter, Clay Shirky, associate professor at New York University and fellow at Harvard's Berkman Klein Center for Internet & Society said that he suspected much of the page-view decline was due to Knowledge Graphs, stating, "If you can get your question answered from the search page, you don't need to click [any further]."[59] By the end of December 2016, Wikipedia was ranked the 5th most popular website globally.[60]

      In January 2013, 274301 Wikipedia, an asteroid, was named after Wikipedia; in October 2014, Wikipedia was honored with the Wikipedia Monument; and, in July 2015, 106 of the 7,473 700-page volumes of Wikipedia became available as Print Wikipedia. In April 2019, an Israeli lunar lander, Beresheet, crash landed on the surface of the Moon carrying a copy of nearly all of the English Wikipedia engraved on thin nickel plates; experts say the plates likely survived the crash.[61][62] In June 2019, scientists reported that all 16 GB of article text from the English Wikipedia had been encoded into synthetic DNA.[63]

      Current state

      On January 23, 2020, the English-language Wikipedia, which is the largest language section of the online encyclopedia, published its six millionth article.

      By February 2020, Wikipedia ranked eleventh in the world in terms of Internet traffic.[64] As a key resource for disseminating information related to COVID-19, the World Health Organization has partnered with Wikipedia to help combat the spread of misinformation.[65][66]

      Wikipedia accepts cryptocurrency donations and Basic Attention Token.[67][68][69]

      Openness

      Differences between versions of an article are highlighted

      Unlike traditional encyclopedias, Wikipedia follows the procrastination principle[note 3] regarding the security of its content.[70]

      Restrictions

      Due to Wikipedia's increasing popularity, some editions, including the English version, have introduced editing restrictions for certain cases. For instance, on the English Wikipedia and some other language editions, only registered users may create a new article.[71] On the English Wikipedia, among others, particularly controversial, sensitive or vandalism-prone pages have been protected to varying degrees.[72][73] A frequently vandalized article can be "semi-protected" or "extended confirmed protected", meaning that only "autoconfirmed" or "extended confirmed" editors can modify it.[74] A particularly contentious article may be locked so that only administrators can make changes.[75] A 2021 article in the Columbia Journalism Review identified Wikipedia's page-protection policies as "[p]erhaps the most important" means at its disposal to "regulate its market of ideas".[76]

      In certain cases, all editors are allowed to submit modifications, but review is required for some editors, depending on certain conditions. For example, the German Wikipedia maintains "stable versions" of articles[77] which have passed certain reviews. Following protracted trials and community discussion, the English Wikipedia introduced the "pending changes" system in December 2012. Under this system, new and unregistered users' edits to certain controversial or vandalism-prone articles are reviewed by established users before they are published.[79]

      Wikipedia's editing interface

      Review of changes

      Although changes are not systematically reviewed, the software that powers Wikipedia provides tools allowing anyone to review changes made by others. Each article's History page links to each revision.[note 4][80] On most articles, anyone can undo others' changes by clicking a link on the article's History page. Anyone can view the latest changes to articles, and anyone registered may maintain a "watchlist" of articles that interest them so they can be notified of changes. "New pages patrol" is a process where newly created articles are checked for obvious problems.[81]

      In 2003, economics Ph.D. student Andrea Ciffolilli argued that the low transaction costs of participating in a wiki created a catalyst for collaborative development, and that features such as allowing easy access to past versions of a page favored "creative construction" over "creative destruction".[82]

      Vandalism

      Main article: Vandalism on Wikipedia

      Any change or edit that manipulates content in a way that purposefully compromises Wikipedia's integrity is considered vandalism. The most common and obvious types of vandalism include additions of obscenities and crude humor; it can also include advertising and other types of spam.[83] Sometimes editors commit vandalism by removing content or entirely blanking a given page. Less common types of vandalism, such as the deliberate addition of plausible but false information, can be more difficult to detect. Vandals can introduce irrelevant formatting, modify page semantics such as the page's title or categorization, manipulate the article's underlying code, or use images disruptively.[84]

      Obvious vandalism is generally easy to remove from Wikipedia articles; the median time to detect and fix it is a few minutes.[85][86] However, some vandalism takes much longer to detect and repair.[87]

      In the Seigenthaler biography incident, an anonymous editor introduced false information into the biography of American political figure John Seigenthaler in May 2005, falsely presenting him as a suspect in the assassination of John F. Kennedy.[87] It remained uncorrected for four months.[87] Seigenthaler, the founding editorial director of USA Today and founder of the Freedom ForumFirst Amendment Center at Vanderbilt University, called Wikipedia co-founder Jimmy Wales and asked whether he had any way of knowing who contributed the misinformation. Wales said he did not, although the perpetrator was eventually traced.[88][89] After the incident, Seigenthaler described Wikipedia as "a flawed and irresponsible research tool".[87] The incident led to policy changes at Wikipedia for tightening up the verifiability of biographical articles of living people.[90]

      In 2010, Daniel Tosh encouraged viewers of his show, Tosh.0, to visit the show's Wikipedia article and edit it at will. On a later episode, he commented on the edits to the article, most of them offensive, which had been made by the audience and had prompted the article to be locked from editing.[91][92]

      Edit warring

      Wikipedians often have disputes regarding content, which may result in repeated competing changes to an article, known as "edit warring".[93][94] It is widely seen as a resource-consuming scenario where no useful knowledge is added,[95] and criticized as creating a competitive[96] and conflict-based[97] editing culture associated with traditional masculine gender roles.[98]

      Policies and laws

      Content in Wikipedia is subject to the laws (in particular, copyright laws) of the United States and of the US state of Virginia, where the majority of Wikipedia's servers are located. Beyond legal matters, the editorial principles of Wikipedia are embodied in the "five pillars" and in numerous policies and guidelines intended to appropriately shape content. Even these rules are stored in wiki form, and Wikipedia editors write and revise the website's policies and guidelines.[99] Editors can enforce these rules by deleting or modifying non-compliant material. Originally, rules on the non-English editions of Wikipedia were based on a translation of the rules for the English Wikipedia. They have since diverged to some extent.[77]

      Content policies and guidelines

      According to the rules on the English Wikipedia, each entry in Wikipedia must be about a topic that is encyclopedic and is not a dictionary entry or dictionary-style.[100] A topic should also meet Wikipedia's standards of "notability",[101] which generally means that the topic must have been covered in mainstream media or major academic journal sources that are independent of the article's subject. Further, Wikipedia intends to convey only knowledge that is already established and recognized.[102] It must not present original research. A claim that is likely to be challenged requires a reference to a reliable source. Among Wikipedia editors, this is often phrased as "verifiability, not truth" to express the idea that the readers, not the encyclopedia, are ultimately responsible for checking the truthfulness of the articles and making their own interpretations.[103] This can at times lead to the removal of information that, though valid, is not properly sourced.[104] Finally, Wikipedia must not take sides.[105]

      Governance

      Further information: Wikipedia:Administration

      Wikipedia's initial anarchy integrated democratic and hierarchical elements over time.[106][107] An article is not considered to be owned by its creator or any other editor, nor by the subject of the article.[108]

      Administrators

      Editors in good standing in the community can request extra user rights, granting them the technical ability to perform certain special actions. In particular, editors can choose to run for "adminship",[109][110] which includes the ability to delete pages or prevent them from being changed in cases of severe vandalism or editorial disputes. Administrators are not supposed to enjoy any special privilege in decision-making; instead, their powers are mostly limited to making edits that have project-wide effects and thus are disallowed to ordinary editors, and to implement restrictions intended to prevent disruptive editors from making unproductive edits.[111][112]

      By 2012, fewer editors were becoming administrators compared to Wikipedia's earlier years, in part because the process of vetting potential administrators had become more rigorous.[113]

      Dispute resolution

      Over time, Wikipedia has developed a semiformal dispute resolution process. To determine community consensus, editors can raise issues at appropriate community forums,[note 5] seek outside input through third opinion requests, or initiate a more general community discussion known as a "request for comment".

      Arbitration Committee

      Main article: Arbitration Committee

      The Arbitration Committee presides over the ultimate dispute resolution process. Although disputes usually arise from a disagreement between two opposing views on how an article should read, the Arbitration Committee explicitly refuses to directly rule on the specific view that should be adopted. Statistical analyses suggest that the committee ignores the content of disputes and rather focuses on the way disputes are conducted,[114] functioning not so much to resolve disputes and make peace between conflicting editors, but to weed out problematic editors while allowing potentially productive editors back in to participate. Therefore, the committee does not dictate the content of articles, although it sometimes condemns content changes when it deems the new content violates Wikipedia policies (for example, if the new content is considered biased). Its remedies include cautions and probations (used in 63% of cases) and banning editors from articles (43%), subject matters (23%), or Wikipedia (16%).[when?] Complete bans from Wikipedia are generally limited to instances of impersonation and anti-social behavior. When conduct is not impersonation or anti-social, but rather anti-consensus or in violation of editing policies, remedies tend to be limited to warnings.[115]

      Main article: Wikipedia community

      Each article and each user of Wikipedia has an associated "talk" page. These form the primary communication channel for editors to discuss, coordinate and debate.[116]

      Wikipedia's community has been described as cultlike,[117] although not always with entirely negative connotations.[118] Its preference for cohesiveness, even if it requires compromise that includes disregard of credentials, has been referred to as "anti-elitism".[119]

      Wikipedians sometimes award one another "virtual barnstars" for good work. These personalized tokens of appreciation reveal a wide range of valued work extending far beyond simple editing to include social support, administrative actions, and types of articulation work.[120]

      Wikipedia does not require that its editors and contributors provide identification.[121] As Wikipedia grew, "Who writes Wikipedia?" became one of the questions frequently asked there.[122] Jimmy Wales once argued that only "a community ... a dedicated group of a few hundred volunteers" makes the bulk of contributions to Wikipedia and that the project is therefore "much like any traditional organization".[123] In 2008, a Slate magazine article reported that: "According to researchers in Palo Alto, one percent of Wikipedia users are responsible for about half of the site's edits."[124] This method of evaluating contributions was later disputed by Aaron Swartz, who noted that several articles he sampled had large portions of their content (measured by number of characters) contributed by users with low edit counts.[125]

      The English Wikipedia has 6,409,890 articles, 42,569,132 registered editors, and 125,342 active editors. An editor is considered active if they have made one or more edits in the past 30 days.

      Editors who fail to comply with Wikipedia cultural rituals, such as signing talk page comments, may implicitly signal that they are Wikipedia outsiders, increasing the odds that Wikipedia insiders may target or discount their contributions. Becoming a Wikipedia insider involves non-trivial costs: the contributor is expected to learn Wikipedia-specific technological codes, submit to a sometimes convoluted dispute resolution process, and learn a "baffling culture rich with in-jokes and insider references".[126] Editors who do not log in are in some sense second-class citizens on Wikipedia,[126] as "participants are accredited by members of the wiki community, who have a vested interest in preserving the quality of the work product, on the basis of their ongoing participation",[127] but the contribution histories of anonymous unregistered editors recognized only by their IP addresses cannot be attributed to a particular editor with certainty.

      Studies

      A 2007 study by researchers from Dartmouth College found that "anonymous and infrequent contributors to Wikipedia ... are as reliable a source of knowledge as those contributors who register with the site".[128] Jimmy Wales stated in 2009 that "[I]t turns out over 50% of all the edits are done by just .7% of the users ... 524 people ... And in fact, the most active 2%, which is 1400 people, have done 73.4% of all the edits."[123] However, Business Insider editor and journalist Henry Blodget showed in 2009 that in a random sample of articles, most Wikipedia content (measured by the amount of contributed text that survives to the latest sampled edit) is created by "outsiders", while most editing and formatting is done by "insiders".[123]

      A 2008 study found that Wikipedians were less agreeable, open, and conscientious than others,[129][130] although a later commentary pointed out serious flaws, including that the data showed higher openness and that the differences with the control group and the samples were small.[131] According to a 2009 study, there is "evidence of growing resistance from the Wikipedia community to new content".[132]

      Diversity

      Several studies have shown that most Wikipedia contributors are male. Notably, the results of a Wikimedia Foundation survey in 2008 showed that only 13 percent of Wikipedia editors were female.[133] Because of this, universities throughout the United States tried to encourage women to become Wikipedia contributors. Similarly, many of these universities, including Yale and Brown, gave college credit to students who create or edit an article relating to women in science or technology.[134]Andrew Lih, a professor and scientist, wrote in The New York Times that the reason he thought the number of male contributors outnumbered the number of females so greatly was because identifying as a woman may expose oneself to "ugly, intimidating behavior".[135] Data has shown that Africans are underrepresented among Wikipedia editors.[136]

      Language editions

      Main article: List of Wikipedias

      Most popular edition of Wikipedia by country in January 2021.
      Most viewed editions of Wikipedia over time.
      Most edited editions of Wikipedia over time.

      There are currently 325 language editions of Wikipedia (also called language versions, or simply Wikipedias). As of November 2021, the six largest, in order of article count, are the English, Cebuano, Swedish, German, French, and Dutch Wikipedias.[138] The second and third-largest Wikipedias owe their position to the article-creating botLsjbot, which as of 2013[update] had created about half the articles on the Swedish Wikipedia, and most of the articles in the Cebuano and Waray Wikipedias. The latter are both languages of the Philippines.

      In addition to the top six, twelve other Wikipedias have more than a million articles each (Russian, Spanish, Italian, Polish, Egyptian Arabic, Japanese, Vietnamese, Waray, Chinese, Arabic, Ukrainian and Portuguese), seven more have over 500,000 articles (Persian, Catalan, Serbian, Indonesian, Norwegian, Korean and Finnish), 44 more have over 100,000, and 82 more have over 10,000.[139][138] The largest, the English Wikipedia, has over 6.4 million articles. As of January 2021,[update] the English Wikipedia receives 48% of Wikipedia's cumulative traffic, with the remaining split among the other languages. The top 10 editions represent approximately 85% of the total traffic.[140]

      0.1 0.3 1 3

      English 6,409,890

      Cebuano 6,061,147

      Swedish 2,875,129

      German 2,633,301

      French 2,374,851

      Dutch 2,071,596

      Russian 1,771,202

      Spanish 1,731,674

      Italian 1,726,483

      Polish 1,496,867

      Egyptian Arabic 1,376,070

      Japanese 1,300,938

      Vietnamese 1,270,067

      Waray 1,265,574

      Chinese 1,241,553

      Arabic 1,143,356

      Ukrainian 1,123,184

      Portuguese 1,077,397

      Persian 846,630

      Catalan 689,766

      The unit for the numbers in bars is articles.

      Since Wikipedia is based on the Web and therefore worldwide, contributors to the same language edition may use different dialects or may come from different countries (as is the case for the English edition). These differences may lead to some conflicts over spelling differences (e.g. colour versus color)[142] or points of view.[143]

      Though the various language editions are held to global policies such as "neutral point of view", they diverge on some points of policy and practice, most notably on whether images that are not licensed freely may be used under a claim of fair use.[144][145][146]

      Jimmy Wales has described Wikipedia as "an effort to create and distribute a free encyclopedia of the highest possible quality to every single person on the planet in their own language".[147] Though each language edition functions more or less independently, some efforts are made to supervise them all. They are coordinated in part by Meta-Wiki, the Wikimedia Foundation's wiki devoted to maintaining all its projects (Wikipedia and others).[148] For instance, Meta-Wiki provides important statistics on all language editions of Wikipedia,[149] and it maintains a list of articles every Wikipedia should have.[150] The list concerns basic content by subject: biography, history, geography, society, culture, science, technology, and mathematics. It is not rare for articles strongly related to a particular language not to have counterparts in another edition. For example, articles about small towns in the United States might be available only in English, even when they meet the notability criteria of other language Wikipedia projects.

      Estimation of contributions shares from different regions in the world to different Wikipedia editions[151]

      Translated articles represent only a small portion of articles in most editions, in part because those editions do not allow fully automated translation of articles. Articles available in more than one language may offer "interwiki links", which link to the counterpart articles in other editions.[citation needed]

      A study published by PLOS One in 2012 also estimated the share of contributions to different editions of Wikipedia from different regions of the world. It reported that the proportion of the edits made from North America was 51% for the English Wikipedia, and 25% for the simple English Wikipedia.[151]

      English Wikipedia editor numbers

      Number of editors on the English Wikipedia over time.

      On March 1, 2014, The Economist, in an article titled "The Future of Wikipedia", cited a trend analysis concerning data published by the Wikimedia Foundation stating that "[t]he number of editors for the English-language version has fallen by a third in seven years."[152] The attrition rate for active editors in English Wikipedia was cited by The Economist as substantially in contrast to statistics for Wikipedia in other languages (non-English Wikipedia). The Economist reported that the number of contributors with an average of five or more edits per month was relatively constant since 2008 for Wikipedia in other languages at approximately 42,000 editors within narrow seasonal variances of about 2,000 editors up or down. The number of active editors in English Wikipedia, by sharp comparison, was cited as peaking in 2007 at approximately 50,000 and dropping to 30,000 by the start of 2014.

      In contrast, the trend analysis published in The Economist presents Wikipedia in other languages (non-English Wikipedia) as successful in retaining their active editors on a renewable and sustained basis, with their numbers remaining relatively constant at approximately 42,000.[152] No comment was made concerning which of the differentiated edit policy standards from Wikipedia in other languages (non-English Wikipedia) would provide a possible alternative to English Wikipedia for effectively ameliorating substantial editor attrition rates on the English-language Wikipedia.[153]

      Reception

      See also: Academic studies about Wikipedia and Criticism of Wikipedia

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      Various Wikipedians have criticized Wikipedia's large and growing regulation, which includes more than fifty policies and nearly 150,000 words as of 2014.[update][154][155]

      Critics have stated that Wikipedia exhibits systemic bias. In 2010, columnist and journalist Edwin Black described Wikipedia as being a mixture of "truth, half-truth, and some falsehoods".[156] Articles in The Chronicle of Higher Education and The Journal of Academic Librarianship have criticized Wikipedia's "Undue Weight" policy, concluding that the fact that Wikipedia explicitly is not designed to provide correct information about a subject, but rather focus on all the major viewpoints on the subject, give less attention to minor ones, and creates omissions that can lead to false beliefs based on incomplete information.[157][158][159]

      Journalists Oliver Kamm and Edwin Black alleged (in 2010 and 2011 respectively) that articles are dominated by the loudest and most persistent voices, usually by a group with an "ax to grind" on the topic.[156][160] A 2008 article in Education Next Journal concluded that as a resource about controversial topics, Wikipedia is subject to manipulation and spin.[161]

      In 2020, Omer Benjakob and Stephen Harrison noted that "Media coverage of Wikipedia has radically shifted over the past two decades: once cast as an intellectual frivolity, it is now lauded as the 'last bastion of shared reality' online."[162]

      In 2006, the Wikipedia Watch criticism website listed dozens of examples of plagiarism in the English Wikipedia.[163]

      Accuracy of content

      Main article: Reliability of Wikipedia

      Articles for traditional encyclopedias such as Encyclopædia Britannica are written by experts, lending such encyclopedias a reputation for accuracy.[164] However, a peer review in 2005 of forty-two scientific entries on both Wikipedia and Encyclopædia Britannica by the science journal Nature found few differences in accuracy, and concluded that "the average science entry in Wikipedia contained around four inaccuracies; Britannica, about three."[165] Joseph Reagle suggested that while the study reflects "a topical strength of Wikipedia contributors" in science articles, "Wikipedia may not have fared so well using a random sampling of articles or on humanities subjects."[166] Others raised similar critiques.[167] The findings by Nature were disputed by Encyclopædia Britannica,[168][169] and in response, Nature gave a rebuttal of the points raised by Britannica.[170] In addition to the point-for-point disagreement between these two parties, others have examined the sample size and selection method used in the Nature effort, and suggested a "flawed study design" (in Nature's manual selection of articles, in part or in whole, for comparison), absence of statistical analysis (e.g., of reported confidence intervals), and a lack of study "statistical power" (i.e., owing to small sample size, 42 or 4 × 101 articles compared, vs >105 and >106 set sizes for Britannica and the English Wikipedia, respectively).[171]

      As a consequence of the open structure, Wikipedia "makes no guarantee of validity" of its content, since no one is ultimately responsible for any claims appearing in it.[172] Concerns have been raised by PC World in 2009 regarding the lack of accountability that results from users' anonymity,[173] the insertion of false information,[174]vandalism, and similar problems.

      Economist Tyler Cowen wrote: "If I had to guess whether Wikipedia or the median refereed journal article on economics was more likely to be true after a not so long think I would opt for Wikipedia." He comments that some traditional sources of non-fiction suffer from systemic biases, and novel results, in his opinion, are over-reported in journal articles as well as relevant information being omitted from news reports. However, he also cautions that errors are frequently found on Internet sites and that academics and experts must be vigilant in correcting them.[175]Amy Bruckman has argued that, due to the number of reviewers, "the content of a popular Wikipedia page is actually the most reliable form of information ever created".[176]

      Critics argue that Wikipedia's open nature and a lack of proper sources for most of the information makes it unreliable.[177] Some commentators suggest that Wikipedia may be reliable, but that the reliability of any given article is not clear.[178] Editors of traditional reference works such as the Encyclopædia Britannica have questioned the project's utility and status as an encyclopedia.[179] Wikipedia co-founder Jimmy Wales has claimed that Wikipedia has largely avoided the problem of "fake news" because the Wikipedia community regularly debates the quality of sources in articles.[180]

      Wikipedia's open structure inherently makes it an easy target for Internet trolls, spammers, and various forms of paid advocacy seen as counterproductive to the maintenance of a neutral and verifiable online encyclopedia.[80][182] In response to paid advocacy editing and undisclosed editing issues, Wikipedia was reported in an article in The Wall Street Journal, to have strengthened its rules and laws against undisclosed editing.[183] The article stated that: "Beginning Monday [from the date of the article, June 16, 2014], changes in Wikipedia's terms of use will require anyone paid to edit articles to disclose that arrangement. Katherine Maher, the nonprofit Wikimedia Foundation's chief communications officer, said the changes address a sentiment among volunteer editors that, 'we're not an advertising service; we're an encyclopedia.'"[183][184][185][186][187] These issues, among others, had been parodied since the first decade of Wikipedia, notably by Stephen Colbert on The Colbert Report.[188]

      A Harvard law textbook, Legal Research in a Nutshell (2011), cites Wikipedia as a "general source" that "can be a real boon" in "coming up to speed in the law governing a situation" and, "while not authoritative, can provide basic facts as well as leads to more in-depth resources".[189]

      Discouragement in education

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      Most university lecturers discourage students from citing any encyclopedia in academic work, preferring primary sources;[190] some specifically prohibit Wikipedia citations. Wales stresses that encyclopedias of any type are not usually appropriate to use as citable sources, and should not be relied upon as authoritative.[193] Wales once (2006 or earlier) said he receives about ten emails weekly from students saying they got failing grades on papers because they cited Wikipedia; he told the students they got what they deserved. "For God's sake, you're in college; don't cite the encyclopedia," he said.[194]

      In February 2007, an article in The Harvard Crimson newspaper reported that a few of the professors at Harvard University were including Wikipedia articles in their syllabi, although without realizing the articles might change.[195] In June 2007, former president of the American Library AssociationMichael Gorman condemned Wikipedia, along with Google,[196] stating that academics who endorse the use of Wikipedia are "the intellectual equivalent of a dietitian who recommends a steady diet of Big Macs with everything".

      In contrast, academic writing[clarification needed] in Wikipedia has evolved in recent years and has been found to increase student interest, personal connection to the product, creativity in material processing, and international collaboration in the learning process.[197]

      Medical information

      See also: Health information on Wikipedia

      On March 5, 2014, Julie Beck writing for The Atlantic magazine in an article titled "Doctors' #1 Source for Healthcare Information: Wikipedia", stated that "Fifty percent of physicians look up conditions on the (Wikipedia) site, and some are editing articles themselves to improve the quality of available information."[198] Beck continued to detail in this article new programs of Amin Azzam at the University of San Francisco to offer medical school courses to medical students for learning to edit and improve Wikipedia articles on health-related issues, as well as internal quality control programs within Wikipedia organized by James Heilman to improve a group of 200 health-related articles of central medical importance up to Wikipedia's highest standard of articles using its Featured Article and Good Article peer-review evaluation process.[198] In a May 7, 2014, follow-up article in The Atlantic titled "Can Wikipedia Ever Be a Definitive Medical Text?", Julie Beck quotes WikiProject Medicine's James Heilman as stating: "Just because a reference is peer-reviewed doesn't mean it's a high-quality reference."[199] Beck added that: "Wikipedia has its own peer review process before articles can be classified as 'good' or 'featured'. Heilman, who has participated in that process before, says 'less than one percent' of Wikipedia's medical articles have passed."[199]

      Quality of writing

      Screenshot of English Wikipedia's article on Earth, a featured-class article

      In a 2006 mention of Jimmy Wales, Time magazine stated that the policy of allowing anyone to edit had made Wikipedia the "biggest (and perhaps best) encyclopedia in the world".[200]

      In 2008, researchers at Carnegie Mellon University found that the quality of a Wikipedia article would suffer rather than gain from adding more writers when the article lacked appropriate explicit or implicit coordination.[201] For instance, when contributors rewrite small portions of an entry rather than making full-length revisions, high- and low-quality content may be intermingled within an entry. Roy Rosenzweig, a history professor, stated that American National Biography Online outperformed Wikipedia in terms of its "clear and engaging prose", which, he said, was an important aspect of good historical writing.[202] Contrasting Wikipedia's treatment of Abraham Lincoln to that of Civil War historian James McPherson in American National Biography Online, he said that both were essentially accurate and covered the major episodes in Lincoln's life, but praised "McPherson's richer contextualization ... his artful use of quotations to capture Lincoln's voice ... and ... his ability to convey a profound message in a handful of words." By contrast, he gives an example of Wikipedia's prose that he finds "both verbose and dull". Rosenzweig also criticized the "waffling—encouraged by the NPOV policy—[which] means that it is hard to discern any overall interpretive stance in Wikipedia history". While generally praising the article on William Clarke Quantrill, he quoted its conclusion as an example of such "waffling", which then stated: "Some historians ... remember him as an opportunistic, bloodthirsty outlaw, while others continue to view him as a daring soldier and local folk hero."[202]

      Other critics have made similar charges that, even if Wikipedia articles are factually accurate, they are often written in a poor, almost unreadable style. Frequent Wikipedia critic Andrew Orlowski commented, "Even when a Wikipedia entry is 100 percent factually correct, and those facts have been carefully chosen, it all too often reads as if it has been translated from one language to another then into a third, passing an illiterate translator at each stage."[203] A study of Wikipedia articles on cancer was conducted in 2010 by Yaacov Lawrence of the Kimmel Cancer Center at Thomas Jefferson University. The study was limited to those articles that could be found in the Physician Data Query and excluded those written at the "start" class or "stub" class level. Lawrence found the articles accurate but not very readable, and thought that "Wikipedia's lack of readability (to non-college readers) may reflect its varied origins and haphazard editing".[204]The Economist argued that better-written articles tend to be more reliable: "inelegant or ranting prose usually reflects muddled thoughts and incomplete information".[205]

      Coverage of topics and systemic bias

      See also: Notability in the English Wikipedia and Criticism of Wikipedia § Systemic bias in coverage

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      Wikipedia seeks to create a summary of all human knowledge in the form of an online encyclopedia, with each topic covered encyclopedically in one article. Since it has terabytes of disk space, it can have far more topics than can be covered by any printed encyclopedia.[206] The exact degree and manner of coverage on Wikipedia is under constant review by its editors, and disagreements are not uncommon (see deletionism and inclusionism).[207][208] Wikipedia contains materials that some people may find objectionable, offensive, or pornographic. The "Wikipedia is not censored" policy has sometimes proved controversial: in 2008, Wikipedia rejected an online petition against the inclusion of images of Muhammad in the English edition of its Muhammad article, citing this policy. The presence of politically, religiously, and pornographically sensitive materials in Wikipedia has led to the censorship of Wikipedia by national authorities in China[209] and Pakistan,[210] amongst other countries.

      A 2008 study conducted by researchers at Carnegie Mellon University and Palo Alto Research Center gave a distribution of topics as well as growth (from July 2006 to January 2008) in each field:[211]

      • Culture and Arts: 30% (210%)
      • Biographies and persons: 15% (97%)
      • Geography and places: 14% (52%)
      • Society and social sciences: 12% (83%)
      • History and events: 11% (143%)
      • Natural and Physical Sciences: 9% (213%)
      • Technology and Applied Science: 4% (−6%)
      • Religions and belief systems: 2% (38%)
      • Health: 2% (42%)
      • Mathematics and logic: 1% (146%)
      • Thought and Philosophy: 1% (160%)

      These numbers refer only to the number of articles: it is possible for one topic to contain a large number of short articles and another to contain a small number of large ones. Through its "Wikipedia Loves Libraries" program, Wikipedia has partnered with major public libraries such as the New York Public Library for the Performing Arts to expand its coverage of underrepresented subjects and articles.[212]

      A 2011 study conducted by researchers at the University of Minnesota indicated that male and female editors focus on different coverage topics. There was a greater concentration of females in the "people and arts" category, while males focus more on "geography and science".[213]

      Coverage of topics and selection bias

      Research conducted by Mark Graham of the Oxford Internet Institute in 2009 indicated that the geographic distribution of article topics is highly uneven. Africa is the most underrepresented.[214] Across 30 language editions of Wikipedia, historical articles and sections are generally Eurocentric and focused on recent events.[215]

      An editorial in The Guardian in 2014 claimed that more effort went into providing references for a list of female porn actors than a list of women writers.[216] Data has also shown that Africa-related material often faces omission; a knowledge gap that a July 2018 Wikimedia conference in Cape Town sought to address.[136]

      Systemic biases

      When multiple editors contribute to one topic or set of topics, systemic bias may arise, due to the demographic backgrounds of the editors. In 2011, Wales claimed that the unevenness of coverage is a reflection of the demography of the editors, citing for example "biographies of famous women through history and issues surrounding early childcare".[48] The October 22, 2013, essay by Tom Simonite in MIT's Technology Review titled "The Decline of Wikipedia" discussed the effect of systemic bias and policy creep on the downward trend in the number of editors.[49]

      Systemic bias on Wikipedia may follow that of culture generally,[vague] for example favoring certain nationalities, ethnicities or majority religions.[217] It may more specifically follow the biases of Internet culture, inclining to be young, male, English-speaking, educated, technologically aware, and wealthy enough to spare time for editing. Biases, intrinsically, may include an overemphasis on topics such as pop culture, technology, and current events.[217]

      Taha Yasseri of the University of Oxford, in 2013, studied the statistical trends of systemic bias at Wikipedia introduced by editing conflicts and their resolution.[218][219] His research examined the counterproductive work behavior of edit warring. Yasseri contended that simple reverts or "undo" operations were not the most significant measure of counterproductive behavior at Wikipedia and relied instead on the statistical measurement of detecting "reverting/reverted pairs" or "mutually reverting edit pairs". Such a "mutually reverting edit pair" is defined where one editor reverts the edit of another editor who then, in sequence, returns to revert the first editor in the "mutually reverting edit pairs". The results were tabulated for several language versions of Wikipedia. The English Wikipedia's three largest conflict rates belonged to the articles George W. Bush, anarchism, and Muhammad.[219] By comparison, for the German Wikipedia, the three largest conflict rates at the time of the Oxford study were for the articles covering Croatia, Scientology, and 9/11 conspiracy theories.[219]

      Researchers from Washington University developed a statistical model to measure systematic bias in the behavior of Wikipedia's users regarding controversial topics. The authors focused on behavioral changes of the encyclopedia's administrators after assuming the post, writing that systematic bias occurred after the fact.[220][221]

      Explicit content

      See also: Internet Watch Foundation and Wikipedia and Reporting of child pornography images on Wikimedia Commons

      "Wikipedia censorship" redirects here. For the government censorship of Wikipedia, see Censorship of Wikipedia. For Wikipedia's policy concerning censorship, see Wikipedia:Wikipedia is not censored

      Wikipedia has been criticized for allowing information about graphic content. Articles depicting what some critics have called objectionable content (such as feces, cadaver, human penis, vulva, and nudity) contain graphic pictures and detailed information easily available to anyone with access to the internet, including children.

      The site also includes sexual content such as images and videos of masturbation and ejaculation, illustrations of zoophilia, and photos from hardcore pornographic films in its articles. It also has non-sexual photographs of nude children.

      The Wikipedia article about Virgin Killer—a 1976 album from the GermanrockbandScorpions—features a picture of the album's original cover, which depicts a naked prepubescent girl. The original release cover caused controversy and was replaced in some countries. In December 2008, access to the Wikipedia article Virgin Killer was blocked for four days by most Internet service providers in the United Kingdom after the Internet Watch Foundation (IWF) decided the album cover was a potentially illegal indecent image and added the article's URL to a "blacklist" it supplies to British internet service providers.[222]

      In April 2010, Sanger wrote a letter to the Federal Bureau of Investigation, outlining his concerns that two categories of images on Wikimedia Commons contained child pornography, and were in violation of US federal obscenity law.[223][224] Sanger later clarified that the images, which were related to pedophilia and one about lolicon, were not of real children, but said that they constituted "obscene visual representations of the sexual abuse of children", under the PROTECT Act of 2003.[225] That law bans photographic child pornography and cartoon images and drawings of children that are obscene under American law.[225] Sanger also expressed concerns about access to the images on Wikipedia in schools.[226]Wikimedia Foundation spokesman Jay Walsh strongly rejected Sanger's accusation,[227] saying that Wikipedia did not have "material we would deem to be illegal. If we did, we would remove it."[227] Following the complaint by Sanger, Wales deleted sexual images without consulting the community. After some editors who volunteer to maintain the site argued that the decision to delete had been made hastily, Wales voluntarily gave up some of the powers he had held up to that time as part of his co-founder status. He wrote in a message to the Wikimedia Foundation mailing-list that this action was "in the interest of encouraging this discussion to be about real philosophical/content issues, rather than be about me and how quickly I acted".[228] Critics, including Wikipediocracy, noticed that many of the pornographic images deleted from Wikipedia since 2010 have reappeared.[229]

      Privacy

      One privacy concern in the case of Wikipedia is the right of a private citizen to remain a "private citizen" rather than a "public figure" in the eyes of the law.[230][note 6] It is a battle between the right to be anonymous in cyberspace and the right to be anonymous in real life ("meatspace"). A particular problem occurs in the case of a relatively unimportant individual and for whom there exists a Wikipedia page against her or his wishes.

      In January 2006, a German court ordered the German Wikipedia shut down within Germany because it stated the full name of Boris Floricic, aka "Tron", a deceased hacker. On February 9, 2006, the injunction against Wikimedia Deutschland was overturned, with the court rejecting the notion that Tron's right to privacy or that of his parents was being violated.[231]

      Wikipedia has a "Volunteer Response Team" that uses Znuny, a free and open-source software fork of OTRS[232] to handle queries without having to reveal the identities of the involved parties. This is used, for example, in confirming the permission for using individual images and other media in the project.[233]

      Sexism

      Main article: Gender bias on Wikipedia

      Wikipedia was described in 2015 as harboring a battleground culture of sexism and harassment.[234][235]

      The perceived toxic attitudes and tolerance of violent and abusive language were reasons put forth in 2013 for the gender gap in Wikipedia editorship.[236]

      Edit-a-thons have been held to encourage female editors and increase the coverage of women's topics.[237]

      A comprehensive 2008 survey, published in 2016, found significant gender differences in: confidence in expertise, discomfort with editing, and response to critical feedback. "Women reported less confidence in their expertise, expressed greater discomfort with editing (which typically involves conflict), and reported more negative responses to critical feedback compared to men."[238]

      Operation

      Wikimedia Foundation and Wikimedia movement affiliates

      Main article: Wikimedia Foundation

      Wikipedia is hosted and funded by the Wikimedia Foundation, a non-profit organization which also operates Wikipedia-related projects such as Wiktionary and Wikibooks. The foundation relies on public contributions and grants to fund its mission.[239] The foundation's 2013 IRS Form 990 shows revenue of $39.7 million and expenses of almost $29 million, with assets of $37.2 million and liabilities of about $2.3 million.[240]

      In May 2014, Wikimedia Foundation named Lila Tretikov as its second executive director, taking over for Sue Gardner.[241] The Wall Street Journal reported on May 1, 2014, that Tretikov's information technology background from her years at University of California offers Wikipedia an opportunity to develop in more concentrated directions guided by her often repeated position statement that, "Information, like air, wants to be free."[242][243] The same Wall Street Journal article reported these directions of development according to an interview with spokesman Jay Walsh of Wikimedia, who "said Tretikov would address that issue (paid advocacy) as a priority. 'We are really pushing toward more transparency ... We are reinforcing that paid advocacy is not welcome.' Initiatives to involve greater diversity of contributors, better mobile support of Wikipedia, new geo-location tools to find local content more easily, and more tools for users in the second and third world are also priorities," Walsh said.[242]

      Following the departure of Tretikov from Wikipedia due to issues concerning the use of the "superprotection" feature which some language versions of Wikipedia have adopted, Katherine Maher became the third executive director of the Wikimedia Foundation in June 2016.[244] Maher has stated that one of her priorities would be the issue of editor harassment endemic to Wikipedia as identified by the Wikipedia board in December. Maher stated regarding the harassment issue that: "It establishes a sense within the community that this is a priority ... (and that correction requires that) it has to be more than words."[245]

      Wikipedia is also supported by many organizations and groups that are affiliated with the Wikimedia Foundation but independently-run, called Wikimedia movement affiliates. These include Wikimedia chapters (which are national or sub-national organizations, such as Wikimedia Deutschland and Wikimédia France), thematic organizations (such as Amical Wikimedia for the Catalan language community), and user groups. These affiliates participate in the promotion, development, and funding of Wikipedia.

      Software operations and support

      See also: MediaWiki

      The operation of Wikipedia depends on MediaWiki, a custom-made, free and open sourcewiki software platform written in PHP and built upon the MySQL database system.[246] The software incorporates programming features such as a macro language, variables, a transclusion system for templates, and URL redirection. MediaWiki is licensed under the GNU General Public License (GPL) and it is used by all Wikimedia projects, as well as many other wiki projects. Originally, Wikipedia ran on UseModWiki written in Perl by Clifford Adams (Phase I), which initially required CamelCase for article hyperlinks; the present double bracket style was incorporated later. Starting in January 2002 (Phase II), Wikipedia began running on a PHP wiki engine with a MySQL database; this software was custom-made for Wikipedia by Magnus Manske. The Phase II software was repeatedly modified to accommodate the exponentially increasing demand. In July 2002 (Phase III), Wikipedia shifted to the third-generation software, MediaWiki, originally written by Lee Daniel Crocker.

      Several MediaWiki extensions are installed[247] to extend the functionality of the MediaWiki software.

      In April 2005, a Lucene extension[248][249] was added to MediaWiki's built-in search and Wikipedia switched from MySQL to Lucene for searching. Lucene was later replaced by CirrusSearch which is based on Elasticsearch.[250]

      In July 2013, after extensive beta testing, a WYSIWYG (What You See Is What You Get) extension, VisualEditor, was opened to public use.[251][252][253][254] It was met with much rejection and criticism, and was described as "slow and buggy".[255] The feature was changed from opt-out to opt-in afterward.

      Automated editing

      Main article: Wikipedia bots

      Computer programs called bots have often been used to perform simple and repetitive tasks, such as correcting common misspellings and stylistic issues, or to start articles such as geography entries in a standard format from statistical data.[256][257][258] One controversial contributor, Sverker Johansson, creating articles with his bot was reported to create up to 10,000 articles on the Swedish Wikipedia on certain days.[259] Additionally, there are bots designed to automatically notify editors when they make common editing errors (such as unmatched quotes or unmatched parentheses).[260] Edits falsely identified by bots as the work of a banned editor can be restored by other editors. An anti-vandal bot is programmed to detect and revert vandalism quickly.[257] Bots are able to indicate edits from particular accounts or IP address ranges, as occurred at the time of the shooting down of the MH17 jet incident in July 2014 when it was reported that edits were made via IPs controlled by the Russian government.[261] Bots on Wikipedia must be approved before activation.[262]

      According to Andrew Lih, the current expansion of Wikipedia to millions of articles would be difficult to envision without the use of such bots.[263]

      Hardware operations and support

      See also: Wikimedia Foundation § Hardware

      Wikipedia receives between 25,000 and 60,000-page requests per second, depending on the time of the day.[264][needs update] As of 2021,[update] page requests are first passed to a front-end layer of

      Источник: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia

      Coolmuster PDF Password Remover Crack

      Coolmuster PDF Password Remover Crack

      Coolmuster PDF Password Remover Crack : is a handy application that can unlock password-protected PDFs with a single click. People like to use passwords to protect their PDF copyrights to prevent others from copying, printing, editing or stealing. Therefore, sometimes you need to delete the password from the PDF to edit, copy or share. In this case, Coolmuster PDF Password Remover can be your ideal assistant to delete passwords at will. You can also free download PDF Shaper Professional / Premium with Crack.

      Coolmuster PDF Password Remover Key Features:

      • Decrypt encrypted PDF files that have been restricted by the author.
      • It provides two different decryption modes for users to quickly remove password from Adobe PDF files.
      • Batch Decryption Modes: You’re enabled to crack up to 200 PDF files at one time.
      • Right-click on any PDF file which you’ve imported into the program, and then remove it as you like.
      • After decryption, you can reuse the PDF for any purpose as you like.
      • View PDF files freely, as well as copy content, print PDF as you like.
      • Edit PDF like add/delete texts, insert image, make annotate, etc.
      • Convert PDF to other formats to satisfy your own specific needs.
      • Extract PDF images and upload them to PowerPoint presentation or share online freely.
      • And much more…

      System Requirements for Coolmuster PDF Password Remover:

      • Supported Operating System: Windows XP/Vista/7/8/8.1/10
      • Memory (RAM) required: 1 GB of RAM required.
      • Hard Disk Space required: 50 MB of free hard disk space required.
      • Processor: Intel Pentium Processor or later.

      Coolmuster PDF Password Remover Registration Code

      Coolmuster PDF Password Remover Registration Code

      How to Crack or Registered or Activate Coolmuster PDF Password Remover Cracked?

      • First download the latest version from the given link or buttons.
      • Uninstall the previous version.
      • Note Turn off the Virus Guard.
      • After Download Unpack or extract the rar file and open setup.
      • Install the setup after install close it from everywhere.
      • Open the ‘Crack’ or ‘Patch’ folder, copy and paste into installation folder, and apply it.
      • After all of these enjoy the Coolmuster PDF Password Remover Latest Version of 2020.
      Coolmuster PDF Password Remover Full Crack for PC

      Coolmuster PDF Password Remover 2.1.10 with Crack / Mirror

      Источник: https://abbaspc.net/coolmuster-pdf-password-remover-crack/

      PDF Files may contain your crucial data related to personal information, official information, or family information, or usually the data you don’t want others to access. To salvage the data from being forged, misused, or manipulate, the password is used to protect the PDF files. But this may be a situation when you forget or misplaced that particular password to access the files. In such a case, you usually search for the PDF password remover to solve the problem. But since the internet is flooded with PDF password remover software, it becomes quite challenging to find the one that is most genuine and suits your purpose; thus, we will discuss the best PDF password remover that makes the process smoother.

      Part 1. What is PDF Password Remover?

      PDF Password Remover is a tool used to remove the password from the locked or secured PDF Files. The password decoding is necessary when you get the secured PDF Files and do not know or remember the password. Such PDF Files have an “owner” or “user” password that prevents users from viewing, copying, editing, selecting the text, or printing the files and secures them from unauthorized user access. Thus the PDF password remover software can unlock and decrypt the owner or user password from any secured PDF File or document. Now the question arises, what is the owner and user password?

      • Owner Password: PDF Owner password is the other name of the PDF master password or PDF permission password. It secures PDF documents editing, printing, extracting content, etc. Once the Owner password is set, Acrobat requires it each time you want to make any changes in the file.
      • User Password: Also known as PDF File Open Password, set by the PDF user to prevent it from viewing by others. This is one way to secure confidential PDF documents from other people’s views. To see the file, one has to enter the correct password that Acrobat prompts as you attempt to open it.

      Part 2. Top 10 Best PDF Password Remover

      It is essential to attach an extra layer of security to your vital PDF documents that contain your confidential data. To do so, people create a strong password that helps to prevent the files from being viewed, copied, annotated, edited, selected, or misused in any way. But it may be a case that you forget or misplace the password and now wondering which PDF password cracker software to use to access to your PDF documents immediately.

      Although the search engine is flooded with several PDF password remover tools, not all of them are genuine and safe to use. It is quite a difficult task to make the right choice amongst so many options. So whether you use Windows or Mac, here we will find out the compiled list of top PDF password remover software for 2021.

      Top 1. Wondershare PDF Password Remover

      Wondershare PDF Password Remover is the first choice amongst the other best PDF password remover on the list. The program is simple to use and can decrypt the password from the PDF documents within few seconds. This PDF password remover tool can be used to remove the protective layer from copying, editing, and printing the data stored in the locked PDF file. The Wondershare PDF Password Remover is a powerful and professional PDF password cracker software compatible with all versions of Windows 10/8.1/8/7/XP/Vista and Mac operating systems. It can decrypt multiple PDF passwords protected files at a time.

      As the name suggests, Wondershare PDF Password Remover is an incredible software to get your locked PDF files decrypted while following a few easy steps. The intuitive interface and user-friendly platform of the software let the user extract the password from the secured PDF document within few seconds. This tool is available to download from the official website and has a file size of 9.44 MB. This is the most accurate and safe method to remove restrictions from your locked PDF files.

      Note: Before starting with cracking of owner password using this PDF password remover software, you must enter the open password to begin the process. If you don’t have the open password, check for the Passper for PDF below.

      Free DownloadFree Download

      Key Features of Wondershare PDF Password Remover Tool

      Below are the highlighted features of Wondershare PDF Password Remover:

      • It can remove password from the PDF files, making them accessible for printing, editing, or copying
      • It offers the batch mode that lets the user import up to 200 password-protected PDF files to decrypt at a time
      • This PDF password unlocker can remove the password within few seconds on just the one-click operation
      • This software supports the PDF formats of 1.0 – 1.7 with 128-bit RC4 decryption
      • This is the Standalone software that can remove the owner password and does not require other PDF application such as Adobe Reader
      • It can easily convert any secured PDF document into HML, Word, text, and image files
      • This tool supports all the versions of Windows 10/8.1/8/7/XP/Vista and Mac OS
      • It can remove restrictions from PDF files and documents
      • This PDF password remover software can repair the damaged or corrupt PDF file instantly and provide the best output

      Pros and Cons of Wondershare PDF Password Remover:

      Pros:

      • This PDF password remover software is compatible with all the versions of Windows and Mac
      • It is capable of cracking the password of the locked PDF files within few seconds
      • It can remove restrictions from the PDF files
      • This tool can decrypt password from multiple PDF files at a time
      • It provides an excellent customer support team to assist the users

      Cons:

      • It gives the option of 15 days trial version; after that, you are required to buy the premium version to continue the services

      Our Review

      While talking about the performance, the best thing about Wondershare PDF Password Remover is that it offers a simple user interface. It is the best PDF password remover tool that is compatible with both Windows and Mac OS and provides a batch decryption mode to upload up to 200 PDF files to decrypt at a time. The removal of security features from PDF files is as simple as a one-click solution.

      Since it allows removing the Owner password and restrictions quite quickly, you can now edit, copy, print or make any changes, even if you have forgotten or misplaced the passcode of your relevant PDF documents. Wondershare PDF Password Remover is an incredible tool that is easy to use and proves to be the top choice amongst other similar applications and software.

      How to Use Wondershare PDF Password Remover:

      To understand the functionality of this PDF password remover tool, let us follow the below mentioned simple steps:

      Step 1: As the first step, open the Wondershare PDF Password Remover and drag or add PDF files using the “Add Files” button with a maximum of 200 files at a time to decrypt.

      Step 2: If you want to remove specific data from the process, you can do so by selecting those particular documents and click on the “Remove” button present at the toolbar. You can also clear the entire batch by hitting the “Clear” button.

      Step 3: After that, you are required to select the storage of the recovered files. If you want to export the recovered PDF files in the source folder, click on the “Save target file(s) in the source folder” option given under “Output Folder.” Or else navigate the tool to the place where you want to save those files by clicking on the “Customize” option.

      Step 4: Now, finally, after making all the required selections, you are required to hit the “Start” button to start the password removal process.

      As you end with the process, you can open the PDF files accessible to make any changes or print.

      Top 2. Passper for PDF

      Another excellent PDF password remover tool is Passper for PDF. It is one of the best applications that help remove the restrictions from PDF so that you can get access to copy, edit, print, or overwrite the critical data. It can decrypt the password of the locked PDF files very quickly while following a few simple steps. The Passper for PDF tool removes the password quickly and easily because of GPU and CPU acceleration technology.

      Free Trial

      Passper for PDF can remove the password of even the strongly encrypted PDF files, making them accessible for copying, editing, printing, overwriting, etc. The smart algorithm used by the Passper for PDF lets it remove any restrictions from the PDF files and is fully compatible with Windows 10/8/7/XP/Vista. It uses four different methods to remove the open or user password from the locked PDF files. These four methods are as follows:

      Passper for PDF is a detailed and comprehensive method for providing a one-stop solution to retrieving a lost password for your PDF file. Using this method, one can surely access the locked PDF documents as it provides a solution to unlock PDF open password and the PDF owner password.

      • Dictionary Attack: It is the simplest way for PDF password recovery. A default dictionary is used by this tool, using the combination of different characters on a list. This process keeps on running until the password is found. Passper also allows customizing the dictionary and attaching it with the software.
      • Combination Attack: The combination attack method uses the combination of different characters, numbers, and special characters that you choose to find out the right password for the locked PDF files.
      • Mask Attack: This method works best if you remember a few parameters of your lost password like the length of the password, number, and case of characters, affixes, suffixes, etc. This method is the fastest and recommended if you remember any such details of your lost password.
      • Brute-Force Attack: This is the time taking process as the software uses all the combinations of characters until it succeeds in finding out the correct one. It doesn’t require any pre-settings or configurations, thus a better option if you know nothing about your lost password.

      Key Features of Passper for PDF:

      • It is an easy to use tool that is capable of removing restrictions on PDF files quickly
      • It can recover the open password from the PDF files using four different methods
      • It is based on the CPU and GPU acceleration technology that makes the entire process simple and faster
      • It used smart algorithms thus is competent to decrypt even the most encrypted PDF password
      • This tool keeps the security feature as the primary objective and thus retains all the data and personal information of the user safe and intact
      • It is fully compatible with Windows 10/8.1/8/XP/Vista with the file size of 2.47 MB

      Pros and Cons of Passper for PDF:

      Pros:

      • It is an easy, quick, and extremely safe product to recover PDF password
      • It uses a smart algorithm that makes the recovery process faster
      • It goes well with any version of Windows OS
      • It is compatible with any version of Adobe Acrobat

      Cons:

      • It doesn’t support Mac OS
      • It performs better with a faster processor and with more space

      Our Reviews:

      Passper for PDF is a highly recommended PDF password remover to recover your lost PDF file password. It is the highest-rated software amongst the users. It is the most trusted PDF password recovery software because of the complete security and protection it provides to your personal data. The use of algorithms and four distinctive methods to recover the PDF password is the most liked feature of this product.

      Passper for PDF also is a quick and easy-to-follow method that is efficient in removing the restrictions on PDF within a few minutes. There are just some simple steps that you are required to follow, and you can get complete access to your locked PDF documents. The user-friendly interface lets the user recover the password instantly. If by chance, you have to stop the recovery process, the software gives you the option of pause that later you can retrieve on returning.

      How to use Passper for PDF:

      Passper for PDF provides the fastest method to recover and remove the restrictions on PDF files. It requires just a few seconds to get complete access to your PDF documents. It is regarded as a full solution for PDF password recovery. It is competent to decrypt open password for PDF files using four distinctive methods and remove restrictions on the locked PDF files to access editing, printing, copying, etc. So let us find out the steps to follow the method:

      Step 1: To take the first step, download the software and install it. As the installation process ends, launch the program on your computer.

      Step 2: As you get the program launched on your computer screen, click on the “Recover Password” option on the home interface of the software.

      Step 3: Now add the affected PDF file that you want to unlock by hitting the “Add” button and leading towards the source-destination by clicking the “Browse” button.

      Step 4: Now, you are required to make the selection of the appropriate attack method out of 4 options from the right panel, i.e., “Dictionary Attack,” “Combination Attack,” “Mask Attack,” and “Brute-Force Attack.”

      Step 5: After selecting the attack type, it may ask you to enter the required details and configurations. As you enter the details and made requisite settings, click on the “Recover” option. Now, as per the attack type you selected, the software will take the time to make the right password combination.

      Step 6: As the retrieval process ends, the software will detect the correct password for your PDF file and show it on the screen, which you can later use to open the PDF document.

      Top 3. Coolmuster PDF Password Remover

      Coolmuster PDF Password Remover is another trusted application that is widely used to decrypt the locked PDF file. This tool offers to unlock the PDF files by removing the restrictions to get them accessible for editing, copying, or printing. With this useful PDF password remover tool, you can easily unlock the owner password of the PDF documents.

      Coolmuster PDF Password Remover is fully compatible with Mac OS x 10.6 or later and Windows 10/8/7/XP/Vista. This is the most relevant PDF password cracker software if you use Mac computers. It can decrypt the PDF password using the Batch processing feature. The program enables you to decode as many as 200 encrypted PDF files using a sophisticated batch method. It can work at a very high speed; being any size of the input you enter, you will get the open PDF file you can use to edit, copy, make annotate, etc. The portability of this application doesn’t even require installation to begin the process. Thus, it is a reliable and trusted PDF password unlocker that can be used to decrypt a large number of PDF files instantly.

      Key Features of Coolmuster PDF Password Remover:

      Below mentioned are the key features of Coolmuster that make it one of the reliable choices:

      • Coolmuster PDF password remover can decrypt and remove restrictions from any PDF file to make it accessible for editing, printing, copying, annotating, inserting images, etc.
      • It is an easy to use application with a minimal user interface to make it user-friendly
      • This tool can decrypt multiple encrypted PDF files at a time
      • It works on Mac OS x 10.6 or later and Windows 10/8/7/XP/Vista
      • It is a portable application that doesn’t need installation and supports the Adobe PDF 1.0 – 1.7 formats for the decryption of PDF files
      • The NVIDIA-GPU available with this tool accelerates CPU power to process the files at the high speed

      Pros and Cons of using Coolmuster:

      Pros:

      • It is easy and quick to respond using the NIVIDA-GPU that accelerates the CPU speed
      • It uses the Batch decryption process that improves the efficiency and workability of the application
      • It is capable of saving PDF files without a user password and makes them readily available for sharing
      • It is a safe and reliable solution to PDF file decryption to make it ready to view, edit, make annotate, etc.

      Cons:

      • Sometimes it produces errors while processing a large number of PDF files at a time

      Our Review:

      Coolmuster is amongst the best PDF password remover available to decrypt a large number of encrypted PDF files at a time and supports both Windows and Mac OS. What makes it become our third top choice is using the Batch decryption process to remove the PDF password that enhances the efficiency of the application, and increases the working speed. The minimal user interface keeps the tool user-friendly, while its capability to save PDF files without a user password is another add-on feature.

      Another exquisite feature of this program is that it can process at a very high speed. The NVIDIA-GPU is available to boost the CPU power to increase the decryption process. This tool is a safe and reliable method for PDF password removal. It is capable of removing the restrictions of PDF without the need to install the software. The only issue that has emerged from this application is sometimes the non-functioning of the tool if a large number of encrypted PDF files are added at once. Else it is a good-to-go tool to be used as a PDF password remover.

      Top 4. PassFab for PDF

      PassFab for PDF is another expert PDF password remover software capable of decrypting the locked PDF files. It is an easy-to-use tool that can quickly recover the owner password of PDF files to make them available for copying, printing, editing, or make annotate.

      PassFab for PDF password cracker tool processes the decryption of PDF files within few seconds by computing with the GPU and the multi-core CPU acceleration technique. This expedites the processing speed for up to 40 times faster. This program gives you the option of pausing to take a break between the work that later you can resume. PassFab for PDF is a compatible PDF password unlocker tool with the Windows OS 10, 8.1, 8, 7, Vista, XP, and the Server 2019, 2016, 2012, 2011, 2008 (32-bit/64-bit). It also supports all the versions of Adobe Acrobat and any PDF application. The PassFab for PDF works on three advanced attack method for PDF password recovery:

      • Dictionary Attack – It creates various combinations of passwords based on a dictionary, which can be customized or automatically integrated.
      • Brute-Force with Mask Attack – This method works when you can provide some information about the lost password like length, characters, etc.
      • Brute-Force Attack – This is the most detailed form of detecting a password by trying all possible settings and combinations of the password until it reaches the final result.

      Pros and Cons of PassFab for PDF:

      Pros:

      • This program is designed using advanced technologies to decrypt the encrypted PDF flies
      • It is effortless to use and a quick method that can produce results in a shorter period
      • This tool supports the GPU acceleration and the multi-core processor to expedite the PDF password recovery
      • This method is compatible with all the Windows OS and Adobe Acrobat versions

      Cons:

      • It doesn’t support Mac computers

      Top 5. PDFCrack

      PDFCrack is one of the one-stop best PDF password removers. This tool can remove the owner password as well as the user password in one go. PDFCrack leverages the Brute-Force attack to recover the lost PDF password. Thus it could be a time taking process. This attack processes the functionality offline; therefore, nothing is leaked or exchanged via the online internet. This tool is free of cost software over the internet that is readily available as an open-source to the users.

      PDFCrack supports Windows 10/8/7/Vista/XP for both 32-bit and 64-bit versions. It is a command-line driven and doesn’t use the graphical user interface for PDF password recovery. This tool optimizes the search for the owner password if you already know the user password. It uses a simple benchmarking process to decrypt a PDF password but may take days or even weeks in the recovery process depending upon the length of the password. But this is a simple to use tool that is easily downloaded and utterly portable for the Windows OS.

      Pros and Cons of PDFCrack:

      Pros:

      • This tool is free of cost and provides an open-source to crack PDF password.
      • It is a one-stop solution for the recovery of user password as well as the removal of restrictions from owner password
      • It is easily and quickly download PDF password recovery tool
      • It supports almost all the Windows OS and versions

      Cons:

      • This tool doesn’t support the 256-AES encryption
      • It is not compatible with Mac Operating System
      • It uses the command-line tool and not the graphical user interface
      • It is not a quick method of cracking PDF password and thus a time taking process
      • It still works on the simple permutations and not being updated from 2008

      Top 6. GuaPDF

      GuaPDF or commonly known as Guaranteed PDF Decrypter is a regular tool for PDF password recovery and PDF password removal for the owner password, which can also be used for 40-bit encrypted user passwords. Removing PDF opening password is guaranteed for documents with a 40-bit key only. It is not entirely a free tool, but what makes it interesting is that the demo version can remove PDF password for small files without even giving a watermark. The text never gets altered, and the PDF file size remains the same. It applies the unique GPU acceleration technique on modern NVIDIA, to fasten the password removal process.

      GuaPDF supports Windows 2000, XP, Vista, 7, 8, 10 with both 32 bit and 64 bit and almost all the Windows Servers OS. It even works well on Linux and Mac computers. GuaPDF works with files till version 1.7 of level 3 with 256 bit AES encryption, but can only decrypt on higher levels if the encryption is 128 bit AES.

      Pros and Cons of GuaPDF:

      Pros:

      • It works as both password recovery or remover software.
      • It removes the password for small PDF files easily, without any glimpse of a watermark.
      • There is a guaranteed solution for files with a 40-bit key.

      Cons:

      • It is not the right choice for larges PDFs

      Top 7. iSunshare PDF Password Genius

      iSunshare PDF Password Genius is a combined tool for PDF password recovery and removing an open password. It supports all formats of PDFs created on any Acrobat version or any other software. For PDF password unlock from copying, printing, editing, or other restrictions, you need to find the PDF file open password with the recovery tool. It supports all the Windows Operating System versions and servers (Windows 10/8/7/Vista/XP & 2016/2012/2008/2003/2000).

      The free version is available on the website for a demo, while the complete software with all the functionalities is provided into two editions with a slight difference in features.

      The Standard version is a bit slower than the professional version and applies four password recovery attack methods. The Professional version uses the Brute-Force attack method with a client program, “iSunshare PDF Peer,” working as a LAN computer. This quickens the password recovery time.

      Pros and Cons of iSunshare PDF Password Genius:

      Pros:

      • It supports all the currently used Windows OS and Servers.
      • It can unlock PDF password for files created on any PDF software.
      • The Professional Edition of the tool is faster in processing.

      Cons:

      • It does not support Mac computers.

      Top 8. iPubsoft PDF Password Remover

      The PDF password remover software from iPubsoft is mostly used for scientific or technical documents. It can easily remove Password in PDF file for both user and owner passwords allowing you to access the text for editing, copying, print, etc. The tool can be used for decrypting more than one PDF file at a single click, and it guarantees zero error in the text documents. The interface of iPubsoft PDF Password Remover software is easy to understand, and the user can comfortably drag & drop the locked PDFs into the panel for PDF password unlocking. It supports most of the versions of Windows and Mac. A trial version of the software is available for a demo, while the purchased software can be reclaimed for money back within 90 days of buying, and there are free tech support and lifetime upgrades.

      Pros and Cons of iPubsoft PDF Password Remover:

      Pros:

      • It supports Mac computers.
      • Multiple files can be uploaded on the panel.
      • Money-back guarantee within 90 days of buying.

      Cons:

      • Difficulty in uploading large PDF files.

      Top 9. PdfCrypt

      PdfCrypt is a free PDF password remover tool. If the user simply wants to remove the document’s password, he can take help from this software, and the decrypted file will be provided within seconds. It supports PDF documents of standard 40 bit, 128 bit, and AES 128 bit encryption or decryption and files created on Acrobat version 9 or below and work only on Windows OS with 32-bit versions. The software does not have a graphical user interface, and the method involves Command Prompt.

      Pros and Cons of PdfCrypt:

      Pros:

      • It is quick in removing PDF document password.
      • The PDF password remover software is free to use.

      Cons:

      • Runs on Command Prompt.
      • The software is out-dated as it does not support the latest Windows OS or OS of 64 bit.
      • The developer has retired the software and recommends another tool on the website.

      Top 10. Ahead PDF Password Remover

      As the name defines, Ahead PDF Password Remover is only a password remover tool that removes the owner’s password and allowing access to all the functions on the document like editing, printing, or copying. It supports decryption of 40 bit, 128 bit, 128 AES, and 256 bit AES document and can run on the Operating System of Windows 10/8/7/Vista/XP. The software interface is easy to use and can work for batch decryption of PDFs. After using the demo version from the website, it can be purchased as a single user or multi-user license, with all the functions.

      Pros and Cons of Ahead PDF Password Remover:

      Pros:

      • It has a simple user interface.
      • No Adobe or Acrobat is required for this tool.

      Cons:

      • It is only a password remover tool.
      • It does not support Mac OS.
      • The product is priced a bit high.

      Conclusion

      PDF documents are quite popular now for file sharing, as it disables the text editing function and helps keep the files un-altered and safe. It is the primary feature of PDFs, but keeping the textual information secure and getting changed viciously can also be protected using a password. But when you lose the password due to any reason, you can instantly take assistance from one of the above best PDF password removers. Wondershare PDF Password Remover is a famous brand in the software industry and stands out to be the most favored and reliable tool as a PDF password recovery by the users.

      Free DownloadFree Download
      Источник: https://www.passcope.com/best-pdf-password-remover-software/
      Last week: 0Ranking#43 in Office ToolsPublisherCoolmuster Studio

    Screenshots of Coolmuster PDF Password Remover for Mac

    Coolmuster PDF Password Remover for Mac Publisher's Description

    Remove owner password for printing, copying and editing PDF files without entering any password.
    Decrypt user password from PDF files with entering the authorized password.
    Remove PDF password and restrictions for multiple encrypted PDF files at one time. This is a good way for improving working efficiency.
    Drag and drop operation allows you to import a large amount of PDF files into the program for decrypting.
    A user password is to control the permission of opening a PDF. If a PDF is protected by a user password, you can enter the correct user password and save the PDF to a new PDF file without user password.
    After saving a new PDF file, you can share the PDF with anyone you want more easily.

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    1 thoughts on “Coolmuster PDF Password Remover Crack”

    • Ryan Tucker says:

      This is all great. My knowledge of Cubase is limited, never used it myself but close friends used to and I spent some time watching them on it. All the things mentioned in the video can be done in Ableton Live too and probably in most serious DAWs (maybe except the score window). I've heard a lot of people saying Cubase is probably the best DAW for producing and I'm not disputing that claim. What is not mentioned here though (and the reason I still want to use Ableton Live over any other) is the fun component. Ableton Live is an experience in itself, it's super intuitive, easy and a lot of fun to use and to have fun when producing is way more important to me than being able to edit midi features a few seconds quicker. Whatever DAW you use is not that important though, the end product is, as well as enjoying the whole process. Peace everyone \m/ :) \m/

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