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B R I D G E O F F I C E
MINNESOTA DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION
Bridge Office
LRFD Bridge
Design Manual
MANUAL
5-392

ii
Mn/DOT BRI DGE OFFI CE
LRFD Bridge Design Manual

Minnesota Department of Transportation
3485 Hadley Avenue North • Mail Stop 610
Oakdale, MN 55128-3307
Phone: 651/366-4500 • Fax: 651/366-4497














JULY 2003 OCTOBER 2003 JANUARY 2004 APRIL 2004 OCTOBER 2004
DECEMBER 2004 FEBRUARY 2005 MARCH 2005 NOVEMBER 2005 MARCH 2006
APRIL 2006 MAY 2006 AUGUST 2006 OCTOBER 2006 FEBRUARY 2007 JUNE 2007
JULY 2007 OCTOBER 2007



FEBRUARY 2007 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN i

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. INTRODUCTION. 1-1
1.1 Overview Of Manual 5-392 . 1-1
1.1.1 Material Contained in Manual 5-392. 1-1
1.1.2 Updates to Manual 5-392 . 1-2
1.1.3 Format of Manual References. 1-2
1.2 General Bridge Information . 1-2
1.2.1 Bridge Office . 1-3
1.2.2 Highway Systems. 1-8
1.2.3 Bridge Numbers. 1-8
1.2.4 Limit States to Consider in Design . 1-11
1.3 Procedures. 1-11
1.3.1 Checking of Mn/DOT Prepared Bridge Plans . 1-11
1.3.2 Checking of Consultant Prepared Bridge Plans . 1-12
1.3.3 Schedule for Processing Construction Lettings . 1-16
1.3.4 Bridge Project Tracking System. 1-17
1.3.5 Approval Process for Standards. 1-21

2. GENERAL DESIGN AND LOCATION FEATURES. 2-1
2.1 Geometrics . 2-1
2.1.1 Bridge Geometrics. 2-1
2.1.2 Bridge Deck Requirements . 2-2
2.1.3 Bridge Undercrossing Geometrics . 2-7
2.1.4 Geometric Details . 2-15
2.1.5 Bridge Railings . 2-28
2.2 Bridge Aesthetics . 2-28
2.3 Preliminary Bridge Plans . 2-28
2.3.1 General . 2-28
2.3.2 Bridge Type Selection. 2-38



FEBRUARY 2007 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN ii
2.4 Final Bridge Plans and Special Provisions. 2-43
2.4.1 Final Design Instructions. 2-44
2.4.1.1 Superstructure. 2-45
2.4.1.1.1 Framing Plan . 2-45
2.4.1.1.2 Concrete Wearing Course . 2-46
2.4.1.1.3 Diaphragms and Cross Frames. 2-46
2.4.1.2 Pedestrian Bridges. 2-47
2.4.1.3 Temporary Bridges and Widenings . 2-49
2.4.1.4 Bridge Approaches. 2-50
2.4.1.5 Survey. 2-50
2.4.1.6 Utilities . 2-50
2.4.1.7 Precedence of Construction Documents. 2-52
2.4.1.8 Design Calculation Requirements . 2-52
2.4.2 Final Plans . 2-52
2.4.2.1 Drafting Standards . 2-53
2.4.2.2 Drafting Guidelines . 2-53
2.4.2.3 General Plan and Elevation . 2-56
2.4.2.4 Bridge Layout and Staking Plan . 2-61
2.4.2.5 Standard Abbreviations . 2-64
2.4.2.6 Inclusion of Standard Bridge Details in Plan Sets. 2-64
2.4.2.7 Use of Bridge Standard Plans . 2-64
2.4.2.8 Standard Plan Notes . 2-64
2.4.2.9 Quantity Notes and Pay Items . 2-65
2.4.3 Revised Sheets . 2-66
2.5 Reconstruction Guidelines and Details. 2-67
2.5.1 Superstructure . 2-67
2.5.1.1 Railings. 2-67
2.5.1.2 Wearing Course. 2-69
2.5.1.3 Expansion/Fixed Joints . 2-69
2.5.2 Substructure . 2-81
2.5.2.1 Abutments. 2-81
2.5.2.2 Piers. 2-81
2.5.3 Pavement . 2-81



FEBRUARY 2007 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN iii
2.6 Construction Requirements. 2-87
APPENDIX 2-A: BRIDGE TYPE NUMBERS . 2-88
APPENDIX 2-B: SPECIAL PROVISIONS – 2005 SPEC. BOOK . 2-89
APPENDIX 2-C: STANDARD ABBREVIATIONS . 2-92
APPENDIX 2-D: BRIDGE DETAILS PART I (B-DETAILS) . 2-95
APPENDIX 2-E: BRIDGE DETAILS PART II (STANDARD FIGURES). 2-97
APPENDIX 2-F: BRIDGE STANDARD PLANS: CULVERTS . 2-99
APPENDIX 2-G: MN/DOT STANDARD PLANS: SPECIAL STRUCTURES . 2-100
APPENDIX 2-H: STANDARD PLAN NOTES. 2-101
APPENDIX 2-I: STANDARD SUMMARY OF QUANTITIES NOTES. 2-110
APPENDIX 2-J: BRIDGE PAY ITEMS. 2-112
APPENDIX 2-K: CONVERSION FROM INCHES TO DECIMALS OF A FOOT . 2-116

3. LOAD AND LOAD FACTORS . 3-1
3.1 Load Factors and Combinations. 3-1
3.2 Load Modifiers . 3-3
3.3 Permanent Loads (Dead and Earth) . 3-4
3.4 Live Loads . 3-4
3.4.1 HL-93 Live Load, LL. 3-5
3.4.2 Multiple Presence Factor, MPF . 3-5
3.4.3 Dynamic Load Allowance, IM . 3-5
3.4.4 Pedestrian Live Load, PL . 3-5
3.4.5 Braking Force, BR . 3-5
3.4.6 Centrifugal Force, CE. 3-6
3.4.7 Live Load Application to Buried Structures . 3-6
3.4.8 Live Load Surcharge, LS. 3-6
3.5 Water Loads, WA . 3-6
3.6 Wind Loads, WS. 3-7
3.7 Wind on Live Load, WL . 3-7
3.8 Earthquake Effects, EQ . 3-7
3.9 Ice Load, IC . 3-8
3.10 Earth Pressure, EV, EH, or ES . 3-8
3.11 Temperature, Shrinkage, Creep, Settlement, TU, SH, CR, SE . 3-8



OCTOBER 2006 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN iv
3.11.1 Temperature Effects . 3-8
3.11.2 Shrinkage Effects. 3-11
3.12 Pile Downdrag, DD. 3-11
3.13 Friction Forces, FR . 3-11
3.13.1 Sliding Bearings. 3-11
3.13.2 Soil/Backwall Interface and Soil/Footing Interface . 3-11
3.14 Extreme Event. 3-12
3.14.1 Vehicle Collision, CT . 3-12
3.14.2 Vessel Collision, CV . 3-12
3.15 Uplift. 3-12
3.15.1 Deck Pours. 3-13
3.16 Construction Loads. 3-13
3.17 Deflections. 3-13

4. STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION. 4-1
4.1 Computer Programs . 4-1
4.2 Load Distribution . 4-2
4.2.1 Dead Load Distribution . 4-2
4.2.2 Live Load Distribution. 4-2
4.2.2.1 Steel and Prestressed Concrete Beams . 4-3
4.2.2.2 Slab Spans and Timber Decks . 4-3
4.2.3 Sidewalk Pedestrian Live Load . 4-3
4.3 Load Rating. 4-4
4.4 Substructure Fixity. 4-7
4.5 Structural Models. 4-7
4.6 LRFD Exceptions . 4-7
4.6.1 Pedestrian Bridges . 4-8
4.6.2 Rehabilitation Projects . 4-8
4.6.3 Railroad Bridges and Bridges or Structures near Railroads . 4-8

5. CONCRETE STRUCTURES . 5-1
5.1 Materials . 5-1
5.1.1 Concrete. 5-1



OCTOBER 2004 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN v
5.1.2 Reinforcing Steel. 5-4
5.1.3 Reinforcement Bar Couplers . 5-4
5.1.4 Prestressing Steel . 5-4
5.1.5 Post-tensioning Hardware . 5-5
5.2 Reinforcement Details. 5-5
5.2.1 Minimum Clear Cover and Clear Spacing . 5-5
5.2.2 Reinforcing Bar Lists. 5-7
5.2.3 General Reinforcement Practices . 5-14
5.2.4 Reinforcement Bar Couplers . 5-14
5.2.5 Adhesive Anchors. 5-14
5.2.6 Shrinkage and Temperature Reinforcement . 5-15
5.3 Concrete Slabs . 5-17
5.3.1 Geometry . 5-17
5.3.2 Design/Analysis . 5-17
5.3.3 Exterior Strip. 5-18
5.3.4 Reinforcement Layout. 5-18
5.3.5 Camber and Deflections . 5-21
5.4 Pretensioned Concrete. 5-21
5.4.1 Geometry . 5-22
5.4.2 Stress Limits . 5-24
5.4.3 Design/Analysis . 5-24
5.4.4 Detailing/Reinforcement. 5-27
5.4.5 Camber and Deflection . 5-27
5.4.6 Standard I-Beams. 5-28
5.4.7 Rectangular Beams . 5-28
5.4.8 Double-Tee Beams . 5-31
5.5 Post-Tensioned Concrete. 5-36
5.5.1 PT Slab Bridges . 5-36
5.5.2 PT I-Girders . 5-36
5.5.3 PT Precast or Cast-In-Place Box Girders . 5-36
5.6 Concrete Finishes and Coatings. 5-36
5.7 Design Examples . 5-37
5.7.1 Three-Span Haunched Reinforced Concrete Slab. 5-39



OCTOBER YTD 6.9.18 Crack - Crack Key For U LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN vi
5.7.2 Prestressed I-Beam Design Example. 5-71
5.7.3 Three-Span Haunched Post-Tensioned Concrete Slab
Design Example . 5-101

6. STEEL STRUCTURES. 6-1
6.1 Materials . 6-1
6.2 General Dimensions And Details. 6-3
6.3 General Design Philosophy . 6-7
6.3.1 Shear Connectors . 6-9
6.3.2 Fatigue. 6-9
6.3.3 Deflections. 6-9
6.3.4 Camber . 6-10
6.4 Rolled Beams . 6-13
6.5 Plate Girders . 6-13
6.5.1 High Performance Steel Girders. 6-14
6.6 Curved Girders . 6-14
6.7 Box Or Tub Girders . 6-15
6.8 Bolted Connections And Splices. 6-15
6.9 Two-Span Plate Girder Design Example. 6-16

7. RESERVED

8. WOOD STRUCTURES. 8-1
8.1 Materials . 8-1
8.1.1 Wood Products . 8-1
8.1.2 Fasteners And Hardware . 8-2
8.1.3 Wood Preservatives. 8-2
8.2 Timber Bridge Decks . 8-3
8.2.1 General . 8-3
8.2.2 Geometry . 8-5
8.2.3 Design/Analysis . 8-5
8.2.4 Detailing. 8-6
8.2.5 Camber/Deflections. 8-6



JUNE 2007 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN vii
8.3 Timber Pile Caps. 8-6
8.3.1 Geometry . 8-7
8.3.2 Design/Analysis . 8-7
8.3.3 Detailing. 8-7
8.3.4 Camber/Deflections. 8-7
8.4 Additional References . 8-7
8.5 Design Examples . 8-8
8.5.1 Longitudinally Laminated Timber Deck Design Example . 8-8
8.5.2 Design Example: Timber Pile Cap . 8-26

9. DECKS AND DECK SYSTEMS. 9-1
9.1 General . 9-1
9.1.1 Deck Drainage. 9-2
9.2 Concrete Deck on Beams . 9-2
9.2.1 Deck Design and Detailing. 9-4
9.3 Reinforced Concrete Deck Design Example . 9-17

10. FOUNDATIONS . 10-1
10.1 Determination of Foundation Type and Capacity . 10-1
10.1.1 Foundation Report. 10-1
10.1.2 Foundation Recommendations . 10-1
10.2 Piles. 10-3
10.3 Drilled Shafts . 10-7
10.4 Footings . 10-10
10.4.1 General . 10-10
10.4.2 Footings Supported on Piling or Drilled Shafts . 10-11
10.4.3 Spread Footings. 10-15
10.5 Pile Bent Piers and Integral Abutments . 10-15
10.6 Evaluation of Existing Pile Foundations when Exposed by Scour . 10-16
10.7 Structure Excavation and Backfill . 10-17



JUNE 2007 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN viii
Appendix 10-A: Sample Bridge Construction Unit Recommendations . 10-19

11. ABUTMENTS, PIERS, AND WALLS . 11-1
11.1 Abutments . 11-1
11.1.1 Integral or Contraction Abutments. 11-3
11.1.2 Parapet Abutments. 11-6
11.1.2.1 Low Abutments . 11-9
11.1.2.2 High Abutments . 11-9
11.1.3 Wingwalls . 11-12
11.1.4 Approach Panels . 11-20
11.2 Piers . 11-21
11.2.1 Geometrics . 11-21
11.2.2 Columns . 11-21
11.2.3 Cap. 11-21
11.2.4 Crash Walls. 11-22
11.2.5 Design and Reinforcement. 11-23
11.2.6 Miscellaneous . 11-24
11.2.6.1 Pile Bent . 11-25
11.3 Retaining Walls. 11-25
11.3.1 Cantilever Retaining Walls. 11-25
11.3.2 Counterfort Retaining Walls . 11-25
11.3.3 Anchored Walls. 11-26
11.3.4 Mechanically Stabilized Earth Walls. 11-26
11.3.5 Prefabricated Modular Walls. 11-28
11.3.6 Timber Noise Walls on Retaining Walls . 11-28
11.3.7 Cantilevered Sheet Pile Walls. 11-28
11.3.8 Design Charts of Cantilevered Sheet Pile Soil Retention
Walls for Temporary Applications. 11-29
11.4 Design Examples . 11-39
11.4.1 High Parapet Abutment Design Example. 11-39
11.4.2 Retaining Wall Design Example . 11-71
11.4.3 Three-Column Pier Design Example . 11-93



AUGUST 2006 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN July 13, 2021 - Free Activators
12. BURIED STRUCTURES. 12-1
12.1 Geotechnical Properties . 12-1
12.2 Box Culverts . 12-2
12.2.1 Precast . 12-2
12.2.2 Cast-In-Place . 12-4
12.3 Design Guidance. 12-4
12.4 Arch Or 3-Sided Structure Design Data . 12-6
12.5 Design Criteria for Long-Span Corrugated Steel Structures . 12-14
12.6 10' x 10' Precast Concrete Box Culvert Design Example. 12-18

13. RAILINGS . 13-1
13.1 Materials . 13-1
13.2 Design Requirements. 13-1
13.2.1 Traffic Railing . 13-9
13.2.2 Pedestrian/Bicycle Railing. 13-11
13.2.3 Combination Railing . 13-11
13.2.4 Strength of Standard Concrete Barriers. 13-12
13.2.5 Protective Screening. 13-15
13.2.6 Architectural/Ornamental Railings . 13-15
13.3 Design Examples . 13-16
13.3.1 Type F Barrier Design Example . 13-17
13.3.2 Adhesive Anchor Design Example . 13-31

14. JOINTS AND BEARINGS . 14-1
14.1 Bridge Movements and Fixity. 14-1
14.2 Expansion Joints . 14-1
14.2.1 Thermal Movements . 14-2
14.2.2 Strip Seal Expansion Joints. 14-2
14.2.3 Modular Expansion Joints . 14-3
14.2.4 Expansion Joint Detailing . 14-3
14.3 Bearings . 14-4
14.3.1 Loads and Movements . 14-5
14.3.2 Bearing Details . 14-5



OCTOBER 2007 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN x
14.3.3 Elastomeric Bearings . 14-6
14.3.3.1 Design . 14-6
14.3.3.1.1 Size and Stability . 14-7
14.3.3.2 Fixed Bearings . 14-7
14.3.3.3 Expansion Bearings. 14-8
14.3.3.3.1 Minimum Compressive Load . 14-8
14.3.4 Pot Bearings. 14-9
14.3.5 Other Types of Bearings . 14-10
14.4 Curved Plate Design . 14-10
14.5 Bearing Plate Design . 14-11
14.6 Sole Plate Design (Steel Beams) . 14-12
14.7 Tables . 14-12
14.8 Design Examples . 14-20
14.8.1 Fixed Elastomeric Bearing Design Example . 14-21
14.8.2 Expansion Elastomeric Bearing Design Example. 14-29

A. MEMOS
#2005-01 LRFD and Bridge Load Rating Issues .(dated February 14, 2005)
#2005-02 Discontinue Use of Cast Bearing Option .(dated November 9, 2005)
#2005-03 New MN45 and MN54 PCB .(dated November 10, 2005)
#2006-01 New MN63 PCB. (dated May 31, 2006)
#2007-01 Bridge Office Substructure Protection Policy .(dated July 23, 2007)
#2007-02 Adhesive Anchors Under Sustained Tensile Loads. (dated Oct. 3, 2007)
#2007-03 Prestressed Beam Camber and Deflection. (dated Oct. 3, 2007)




MARCH 2006 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 1-1
This section contains general information about the manual along with a
general description of the Bridge Office and its procedures.


This manual contains Mn/DOT Bridge Office policies and procedures for
the design, evaluation, and rehabilitation of bridges. Except where
noted, the design provisions herein employ the Load and Resistance
Factor Design (LRFD) methodology set forth by AASHTO.

Mn/DOT utilizes a decimal numbering system to classify documents. The
“5” before the hyphen represents a publication related to engineering this
is a test functions. The “300” series of documents is assigned to the
Bridge Office; the “90” series indicates that this is a “Manual&rdquo. The last
digit “2” specifies that the subject matter of the document is “Design&rdquo.

The original bridge design manual, numbered 5-392, provided guidance
for the design of highway structures in Minnesota in accordance with
allowable stress design methods. Subsequently, it has received periodic
updates as design methods have changed. This version of the Bridge
Design Manual contains significant changes. It presents Mn/DOT’s design
practices in conformance with a new design methodology, Load and
Resistance Factor Design (LRFD), and also contains fifteen
comprehensive design examples.

Use of this manual does not relieve the design engineer of responsibility
for the design of a bridge or structural component. Although Bridge
Office policy is presented here for numerous situations, content of the
manual is not intended to be exhaustive. Therefore, use of this manual
must be tempered with sound engineering judgement.

After the introductory material provided in this section, the manual
contains material arranged around the following section headings. To
simplify locating material, section numbers correspond to those used in
the LRFD specifications:
1) Introduction
2) General Design and Location Features
3) Loads and Load Factors
4) Structural Analysis and Evaluation
5) Concrete Structures
6) Steel Structures
7) Reserved
8) Wood Structures
9) Decks and Deck Systems
10) Foundations
1.
I NTRODUCTI ON
1.1 Overview of
Manual 5- 392
1.1.1 Material
Contained in
Manual 5- 392



MARCH 2006 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 1-2
11) Abutments, Piers, and Walls
12) Buried Structures
13) Railings
14) Joints and Bearings
Memos

This manual will be updated multiple times each year as procedures are
updated and new information becomes available. Current files for each
section of the manual are available on the Bridge Office Web site at:
http://www.dot.state.mn.us/bridge/.

Each section of the manual contains general information at the start of
the section. Design examples (if appropriate) are located at the end of
each section. The general content is divided into subsections that are
identified with numerical section labels in the left margin. Labels for
design example subsections are identified with alphanumeric labels in the
left hand margin. The left hand margin also contains references to LRFD
Design Specification Articles, Equations, and Tables. These references
are enclosed in square brackets.

Within the body of the text, references to other sections of this manual
are directly cited (e.g. Section 10.1). References to the LRFD
Specifications within the main body of the text contain a prefix of: LRFD.


A bridge is defined under Minnesota YTD 6.9.18 Crack - Crack Key For U 8810.8000 as “a structure
having an opening measured horizontally along the center of the roadway
of ten feet or more between undercopings of abutments, between spring
line of arches, or between extreme ends of openings for multiple boxes.
Bridge also includes multiple pipes where the clear distance between
openings is less than half of the smaller contiguous opening.”

In accordance with Minnesota Statute 15.06 Subd. 6, the Commissioner
of Transportation has delegated approval authority for State Preliminary
Bridge Plans, and State, County and City Final Bridge Plans to the State
Bridge Engineer. Plans for all bridge construction or reconstruction
projects located on the Trunk Highway System, and plans on County or
City highways funded fully or in part by state funds shall be approved by
the State Bridge Engineer.
1.1.2 Updates to
Manual 5- 392
1.2 General Bridge
I nformation
1.1.3 Format of
Manual References



MARCH 2006 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 1-3
The Bridge Office is responsible for conducting all bridge and structural
design activities and for providing direction, advice, and services for all
bridge construction and maintenance activities. The responsibilities
include:
• Providing overall administrative and technical direction for the office.
• Reviewing and approving all preliminary and final bridge plans
prepared by the office and consultants.
• Representing the Department in bridge design, construction and
maintenance matters with other agencies.

The Office is under the direction of the State Bridge Engineer. It is
composed of sections and units as shown on the organizational chart
(Figure 1.2.1.1). Each of these subdivisions with their principal functions
is listed as follows:
1) Bridge Design Section
Responsible for the design, plans, and special provisions activities for
bridges, and miscellaneous transportation structures.
a) Design Unit
i) Designs and drafts bridge plans.
ii) Reviews bridge plans prepared by consulting engineers.
iii) Prepares special provisions for bridge plans.
iv) Designs and drafts plans for miscellaneous highway structures.
v) Provides technical assistance, designs, and plans for special
bridge and structural problems.
b) Bridge Standards and Research Unit
i) Provides design aids and standards for the office and for
consultants, counties, and cities.
ii) Coordinates the development and users of computer
programs with data processing systems.
iii) Supports computer users throughout the office and manages
the local area network.
iv) Provides oversight for research projects, which involve the
Bridge Office.
c) Design/Build Unit
i) Provides oversight of design/build projects.
d) LRFD Implementation
i) Maintains LRFD Bridge Design Manual.
ii) Provides support to office and consulting engineers concerning
LRFD issues.
2) Bridge Planning Section
Responsible for program, cost estimates, preliminary bridge plan
activities for Trunk Highways and review of state aid bridges.
a) Bridge Agreements and Estimates Unit
1.2.1 Bridge Office



MARCH 2006 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 1-4
i) Selects and negotiates with consulting engineers and
administers engineering agreements for the preparation of
bridge plans.
ii) Provides liaison between the office and the consulting
engineer retained to prepare bridge plans.
iii) Coordinates public and private utility requirements for
bridges.
iv) Prepares preliminary, comparative and final cost estimates.
v) Maintains and provides current program and plan status
records.
b) Preliminary Plans
i) Conducts preliminary studies from layouts and develops
preliminary bridge plans.
ii) Provides liaison with district and central office road design
through the design stage.
iii) Obtains required permits from other agencies for bridges.
c) State Aid Bridge Unit
i) Reviews bridge plans and special provisions for county,
township, and municipal state aid projects.
ii) Provides technical assistance to counties and municipalities,
when requested, for nonparticipating projects.
3) Bridge Construction and Maintenance Section
Responsible for bridge construction and maintenance specifications,
and bridge construction and maintenance advisory service activities to
the office and to the job site.
a) Construction and Maintenance Unit; North, Metro and South
Regions
i) Provides construction and maintenance advisory service to
bridge construction and maintenance engineers in the field.
ii) Writes bridge construction and maintenance specifications,
manuals and bulletins.
iii) Writes and maintains the file of current special provisions for
bridge construction and maintenance.
iv) Performs preliminary, periodic and final review of bridge
construction and maintenance projects and makes
recommendations.
v) Reviews bridge plans and special provisions prior to lettings
and makes recommendations.
vi) Aids municipal and county engineers with bridge construction
and maintenance problems, upon request.
vii) Provides foundation design including selection of pile type,
length, design load, and foundation preparation.
viii) Reviews bridge improvement projects and prepares
recommendations for scope of work.



JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 1-5
b) Bridge Ratings Unit
i) Makes bridge ratings and load postings analysis for existing
bridges and maintains the records.
ii) Reviews and approves special load permit requests.
c) Structural Metals Inspection Unit
i) Provides inspection services for structural metals, fabrication
and assembly to ensure conformity with plans and
specifications.
d) Fabrication Methods Unit
i) Reviews and approves structural metals shop drawings
submitted by fabricators.
ii) Provides fabrication advisory service to designers, fabricators
and field construction and maintenance personnel.
iii) Provides overhead sign design services to the Office of Traffic
Engineering, including the design of bridge-mounted sign
trusses.
e) Bridge Management Unit
i) Maintains inventory and inspection data for the 19,600
bridges in Minnesota. Works with all agencies to make certain
appropriate data is collected. Adobe InDesign CC 2019 Crack - Crack Key For U ii) Responsible for implementing bridge management systems to
provide information on bridges for maintenance, repair,
rehabilitation and replacement.
f) Bridge Inspection Unit
i) Provides expert assistance to the Districts in organizing and
conducting inspections of complex bridges, special features,
and fracture critical bridges.
ii) Conducts quality assurance inspections of all agencies
responsible for bridge inspections in Minnesota.
iii) Reviews, recommends and provides bridge inspection training
for District, county, and municipal bridge inspectors.
4) Hydraulic Engineering Section
Responsible for providing statewide hydraulic engineering services
that include design, construction and maintenance activities. In
addition, the section provides leadership in the development and
implementation of hydraulic automation technology, establishes policy
pertaining to hydrology and hydraulics, prepares design aids, provides
client training, participates in research projects, and represents the
department on state and national committees.
a) Bridge Design Hydraulics Unit
i) Provides bridge and culvert waterway designs for trunk
highway, county, city and township projects.
ii) Analyzes and evaluates inplace bridges for scour.



MARCH 2006 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 1-6
iii) Provides technical assistance to counties and municipalities
upon request.
iv) Provides training in hydrology and hydraulics.
b) Road Design Hydraulics Unit
i) Evaluates and codes all bridges over water for scour.
ii) Provides technical assistance to Districts on all aspects of
drainage design.
iii) Reviews and cost prorates storm drains on the municipal and
county state aid system.
iv) Coordinates the review of new products and development of
specifications and policies pertaining to their use.
c) Hydraulics Automation Unit
i) Provides leadership and technical direction for managing the
statewide hydraulic automation effort.
ii) Develops and implements the means to integrate the
hydraulic design process with the road design process.
iii) Develops, implements, and supports a hydraulic information
system to facilitate the sharing of hydraulic data among all
users and stakeholders.
iv) Provides statewide training and support in the implementation
and use of hydraulic automation techniques.

For more information, visit the Bridge Office Web site at:
http://www.dot.state.mn.us/bridge/.



MARCH 2006 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 1-7

Figure 1.2.1.1
Mn/ DOT Bridge Office Organization Chart



JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 1-8
Highways throughout the nation are divided into systems. These system
designations are important to know because design standards can vary
between the systems. The various highway systems are classified
according to the Agency that has responsibility for their improvement,
maintenance and traffic regulation enforcement. Listed below are the
jurisdictional divisions in Minnesota:
1) Trunk Highway System
The Trunk Highway System consists of all highways, including the
Interstate routes, under the jurisdiction of the State of Minnesota.
These routes generally are the most important in the state, carry the
greatest traffic volumes, and operate at the highest speeds.
2) County Highway System
The County Highway System is made up of those roads established
and designated under the authority of the county board. They
generally are the more important routes within a county that are not
on the Trunk Highway System.
3) Township Road System
The Township Road System is made up of the roads established under
the authority of the town board. They generally are of local
importance.
4) Municipal Street System
The Municipal Street System is all roads within a municipality not
designated as a trunk highway or county road. They are generally
of local importance.

All publicly owned bridges either on or over a trunk highway and over
10 feet in length measured along the centerline of the highway are
assigned a number for identification and cost accounting purposes.

The numbering scheme followed in assigning bridge numbers depends on
the time of construction. With few exceptions, the numbering procedure
is as follows:
1) Prior to about 1950, all bridges were numbered consecutively from 1
to 9999 as they were constructed. The 8000 series was used for
culverts over 10 feet in length (measured along the centerline of the
highway). The 7000 series was reserved for county bridges at trunk
highway intersections. Five-digit bridge numbers beginning with L or
R designate bridges in local bridge systems.

2) Since about 1950, a five-digit number has been assigned to each
bridge as it was constructed. The first two digits coincide with the
county number (01-87) in which the bridge is located (99 refers to
temporary bridges). The last three digits are assigned consecutively
using the following guidelines:
1.2.2 Highway
Systems
1.2.3 Bridge
Numbers



MARCH 2006 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 1-9
a. 001-499 are used for regular trunk highway bridges.
b. 500-699 are used for county bridges.
c. 700-999 are used for interstate bridges (any bridge on or over the
interstate system).

3) In 1991, additional numbers were required for bridges on the state
aid system in Hennepin County and for interstate bridges in Hennepin
County. To allocate more numbers for bridges on the local system an
alpha character is used as the third character of the bridge number.
For example, the next bridge number after Bridge No. 27699 will be
Bridge No. 27A00. Note that this happens only after 500 and 600
series have been exhausted.

To allocate more numbers on the Interstate road system, the 400
series of numbers will be used along with the 700, 800, 900's
presently used. For a bridge number XXYZZ, the following now
applies:
XX = County identification number (99 = Temporary Bridge)
Y = 0, 1, 2, 3, or R, T, U (for Trunk Highway Bridges)
Y = 4, 7, 8, 9, or V, or W (for Interstate Bridges)
Y = X and Y (Trunk Highway or Interstate Culverts)
Y = 5 or 6 or A through H (for non-trunk highway Bridges)
Y = J through N, and P, Q (for non-trunk highway Culverts)
ZZ = Sequence number (00 through 99)

4) In cases of twin bridges, a westbound or southbound lane bridge is
generally assigned a lower number than an eastbound or northbound
lane bridge.

All bridge numbers are assigned by the Bridge Office. A complete listing
of all numbered bridges is available in computer printout form entitled
“Minnesota Trunk Highway Bridge Log- Statewide Listing&rdquo. See
Table 1.2.3.1 for a listing of the county identification numbers.



MARCH 2006 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 1-10
Table 1.2.3.1 Minnesota County Identification Numbers
County No. County Name District County No. County Name District
01 Aitkin 1 & 3 45 Marshall 2
02 Anoka Metro 46 Martin 7
03 Becker 4 47 Meeker 8
04 Beltrami 2 48 Mille Lacs 3
05 Benton 3 49 Morrison 3
06 Big Stone 4 50 Mower 6
07 Blue Earth 7 51 Murray 8
08 Brown 7 52 Nicollet 7
09 Carlton 1 53 Nobles 7
10 Carver Metro 54 Norman 2
11 Cass 2 & 3 55 Olmsted 6
12 Chippewa 8 56 Otter Tail 4
13 Chisago Metro 57 Pennington 2
14 Clay 4 58 Pine 1
15 Clearwater 2 59 Pipestone 8
16 Cook 1 60 Polk 2
17 Cottonwood 7 61 Pope 4
18 Crow Wing 3 62 Ramsey Metro
19 Dakota Metro 63 Red Lake 2
20 Dodge 6 64 Redwood 8
21 Douglas 4 65 Renville 8
22 Faribault 7 66 Rice 6
23 Fillmore 6 67 Rock 7
24 Freeborn 6 68 Roseau 2
25 Goodhue 6 69 St. Louis 1
26 Grant 4 70 Scott Metro
27 Hennepin Metro 71 Sherburne 3
28 Houston 6 72 Sibley 7
29 Hubbard 2 73 Stearns 3
30 Isanti 3 74 Steele 6
31 Itasca 1, 2 & 3 75 Stevens 4
32 Jackson 7 76 Swift 4
33 Kanabec 3 77 Todd 3
34 Kandiyohi 8 78 Traverse 4
35 Kittson 2 79 Wabasha 6
36 Koochiching 1 & 2 80 Wadena 3
37 Lac Qui Parle 8 81 Waseca 7
38 Lake 1 82 Washington Metro
39 Lake of the Woods 2 83 Watonwan 7
40 Le Sueur 7 84 Wilkin 4
41 Lincoln 8 85 Winona 6
42 Lyon 8 86 Wright 3
43 McLeod 8 87 Yellow Medicine 8
44 Mahnomen 2



MARCH 2006 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 1-11
Bridge designs shall typically consider Strength, Service, Extreme Event,
and Fatigue limit states. The limit state checks will vary with the
component under consideration. Not all elements will require
consideration of all limit states. For example, the fatigue limit state need
not be considered for fully prestressed pretensioned elements.


This section covers the Bridge Office procedures for checking of bridge
plans, scheduling of projects, and revising or creating standards.

The general practice of most engineering offices is to require that designs
they produce be checked before they are reviewed and certified by the
“Engineer in Responsible Charge&rdquo. Although this practice has always
been required for structures designed for Mn/DOT, it is recognized that
the quality of the checking process often varies according to time
restraints, confidence in the designer, and the instructions given to the
checker. Therefore, in order to maintain a consistent design checking
process the following guidance is given for routine bridge designs.

For more complex or unusual designs, the checker is advised to discuss
additional requirements with the design unit leader. Also, the checking
process described is not meant to apply to the check or review functions
required for Mn/DOT review of consultant plans (see Section 1.3.2.) or
for construction false work reviews. (See the Bridge Construction
Manual.)

Three types of design checking will apply:
1) An independent analysis of the completed design.
2) A check of original design computations for mathematical accuracy,
application of code, and accepted engineering practice.
3) A review of drafted details for constructibility and accepted
engineering practice.

Generally, an independent analysis to confirm the adequacy of the
complete design is preferred. Significant differences should be discussed
and resolved before the plan is certified. The separate set of calculations
should be included with the design file as a record of the completed
design check.

When circumstances prevent a complete independent analysis, as a
minimum, an independent analysis shall be completed for the following:
1) Live and dead loads
2) Critical beam lines
3) A pier cap
1.3 Procedures
1.3.1 Checking of
Mn/ DOT Prepared
Bridge Plans
1.2.4 Limit States
to Consider in
Design



JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 1-12
4) A pier footing
5) Main reinforcement for high abutments
6) An abutment footing

However, for the elements not independently analyzed, the original
computations should be checked for mathematical accuracy of original
design computations, applications of code, and accepted engineering
practice. Checked computations should be initialed by the checker, and
the independent analysis should be included in the design file.

When doing a separate analysis, the checker may make simplifying
assumptions to streamline the checking process. However, when major
differences are found, results must be discussed and resolved with the
designer. For instance, for normal piers, piling might be analyzed for
dead and live loads only if lateral loads appear to have been reasonably
applied in the original computations or the “AISC Beam Diagram and
Formula Tables” may be used to approximate pier cap moment and
shear.

Whether the check is a completely independent analysis or a minimal
analysis combined with a computations check, some details, such as the
reinforcing details in a wall corner, also require review by the checker.
Often referencing old bridge plans with similar details allows the checker
to compare the current design to details that have performed well in the
past.

Consultant prepared bridge plans are created by private engineering
firms through contracts with the Department. The finished plans are
complete to the extent that they can be used for construction.

Since these plans receive final approval of the State Bridge Engineer,
there must be assurance that the plans are geometrically accurate and
buildable; structural design is adequate and design codes have been
correctly applied; proper direction is given to the construction contractor;
and all construction costs are accounted for. Plan errors may cause
costly construction delays or safety may be compromised by an
inadequate design.

To keep consultant plan reviews consistent and timely, a procedure was
developed as a guide that assigns priority to specific items in the plans.
The overall review includes “a Thorough Check” and “Cursory Review” of
various items. The distinction between “Thorough Check” and “Cursory
Review” is as follows:

1.3.2 Checking of
Consultant
Prepared Bridge
Plans



JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 1-13
Thorough Check refers to performing complete mathematical
computations in order to identify discrepancies in the plans, or
conducting careful comparisons of known data and standards of the
Project with values given in the plan.

Cursory Review refers to a comparative analysis for agreement with
standard practice and consistency with similar structures, all with
application of engineering judgment. Mathematical analysis is not
required, but may be deemed necessary to identify the extent of a
discrepancy.

The review procedure is listed on the CONSULTANT BRIDGE PLAN
REVIEW form following this section. Headings on this list are defined as
follows:

PARTIAL PLAN: In order to assure that the consultant is proceeding in
the right direction, an early submittal of the plan is required. This
submittal usually consists of the General Plan and Elevation sheet
showing the overall geometry of the structure and the proposed beam
type and spacing; the Bridge Layout Sheet; the Framing Plan sheet; and
the Bridge Survey sheets. Errors and inconsistencies found in this phase
can be corrected before the entire plan is completed. For example, a
framing plan, including the proposed beams, must be assured as
workable on the partial plan before the consultant gets deep into the
design of the remainder of the bridge.

FINAL PLAN: A final plan should be complete in all areas to the extent
that it can be certified by the designer, although a certification signature
is not required for this phase.

THOROUGH CHECK: Items indicated for checking on the consultant’s
partial plan must be correct. Given geometry must fit the roadway
layout. Most of this information can be checked using data from the
approved preliminary plan. Approval of the partial plan will indicate that
Mn/DOT is satisfied with the geometry and proposed structure, and the
consultant may proceed with further development of the plan. For the
final plan, obvious drafting and numerical errors should be marked to
point out the errors to the consultant, however, the reviewer should not
provide corrections to errors in the consultant’s numerical computations.

Checking on the final plan should be thorough to eliminate possible errors
that may occur, such as the pay items in the Schedule of Quantities.
Plan notes and pay items can be difficult for a consultant to anticipate
because of frequent changes by Mn/DOT. Pay items must be correct



JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 1-14
because these are carried throughout the entire accounting system for
the Project. Plan (P) quantities must also be correctly indicated.

CURSORY REVIEW: Normally, a cursory review would not require
numerical calculations. This type of review can be conducted by reading
and observing the contents of the plan in order to assure the
completeness of the work. The reviewer should be observant to
recognize what looks right and what doesn’t look right. Obvious errors or
inconsistencies on any parts of the plan should be marked for correction.

Although structural design is usually the major focus of any plan, most
consultants are well versed in design procedures and should need only
minimal assistance from our office. A comparison of the consultant’s
calculations with the plan details should be performed to assure that the
plans reflect their design and that the applicable codes are followed. An
independent design by our office is time consuming and is not
recommended unless there is a reasonable doubt as to the adequacy of
the consultant’s design.

NO REVIEW: A thorough review of these items would be time-consuming
and may not produce corrections that are vital to construction; therefore,
it is recommended that little or no time be spent on the listed items.
Numerous errors can occur in the Bills of Reinforcement and quantity
values. However, checking this information is also time-consuming,
hence the burden of providing correct data should be placed on the
consultant.



JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 1-15
CONSULTANT BRIDGE PLAN REVIEW
Br. No. ________ RTE ____ DATE: PARTIAL PLAN REC'D. _____ DATE FINAL PLAN REC'D. ______
DESIGN GROUP _______________________ CONSULTANT ______________________________
No. OF SHEETS IN PLAN ______ DESCRIBE COMPLEXITY_________________________________
EST. REVIEW TIME BY DESIGN GROUP ________(hrs.) ACTUAL REVIEW TIME __________(hrs)
PARTIAL PLAN FINAL PLAN
THOROUGH CHECK THOROUGH CHECK
Horizontal and vertical clearances Pay items and plan quantities
Stations and elevations on survey line Project numbers
Deck and seat elevations at working points Design data block & Rating on GP&E sheet
Deck cross-section dimensions Job number
Working line location and data Certification block
Coordinates at working points and key stations Standard plan notes
Substructure locations by station Concrete mix numbers
Framing Plan Construction joint locations
Conformance to preliminary plan Prestressed beam design if inadequate design is suspected
Design loads Bridge seat elevations at working points
Utilities on bridge
Existing major utilities near bridge
CURSORY REVIEW

Steel beam splice locations and diaphragm spacing; flange
plate thickness increments (enough to save 800+ # of
steel)

Abutment and Pier design to be checked against
consultant’s calculations
Conformance to foundation recommendations.

Pile loads and earth pressures. Check against consultant’s
calculations.
CURSORY REVIEW Rebar series increments (min. 3")
Proposed precast beams [per 5-393.509(2)] Interior beam seat elevations
Precast conformance to industry standards Bottom-of-footing elevations (for adequate cover)
Proposed steel beam sections Railing lengths and metal post spacing (check for fit)
Use of B-details and standard plan sheets
Conformance to aesthetic requirements
Notes – General, construction, reference, etc.
Quantity items on tabulations

Precast beam design (Check against consultant’s
calculations)
NO CHECK OR REVIEW REQUIRED
Diagonals on Layout sheet
Figures in Bills of Reinforcement
Bar shapes and dimensions
Rebar placement dimensions
Bar marks on details against listed bars
Quantity values (including total of tabulations)



JULY 2003 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 1-16
To meet the Department’ s schedule requirements for construction
lettings, the following schedule for processing bridge plans, special
provisions and estimates must be followed. This schedule applies to all
projects: Federal Aid, State Funds and Maintenance. In general,
processing of bridge plans, special provisions and estimates for lettings
shall be given priority over all other work, and every effort must be made
to complete the processing in advance of the times shown, which are
deadlines.

Deadline Time Before Letting Date
Schedule and Remarks
Federal Project State Project
Bridge plans complete to the extent that
processing can be completed on schedule.
14 Weeks
(Friday)
12 Weeks
(Friday)
Preliminary bridge pay items and quantities
for estimate (to Estimating Unit – Design
Services)
13 Weeks
(Friday)
11 Weeks
(Friday)
Bridge plan and special provisions review
complete (by Bridge Construction Unit)
13 Weeks
(Friday)
11 Weeks
(Friday)
Bridge special provisions complete, other
information or material for inclusion in
Roadway Special Provisions complete (to
Special Provisions & Final Processing Unit –
Design Services)
12 Weeks
(Friday)
10 Weeks
(Friday)
Bridge plans complete, approved and dated
(to Office Management Unit)
12 Weeks
(Friday)
10 Weeks
(Friday)
Final bridge pay items and quantities for
estimate (to estimating Unit – Design
Services)
12 Weeks
(Friday)
10 Weeks
(Friday)
Final computer runs for bridge estimate during 9th week during 8th week
Office copy and final bridge plans (Bridge
plans to Special & Final Processing Unit –
Design Services for submittal to FHWA)
8
1
/
2
weeks
(Tuesday)
7 weeks
(Friday)
Federal Project to FHWA 7
1
/
2
weeks (Tuesday)
7 weeks
(Friday)
Preliminary advertisement 6
1
/
2
weeks (Tuesday)
6 weeks
(Friday)
Final advertisement 5
1
/
2
weeks (Tuesday) 5 weeks (Friday)
Sale of plans and proposals 5 weeks (Friday) 5 weeks (Friday)
Last date for mailing letter addendums by
Special Provisions & Final Processing Unit –
Design Services
10 days
(Wednesday)
10 days
(Wednesday)

1.3.3 Schedule for
Processing
Construction
Lettings



MARCH 2006 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 1-17
Completing a bridge design project for contract letting is a multiple step
process that involves input from a variety of work units and personnel.
Projects are tracked by Mn/DOT using the Program and Project
Management System (PPMS). Within PPMS, projects are divided into
activities and the activities are further divided into work tasks. For
example, Activity 1260 is “Preliminary Structure Plans” and Work Task 2
of Activity 1260 is “Draft Preliminary Bridge Plan&rdquo. Progress of the work
tasks on active bridge projects is updated monthly.

Following are tables that list work tasks for the major bridge activities
within PPMS. Table 1.3.4.1 contains a listing of the PPMS work tasks for
Activity 1260, “Preliminary Structure Plans&rdquo. Tables 1.3.4.2 and 1.3.4.3
contain listings of the PPMS work tasks for Activity 1270, “Final Structure
Plans&rdquo.

For more information on activities and work tasks within PPMS, refer to
the PPMS Activity Manual located on the Mn/DOT internal web site at
http://ihub.ots/projdev/pmu/ppms/.

Table 1.3.4.1
PPMS Work Tasks for Mn/DOT or Consultant Prepared Preliminary
Bridge Plans (Activity 1260)
Number Work Task
Percent of
Activity
Completed
1
Receive and review information YTD 6.9.18 Crack - Crack Key For U, alignment,
surveys, layout, Hydraulics report, Project Design
Memo., Environmental report)
15%
2 Draft Preliminary Bridge Plan 60%
3 Check Preliminary Bridge Plan 75%
4 Prepare Aesthetics Recommendation 80%
5 Receive and Plot Borings 85%
6
Receive Foundation Recommendations from
Regional Bridge Construction Engineer
88%
7 Obtain State Bridge Engineer’s Signature 90%
8
Distribute Signed Plans & Distribute responses on
need for Signs, Lighting, TMC
91%
9 Preliminary Estimate and District Letter 95%
10 Obtain FHWA Approval 99%
11 Turn over and meet with final Design 100%
1.3.4 Bridge
Proj ect Tracking
System



MARCH 2006 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 1-18
Table 1.3.4.2
PPMS Work Tasks for Mn/DOT Prepared Final
Bridge Plans (Activity 1270)
Number Work Task
Percent of
Activity
Completed *
1
Receive Preliminary Bridge Plan, Final Repair
Recommendation, or Special Structure Request
5%
Receive District Design Information (Signal,
Lighting, Signing, TMS, etc.)
Receive Utility Information
2
Receive Stage Construction Sheets
10%
3 Establish Geometrics 20%
4 Conduct Analysis and Design, Including Check 45%
Draft and Check Plan Sheets
5
Incorporate Standard Detail Sheets
75%
6 Construction Unit Review 80%
7 Figure Quantities 85%
8 Send Informational Copies to FHWA and District 88%
9 Final Check of Plan Set by Unit Leader 90%
10 Frame Special Provisions 95%
11 Final Revisions and Check of Plan Set 99%
12 Obtain State Bridge Engineer’s Signature 100%
* May vary by job complexity.

Table 1.3.4.3
PPMS Work Tasks for Consultant Prepared Final
Bridge Plans (Activity 1270)
Number Work Task
Percent of
Activity
Completed
1 Consultant kick-off meeting 25%
2 Partial Plan Delivery and Review 45%
3 Final Plan Delivery and Review 85%
4 Submit for Signature 100%



MARCH 2006 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 1-19
A listing of the work type codes used in PPMS is given in Table 1.3.4.4.

Table 1.3.4.4
PPMS Bridge Work Type Codes
Work Type Description
01 New Bridge
1A New Bridge (Phase YTD 6.9.18 Crack - Crack Key For U (Early Steel or Stage Construction)
1B New Bridge (Phase 2)
02 Culvert
2X Culvert Extension
2B Concrete Arch
03 Temporary Bridge
04 Pedestrian Bridge
05 Renovation
06 Widen w/Substructure Work
6A Widen w/Substructure Work (Phase 1) (Early Steel or Stage
6B Widen with Substructure Work (Phase 2)
6T Temporary Widening
07 Widen without Substructure Work
08 Bridge Length/Short
09 Replace Deck
10 Deck Overlay
11 Replace Railing or Median Barrier
12 Bridge Painting
13 Substructure Repair
14 Remove Bridge
15 Miscellaneous
16 Raise Bridge
17 Replace Superstructure - No Preliminary Plan Req'd
18 Repair Railing or Median Barrier
19 Replace Joints
23 Widen without Substructure Work & Replace Deck
24 Widen without Substructure Work & Deck Overlay
25 Widen without Substructure Work, Deck Overlay & Paint
26 Widen without Substructure Work & Other Minor Work
27 Widen without Substructure Work & Paint
28 Replace Deck & Paint
29 Replace Deck & Other Minor Work
31 Deck Overlay & Replace Railing or Median Barrier
32 Deck Overlay, Replace Railing or Median Barrier & Paint
33 Deck Overlay & Other Minor Work



MARCH 2006 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 1-20
Table 1.3.4.4
PPMS Bridge Work Type Codes (Continued)
Work Type Description

35 Deck Overlay & Paint
37 Replace Railing or Median Barrier & Paint
38 Replace Railing or Median Barrier & Other Minor Work
39 Paint & Other Minor Work
40 Repair Railing or Median Barrier & Replace Joints
41 Widen without Substructure Work, Replace Deck & Paint
42 Replace Railing or Median Barrier & Replace Joints
44 Deck Repair & Replace Joints
45 Deck Overlay & Repair Railing or Median Barrier
46 Deck Overlay, Repair Railing or Median Barrier & Replace Joints
47 Deck Repair - Rail Rehab
48 Minor Work (Deck Repair, Paint, & Repair Railing or Median Barrier)
49 Deck Overlay, Paint & Repair Railing or Median Barrier
50 Retaining Wall
51 Parking Garage
52 Repair Concrete Arch
54 Riprap
58 Paint & Replace Joints
60 Widen with Substructure Work & Replace Deck
61 Widen with Substructure Work & Deck Overlay
62 Widen with Substructure Work, Deck Overlay & Paint
63 Widen with Substructure Work & Paint
64 Widen with Substructure Work, Replace Deck & Paint
66 Widen with Substructure Work & Replace Superstructure
68 Widen with Substructure Work & Replace Railing or Median Barrier
69 Miscellaneous Major
71 Deck Overlay & Replace Joints
91 Probably Bridge
92 Probably Culvert
98 Bridge Scoping
99 Bridge Study




MARCH 2006 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 1-21
1.3.5 Approval
Process for
Standards
FLOW CHART
FOR
REVISING BRIDGE STANDARDS
(Includes B-Details and Standards)
Request For New Standards
OrRevising Existing Standards
Bridge Standards Unit
Review By SSRC
Review By R & D
Minor
Modification
To Existing
Standards
Modifications
Needed?
Does
Revision
Affect Others
Outside Of Bridge
Office?
No
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Make
Change
Show New
Revision
Date
Yellow
Routing
Process
New Standard Created,
Existing Standards Revised
Standard Signed By
State Bridge Engineer
Transmittal Memo
To Manual Users
Publish On Web Site
Solicit/Receive Comments
Input from:
R & D Comm.
SSRC Comm
OtherBridge Office Engr./Staff
OtherMn/DOTPersonnel
Consultants
Industry
Cities/Counties
FHWA
BR3810.CDR



FEBRUARY 2007 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-1
2. GENERAL
DESI GN AND
LOCATI ON
FEATURES
2.1 Geometrics
2.1.1 Bridge
Geometrics
The design of a bridge typically takes place in two major phases of work:
preliminary design and final design. During preliminary design, the
structure type, the foundation type, the aesthetics, and the primary
geometry for the bridge are determined. During final design, specific
details for all of the elements of the bridge are developed and presented
in the plan set. These details include material descriptions, quantities,
and geometric information. Final plan sets are typically assembled in an
order that roughly follows the order of construction: from the ground up.

This section of the manual contains a large amount of information useful
for the preparation and assembly of plans for a project. To facilitate the
production of plans and standardize the content of bridge plan sets,
special provisions, B-Details, standard plans, standard plan notes, and
standard pay items have been prepared by the Bridge Office. Appendices
to Section 2 identify the material available.

As the name of the section implies, content for this section is general in
nature. Guidance for the design of specific structural elements (e.g.
decks, retaining walls, etc.) is provided elsewhere in the manual.


Definitions
For discussion of bridge geometrics in this section, roadways are
classified as Mainline Highways, Ramps, Local Roads, and Local Streets.
Each of these four groups is further classified under either Urban or Rural
Design.

The following definitions apply:
• Mainline Highways – Roadways that carry through traffic lanes for
freeways, expressways, and primary and secondary highways.
• Local Roads – Rural roads off the trunk highway system.
• Local Streets – Urban roads off the state trunk highway system.
• Ramps – Segments of roadway connecting two or more legs at an
interchange.
• Urban Design – Roadways YTD 6.9.18 Crack - Crack Key For U curbs on the right and/or left sides.
• Rural Design – Roadways without curbs.
• Median Width – The distance between sony vegas pro 15 crack - Activators Patch edges of opposing through
traffic lanes.
• Auxiliary Lane – A lane adjoining a through traffic lane for a purpose
supplementary to through traffic movement such as truck climbing,
weaving, speed change or turning.




FEBRUARY 2007 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-2
2.1.2 Bridge Deck
Requirements
General Criteria
The width of the bridge deck and the typical section at the bridge
undercrossing are determined by the classification and geometrics of the
approaching roadway. The geometrics of the approaching roadway are to
be carried over and under the bridge to the maximum extent practicable.

Rural design is considered the desirable design and will be used in all
rural areas and in urban areas where sufficient right of way is available or
can be obtained. Urban design geometrics (curbed roadways) are slightly
more restrictive and are therefore used at locations where extensive
right-of-way cost or other unusual conditions are controlling factors.

The discussion of geometric details included in this section describes
bridge deck geometrics separately from bridge undercrossing geometrics.
For side clearances at certain undercrossing situations, both a “desirable”
and a minimum section are shown. Incorporation of the “desirable”
section at undercrossings is mandatory unless approved by the
Preliminary Bridge Plans Engineer.

Application of Standards
The geometrics shown apply specifically to new work. However, use of
these geometrics is also highly desirable when upgrading or widening
existing facilities and should be incorporated in these situations. Bridge
deck geometrics on the local road system must also comply with
State-Aid for Local Transportation Operations Rules, Chapter 8820.

Responsibility
The Preliminary Bridge Plans Engineer will be responsible for assuring YTD 6.9.18 Crack - Crack Key For U that the geometric standards in this section are followed. Where a
deviation from the standard is necessary, a written description of the
deviation shall be prepared by the Preliminary Bridge Plans Engineer and
submitted to the State Bridge Engineer when submitting the Preliminary
Bridge Plan for acceptance.


Bridge Width Criteria
Roadway cross sections that approach bridges will normally provide a
clear zone recovery area beside the travel lane for the benefit of out-of-
control vehicles. It is not economical or practical to carry these full clear
zone widths across bridges. Standard widths for bridge shoulders have
been set to balance costs and safety. Since the railing is located within
the clear zone it is considered a hazard and guardrail protection is
required in the approach area.




FEBRUARY 2007 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-3
Functions of the shoulder include:
• Recovery area to regain control of a vehicle.
• Emergency parking area for stalled vehicles and escape route for
stranded motorists.
• Passageway for bicycles and occasional pedestrians.
• Passageway for emergency vehicles.
• Parking area for bridge maintenance and inspection vehicle (snooper).
• Temporary traffic lane during deck repairs or overlay construction.
• Area for deck drainage and snow storage.
• Accommodates passing of wide oversize loads, especially farm
machinery.
• On two-lane highways, the shoulders provide an escape area to avoid
a head-on collision with an oncoming passing vehicle.

The following shoulder widths for both rural and urban design apply to
trunk highway bridges. In addition, these standards apply to bridges on
local roads at a trunk highway freeway interchange. For local roads and
streets, the bridge roadway widths are given in the State Aid Manual,
Section 5-892.210 and the State Aid Operations Rules, Chapter 8820.
Exceptionally long bridges or bridges with a high cost per square foot
should be evaluated on an individual basis and modifications to these
standards are allowed based on judgment. In addition to these values,
the bridge roadway width shall meet the additional requirements for sight
distance and sharp curvature as specified in Part 4 below.

1) Rural Design
a) Two-Lane Rural Design
Shoulder widths are given in the table on Figure 2.1.4.1 and are
dependent on the functional classification of the roadway and
traffic volumes.
b) Four-Lane Rural Design
i) Right Shoulder 12'-0"
ii) Left Shoulder 6'-0"
c) Six- or Eight-Lane Rural Divided Highway
i) Right Shoulder 12'-0"
ii) Left Shoulder 12'-0"
The full inside shoulder allows disabled vehicles in the left lane
to stop on the inside shoulder rather than try to cross two or
three lanes of traffic to get to the outside shoulder.
d) Mainline Rural Bridge with Auxiliary Lane
i) Right Shoulder 8'-0"
e) Mainline Rural Bridge with Entrance or Exit Ramps
i) Right Shoulder 8'-0"
f) Rural Bridges with Turn Lanes



FEBRUARY 2007 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-4
i) Right Turn Lane
(1) Right shoulder 6'-0"
ii) Left Turn Lanes
(1) Adjacent to a barrier railing: 4'-0" minimum shoulder, 6'-0"
desirable.
g) Rural Ramp Bridges (one 16'-0" lane, one-way)
i) Right Shoulder 6'-0"
ii) Left Shoulder 4'-0"
On ramp bridges the dimension from edge of lane to gutter is
reduced to prevent the appearance of a two-lane bridge on a
one-lane ramp. The roadway width is 26'-0", which allows
traffic to pass a stalled vehicle. With a 16'-0" lane the outside
2'-0" could, in effect, be considered as part of the shoulder for
a 12'-0" lane.

2) Urban Design (Approach Curbs)
For urban designs the bridge gutter lines shall be aligned with the
curb line on the approaching roadway with the following exceptions:
a) On four-lane divided highways where there are no median curbs,
the left shoulder shall be 6'-0".
b) On six- and eight-lane divided highways where there are no
median curbs, the left shoulder shall be 10'-0" minimum.
c) On one-lane urban ramps (16'-0" approach roadway), both right
and left shoulders shall be 4'-0" (provides a 24'-0" roadway).
d) Where an auxiliary lane, ramp, or taper extends onto a mainline
bridge, the right shoulder shall be 6'-0".
e) The minimum distance to a barrier railing is 6'-0" desired, 4'-0"
minimum.

Urban shoulder widths will vary according to functional class, traffic
volumes, scope of work, and quality of pavement surface. Typical
values are shown in the Road Design Manual, Tables 4-4.01A,
4-4.01B, and 4-4.01C. Provide a 2'-0" reaction distance to a raised
island type median or sidewalk curb where vehicle speeds are 40 mph
and under. For design speeds 45 mph and higher, provide a 4'-0"
reaction distance.

3) Bus Shoulders
Where the right shoulder has been designated as a bus shoulder a
12'-0" width shall be provided across bridges. See Road Design
Manual 4-4.03 and Table 4-4.03A.
4) Additional Width Criteria
a) Where a ramp (loop) bridge is on a radius of 190'-0" or less, or
when the volume of trucks is 10% or greater, the effective traffic



FEBRUARY 2007 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-5
lane is increased from 16'-0" to 18'-0" in width to accommodate
truck turning movements. Increase the width of the ramp bridge
accordingly.
b) For curved bridges longer than 100 feet, check the horizontal
stopping sight distance and increase the inside shoulder width up
to a maximum of 10'-0". See Road Design Manual, Chapter 3 for
calculation of this distance. The 2001 edition of the AASHTO
book, A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets,
changed the height of object from 6" (muffler) to 2'-0" (tail light).
Table 2.1.2.1 gives widths required for a continuously curving
bridge for various design speeds and curvature, and applies only
where the line of sight is blocked by the railing.

Table 2.1.2.1
Shoulder Width Requirements for Curved Bridges
SHOULDER WIDTH FOR DEGREE OF
CURVATURE LISTED
DESIGN
SPEED
6 FT. 8 FT. 10 FT.
70 mph to 0
o
45’ > 0
o
45’ to 1
o
> 1
o

60 mph to 1
o
15’ > 1
o
15’ to 2
o
> 2
o

50 mph to 2
o
30’ > 2
o
30’ to 3
o
15’ > 3
o
15’
40 mph to 5
o
30’ > 5
o
30’ to 7
o
> 7
o


c) For bridges on tapers, the taper should begin or end at a pier or
an abutment, or continue across the entire length of the bridge.
Extra width to eliminate or simplify a taper or curvature is
permissible where justified by simplified design and construction.

Cross Slopes on Bridges
1) The cross slope on bridge traffic lanes is the same as the approaching
roadway lanes, normally 0.02 ft./ft. The shoulder cross slope on the
bridge may continue at 0.02 ft./ft. or, if better drainage is desired,
may be 0.005 ft./ft. greater than the adjacent lane, with a maximum
cross slope of 0.04 ft./ft. When the bridge deck is superelevated, the
shoulders shall have the same slopes as the adjacent bridge traffic
lanes.

Keep superelevation transitions off bridges. In instances where they
are unavoidable, it is preferable for ease of deck pouring to maintain
a straight line across the deck at all locations (allows a straight screed
between paving rails placed at both sides of the deck.)




FEBRUARY 2007 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-6
2) Ramp cross slopes shall be uniform between the bridge curbs with a
slope of 0.02 ft./ft. to the right unless superelevated.

Bridge Median
On divided highways with a separate bridge for each roadway, the
openings between bridges must be a minimum of 8'-0" wide if access for
bridge inspection vehicles (snoopers) is required.

Longitudinal joints along the median of bridges should be used only for
bridge roadways wider than about 100 feet or for other special cases. By
eliminating this joint on bridges with medians, simpler detailing and
simpler construction can be used.

Bridge Sidewalks and Bikeways
Bridge sidewalks of 6'-0" minimum widths are to be provided where
justified by pedestrian traffic. When bicycle traffic is expected, the width
should be 8'-0" minimum and 10'-0" desirable. Where an off road
bikeway is to be carried across a bridge, the full width of the approach
bikeway may be continued across the bridge up to a width of 12'-0",
which is considered the practical maximum width for a bikeway on a
bridge. When the shoulders of the bikeway cannot be carried over
bridges, provide lead-in guardrail.

The curb height for sidewalks adjacent to the roadway is 8". When the
design speed on the street is over 40 mph, a concrete barrier is required
between the roadway and the sidewalk (or bikeway). In addition, a
pedestrian (or bikeway) railing is required on the outside.

When a barrier is provided between the traffic lanes and the sidewalk,
use the bridge slab for the walkway (i.e., do not require an additional
pour for sidewalk). Advise the road plans designer to provide for any
necessary sidewalk ramping off the bridge.

Sidewalks and bikeways shall have a minimum cross slope of 0.01 ft./ft.

Protective Rails at Bridge Approaches
The ends of bridge railings must be protected from being impacted
(except on low speed roads such as city streets). For design speeds over
40 mph, a crash tested guardrail transition (normally plate beam
guardrail) is required.

Refer to State-Aid Operation Rules, Chapter 8820 for guardrail
requirements on local bridges.



FEBRUARY 2007 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-7
2.1.3 Bridge
Undercrossing
Geometrics
General Criteria for Lateral Clearance
Bridge undercrossing geometrics must rationalize safety requirements
with costs and physical controls such as span length and permissible
depth of structure. The following guidelines apply in establishing these
geometrics:

1) Safety
Piers, abutments, side slopes and back slopes steeper than 1:3, and
guardrails can all be hazards to an out of control vehicle. It is
desirable at all bridge undercrossings to provide a clear zone recovery
area beside the roadway that is free from these hazards. This clear
zone is given in the Road Design Manual, Section 4-6.0 and is a
function of the roadway curvature, design speed, ADT, and ground
slope. For the area under bridges a practical maximum clear zone of
30 feet may be used as permitted in the 2002 AASHTO Roadside
Design Guide, Table 3.1 based on consistent use and satisfactory
performance. Eliminate side piers from the roadside area wherever
possible. The “desirable” bridge undercrossing will satisfy the above
safety criteria.

For those locations where it is totally impractical to provide a full clear
zone recovery area at an undercrossing (as at some railroad
underpasses and in certain urban situations), lesser side clearances
are permitted. Where the full recovery areas must be infringed upon,
the greatest side clearances that circumstances will permit shall be
used. A side clearance of 20 feet is not as desirable as 30 feet but is
still better than the absolute minimum clearance. Minimum lateral
clearances are specified under the section for Lateral Clearance for
Mainline Highways.

Where drainage must be carried along the roadway passing under a
bridge, either a culvert must be provided at the approach fill or the
ditch section must be carried through at the toe of the bridge
approach fill. The use of a culvert will often permit more desirable
bridge geometrics, but the culvert openings can also introduce a
roadside hazard. A determination regarding drainage (need for
culverts, size of a culvert, and assessment of possible hazard) will be
a controlling factor in deciding geometrics of the bridge for the site.

2) Economics
Prestressed concrete beam spans (in length up to about 145 feet) are
normally the most economical type of construction for grade
separations. In addition, there will usually be greater economy in
constructing grade separations using two long spans rather than



FEBRUARY 2007 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-8
constructing four shorter spans, provided that a concrete
superstructure can be used.

3) Aesthetics
The use of longer spans will necessitate a deeper superstructure and
higher approach fills. Consideration must be given to the effect of the
depth of structure on the overall appearance and design of the
undercrossing.

YTD 6.9.18 Crack - Crack Key For U rough calculations during preliminary planning, the depth of
highway bridge superstructures can be assumed to be about 1/20 of
the length of the longest span. (Depth of superstructure refers to the
dimension from top of slab to bottom of beam.) Contact the
Preliminary Bridge Plans Engineer for the exact dimensions to be used
in final planning. Contact the Preliminary Bridge Plans Engineer for
depth of structure on railroad bridges.

Lateral Clearance for Mainline Highways
1) The desirable lateral clearance right and left from the edge of through
traffic lanes to any hazard (as described above) is the full clear zone.
30'-0" may be used as a practical maximum. Side piers shall be
eliminated entirely wherever feasible.

2) The details for rural design provide for selection of geometrics that
carry the ditch section through the bridge (Alternate B), and also
geometrics that have a filled ditch (Alternate A). (See Figures 2.1.4.1
and 2.1.4.3.) Alternate A permits a shorter bridge superstructure and
thereby improves the economics and the chance of eliminating side
piers and is used almost exclusively. However, Alternate A can only
be used where ditch culverts will be deleted or used without
introducing a significant safety hazard.

3) Where the roadway ditch section (rural design) is modified at the
bridge (Alternate A), a longitudinal transition from the ditch section to
the 0.04 ft./ft. side slope under the bridge must be provided. Use a
maximum longitudinal slope of 1:20.

4) For an auxiliary lane, the clear zone must be maintained from both
the through traffic lane and the auxiliary lane.

5) For ramps and tapers adjacent to the mainline highway, the clear
zone must be maintained from both the through lane and the taper.
A reduced design speed, usually 50 mph, is assumed for the taper.




FEBRUARY 2007 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-9
6) Minimum Lateral Clearances
The following paragraphs list those instances where less than
desirable geometrics can be considered and describes the minimum
values that will apply. Where geometrics less than desirable are to be
used, approval of the State Bridge Engineer and State Design
Engineer must be obtained. For plate beam guardrail with standard
6'-3" post spacing, a minimum of 3'-0" is required between the face
of the guardrail and the face of the pier or abutment to allow room for
the guardrail to deflect. (See Road Design Manual 10-7.02.01.)

a) Through Traffic Lanes – Right Side
For urban design, the lateral clearance on the right measured
from the edge of the through lane shall be not less than 10'-0"
width for an approaching shoulder plus the minimum width of
approaching berm. This will result in minimum dimension of
16'-0" from the edge of a lane to face of substructure unit.

For auxiliary lanes, tapers, and ramps along urban mainline
highways, the minimum lateral clearance from the edge of a lane
to face of pier or abutment on the right is 10'-0". This provides
room to construct the standard 6'-0" ramp shoulder plus providing
an additional 4'-0" of space for guardrail. However, in no event
shall the distance from the edge of a through lane to the face of a
pier be less than 16'-0".

For rural design, the lateral clearance on the right may be reduced
from the full clear zone distance at railroad overpasses. At these
locations the minimum clearance on the right shall be as described
above for urban designs.

b) Through Traffic Lanes – Left Side of Divided Highways
i) Urban Highways with Continuous Median Barriers
The minimum clearances at continuous median barriers are
based on the use of a concrete barrier between the roadways.
(See Std. Plate 8322.)

For urban design, four-lane divided roadways, the minimum
clearance on the left will be based on providing an 8'-0" wide
shoulder from the edge of a through lane to median gutter line
away from the bridge. The 8'-0" wide shoulder may be
infringed upon as necessary to carry the median barrier
around a bridge pier. At normal grade separations, using 3'-0"
thick piers, the 8'-0" shoulder may be reduced to 6'-2" at the
pier. (See Figure 2.1.4.12.)



FEBRUARY 2007 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-10
For urban design, six- and eight-lane divided roadways, the
minimum clearance on the left is based on providing a
10'-0" minimum wide shoulder from the edge of a through
lane to median gutter line outside of the bridge. As described
above for four-lane divided roadways, this dimension may be
infringed upon as necessary to carry the median barrier
around a bridge pier. This may result in reducing the shoulder
width from 10'-0" to 8'-2" at normal grade separations
(assuming 3'-0" thick pier). (See Figure 2.1.4.12.)

ii) Urban Highways without Continuous Median Barriers
The warrant requiring a median barrier is based on the median
width and the ADT. (See Road Design Manual.) At those
locations where the clear distance to a center pier is less than
the clear zone distance from the edge of a lane, but where a
continuous barrier will not be provided, a plate beam barrier
will normally be required at the pier.

The pier with plate beam guardrail protection can be used only
in medians that are 18'-6" or wider for four-lane divided
highways, and 22'-6" or wider for six- and eight-lane divided
highways. (Dimensions are from the edge of lane to edge of
lane.) Piers on high speed roadways should not be placed in
medians narrower than 18'-6" (four- lane) or 22'-6" (six- or
eight-lane).

The face of the plate beam will be located 2'-0" from the face
of the pier. At normal grade separations (with ± 3'-0" pier
thickness) this hitman pro full crack - Crack Key For U result in a dimension of 5'-6" from the edge
of lane to face of the guardrail on four-lane divided roads, and
a dimension of 7'-6" from the edge of lane to face of the
guardrail enfocus pitstop pro 2020 v20 0.1122552 multilingual six- and eight-lane divided roads.

iii) Rail Overpasses Using Rural Design
For rural design, the median width (edge of lane to edge of
lane) for roadways passing under railroads may be considered
for a reduction. Where a reduced width is used, the distance
from the edge of lane to face of pier should be not less than
20'-0".

Lateral Clearances for Ramps
When rural or urban ramps pass under a bridge independently, piers
should be eliminated and the approaching typical section should be
carried through the bridge. On extremely skewed bridges where piers



FEBRUARY 2007 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-11
are necessary, place the face of pier 2'-0" further from roadway than toe
of back slope. (See Figure 2.1.4.8.)

Lateral Clearances for Local Roads
Lateral clearances for local roads are dependent on ADT. The applicable
values are shown on Figures 2.1.4.9 and 2.1.4.10.

Lateral Clearance for Local Streets
Locate the face of piers or abutments on or beyond the property line.
This will provide for the ultimate development of the section by local
authorities. A minimum distance of 6'-0" from the face of a curb to the
face of pier or abutment must be provided.

Lateral Clearance for Railroads
Lateral clearances at railroads are to be determined as follows:
1) The statutory clearances diagram shown on Figure 2.1.4.11
represents the absolute minimums that must be adhered to. For
design, a minimum horizontal clearance of 9'-0" to a pier or abutment
is to be used (8'-6" legal).

2) Side piers are placed 4'-0" in from the back slope control point (18'-0"
clear to the centerline of track for a cut section without a
maintenance road). This puts the face of pier 2'-0" outside the
bottom of a 3'-0" deep ditch with a 1:2 slope and allows the railroad
to periodically clean the ditch with track-mounted equipment.

3) Mn/DOT and FHWA have agreed to the horizontal clearances shown in
Figure 2.1.4.11 (25'-0" minimum clearance to pier, 30'-6" to “back
slope control point”) for mainline BNRR tracks at sites meeting the
following conditions:
a) When the standard will not increase the cost of the structure by
more than $50,000.
b) When sufficient vertical clearance exists between the tracks and
inplace or proposed roadway profile to accommodate the structure
depth necessary for the longer spans typically required by the
standard.

If these conditions cannot be met, submit a letter to the Railroad
Administration Section along with the signed Preliminary Bridge Plan
stating the reasons the standard cannot be met including an estimate
of the increased cost if applicable.

4) Back slopes shall be 1:2 and pass through the “back slope control
point” shown on Figure 2.1.4.11 for the applicable case. The



FEBRUARY 2007 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-12
dimension to the “back slope control point” indicates the maximum
extent of federal participation in the construction and must not be
exceeded.

5) The Preliminary Bridge Plans Engineer will contact the Railroad
Administration Section of the Office of Railroads and Waterways to
determine the need for provisions for a maintenance road for track
maintenance equipment. If the Railroad Administration Section
determines that the need is justified, the dimension to the “back slope
control point” can be increased up to 8'-0".

Waterway Sections Under Bridge Crossing Streams
The Waterway Analysis (hydraulics report) gives information on the
required stream cross section under the bridge including waterway area
and low member elevation. Potential flood damage, both upstream and
downstream, and permitting agencies’ requirements must be considered.

Vertical Clearance for Underpasses
Table 2.1.3.1 lists the minimum vertical clearance requirements for trunk
highway underpasses.

Table 2.1.3.1
Vertical Clearance for Underpasses
TYPE OF STRUCTURE
DESIGN VERTICAL
CLEARANCES
Trunk Highway Under Roadway Bridge 16'-4"
Trunk Highway Under Railroad Bridge 16'-4"
Railroad Under Trunk Highway Bridge 23'-0" *
Trunk Highway Under Pedestrian Bridge 17'-4"
Trunk Highway Under Sign Bridge 17'-4"
Portal Clearances on Truss or Arch 20'-0"
* Critical vertical clearance point offset 8'-6" from centerline of track, statutory
minimum vertical clearance is 22'-0".

For trunk highway bridges over local streets and roads, the minimum
vertical clearance is 16'-4" for rural-suburban designs and 14'-6" for
urban designs. For trunk highways crossing local roads or streets at a
freeway interchange, 16'-4" clearance is required. A complete list of
vertical clearances for local roads and streets is found in the
State-Aid Operations Rules, Chapter 8820.




FEBRUARY 2007 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-13
The 2001 edition of the AASHTO book, A Policy on Geometric Design of
Highways and Streets, recommends 16'-0" of clearance for highway
bridges and 17'-0" for pedestrian bridges and sign bridges for freeways
and arterials, a minimum clearance of 1'-0" above the legal vehicle
height, and an allowance for future pavement resurfacing. (See pages
476, 511, and 767.) The legal height of a truck in Minnesota is 13'-6",
which, when the additional 1'-0" is added, gives 14'-6". A 4" allowance
for a future overlay added to the 16'-0" and 17'-0" clearances gives the
standard 16'-4" and 17'-4" dimensions. The Truck Permits Unit of
Mn/DOT reports 5 to 20 permit requests a day for load heights of 15'-0"
or greater and a few every day for load heights over 15'-6".

The clearance over highways applies to the traffic lanes and full usable
width of shoulders.

The additional foot of clearance under pedestrian and sign bridges is
provided because these bridges are much less substantial and could
collapse in the event of a hit.

Where bikeways pass under a bridge or through a tunnel, a vertical
clearance of 10'-0" is desirable for adequate vertical shy distance. (See
AASHTO Guide for the Development of Bicycle Facilities, August 1991,
page 25.) Where this is impractical to obtain, a lesser clearance down to
a minimum of 8'-0" is acceptable. Clearances below 10 feet on the local
road system will require a variance to the State-Aid Operations Rules,
Chapter 8.

The 23'-0" clearance over railroads allows for future ballast to be added
to the line. If this clearance cannot be met, the Railroad Administration
Section of the Office of Railroads and Waterways should be contacted. A
clearance between 22'-0" (legal minimum) and 23'-0" may be used with
approval of the railroad. For clearances below 22'-0", approval from the
Rail and Motor Carrier Procedures Unit of Mn/DOT is required and may be
granted in instances where clearance on the line is limited by other
bridges likely to remain in place for a substantial time.

Vertical Clearance over Waterways
1) Non-Navigable Waterways
A 3'-0" minimum clearance between the 50-year flood stage and low
point on the bridge superstructure is recommended. This amount of
clearance is desired to provide for larger floods and also for the
passage of ice and/or debris. If this amount of clearance is not
attainable due to constraints relating to structure depth, roadway
grades or other factors, reduced clearance may be allowed. The



FEBRUARY 2007 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-14
Preliminary Bridge Plans Engineer, after consultation with the
Hydraulics Section and the Mn/DOT District Office, will determine the
required clearance.

2) Navigable Waterways
a) Waterways that require a construction permit from Coast Guard
(generally considered to be waterways for commercial shipping):
• The Mississippi River downstream from I-694 in Fridley
• The Minnesota River downstream from Chaska
• The St. Croix River downstream from Taylors Falls
• The St. Louis River downstream from Oliver, Wisconsin.

Guide vertical clearances published by the Coast Guard are:
• Mississippi River:
• 52'-0" above 2% flowline or 60'-0" above normal pool,
whichever is greater, for the portion downstream of the
Burlington Northern Railroad Bridge near the University of
Minnesota (mile point 853.0).
• 4'-0" above river stage of 40,000 c.f.s. for the river portion
upstream (mile point 853.0 to 857.6).
• Minnesota River:
• 55'-0" above normal pool from mouth to I-35W bridge
(mile point 10.8).
• 30.8 feet above 1881 high water from I-35W bridge to
Chaska.
• St. Croix River:
• 52'-0" above 2% flowline or 60'-0" above normal pool from
mouth to Stillwater.
• St. Louis River:
• The Bong Bridge over the St. Louis River Bay in Duluth has
a vertical clearance of 120'-0".

The Preliminary Bridge Plans Engineer shall be consulted when
establishing navigation clearances.

b) All Other Navigable Waterways
Bridges that cross waterways in other portions of the state may be
required to provide for local pleasure boat traffic. Vertical
clearance for these bridges will be determined on an individual
basis, based on local needs. The Mn/DOT District Office will make
this determination based on a survey of boats using the waterway.




FEBRUARY 2007 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-15
2.1.4 Geometric
Details
Vertical and Horizontal Alignment
Information governing vertical curves, horizontal curves, and sight
distance may be found in the Road Design Manual and Technical Manual.

When preparing preliminary bridge plans for the local road system,
vertical and horizontal alignment charts from the State-Aid Manual shall
be employed.


Specific geometric details for bridge decks and undercrossings are shown
in the following figures:
Figure 2.1.4.1 2-Lane Highway (Rural)
Figure 2.1.4.2 2-Lane Highway (Urban)
Figure 2.1.4.3 4-Lane Divided Highway (Rural)
Figure 2.1.4.4 4-Lane Divided Highway (Urban)
Figure 2.1.4.5 6-Lane Divided Highway (Rural)
Figure 2.1.4.6 6-Lane Divided Highway (Urban)
Figure 2.1.4.7 6" Raised Island, Turn Lanes, and Sidewalk (Urban)
Figure 2.1.4.8 Ramps (Rural and Urban)
Figure 2.1.4.9 Local Roads (Rural)
Figure 2.1.4.10 Local Roads (Urban)
Figure 2.1.4.11 Railroad Clearances
Figure 2.1.4.12 Minimum Lateral Clearances (Urban)

The above figures for various roadway types show sections as viewed
assuming traffic flow from bottom to top of page. Starting at the bottom
of the sheet, the typical fill roadway section to a bridge approach is
shown. The fill slope transitions to a 1:3 slope at the bridge. The section
above it shows a section of this road on the bridge deck. The third
section from the bottom is a continuation of the roadway as it approaches
a crossing under a bridge; the back slope transitions to a 1:2 maximum
slope at the bridge. The top section shows this roadway at the point
where a bridge crosses this roadway.

Where a range of side slopes is shown on the approaching roadway
section, Road Design should determine the slope used.




FEBRUARY 2007 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-16
Figure 2.1.4.1
Geometrics
2- Lane Highway ( Rural)



FEBRUARY 2007 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-17
Figure 2.1.4.2
Desirable Geometrics
2- Lane Highway ( Urban)



FEBRUARY 2007 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-18
Figure 2.1.4.3
Desirable Geometrics
4- Lane Divided Highway ( Rural)



FEBRUARY 2007 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-19
Figure 2.1.4.4
Desirable Geometrics
4- Lane Divided Highway ( Urban)



FEBRUARY 2007 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-20
Figure 2.1.4.5
Desirable Geometrics
6- Lane Divided Highway ( Rural)



FEBRUARY 2007 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-21
Figure 2.1.4.6
Desirable Geometrics
6- Lane Divided Highway ( Urban)
(Details for 8-Lane Divided Highway Are Similar)



FEBRUARY 2007 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-22
Figure 2.1.4.7
Desirable Geometrics
6" Raised I sland, Turn Lanes, and Sidewalks ( Urban)



FEBRUARY 2007 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-23
Figure 2.1.4.8
Desirable Geometrics
Ramps ( Rural and Urban)



FEBRUARY 2007 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-24
Figure 2.1.4.9
Local Roads
( Rural)



FEBRUARY 2007 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-25
Figure 2.1.4.10
Local Roads
( Urban)



FEBRUARY 2007 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-26
Figure 2.1.4.11
Railroad Clearances



FEBRUARY 2007 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-27
Figure 2.1.4.12
Minimum Lateral Clearances



FEBRUARY 2007 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-28
2.1.5 Bridge
Railings
2.2 Bridge
Aesthetics
2.3 Preliminary
Bridge Plans
2.3.1 General
See Section 13 of this manual for the policy on design of bridge railings
for Mn/DOT projects.


The aesthetic design process is initiated early in a bridge project’s life.
The Preliminary Bridge Plans Engineer will determine which of three
levels of aesthetic attention is appropriate for the bridge.
• Level A is intended for bridges with major cultural or aesthetic
significance.
• Level B is used for mid-level structures, including highway corridors.
• Level C is used for routine bridges.

Maximum levels of Mn/DOT participation in aesthetic costs are given in
the Mn/DOT Policy Manual, Chapter 6, 6-41. For Level A the maximum is
15% but not to exceed $3 million per bridge; for Level B the maximum is
7% but not to exceed $300,000 per bridge; for Level C the maximum is
5% but not to exceed $200,000 per bridge.

The Preliminary Bridge Plans Engineer along with Photolemur 3.3 Crack With Serial Key Latest Version Free Download District Project
Manager coordinates the implementation of the aesthetic design process
as it relates to bridges. Other people, offices, agencies, etc. may also be
involved. The extent of this involvement may vary depending on the
individual project and its aesthetics level. This process leads to the
development of an Aesthetic Plan for the bridge. Once the project
reaches the final stage, the Bridge Design Unit Leader directs the
implementation of the Aesthetic Plan to completion with assistance from
the Preliminary Bridge Architectural Specialist as needed.

Section 3 of the Aesthetic Guidelines for Bridge Design Manual describes
the process of aesthetic design in more detail.


Purpose
The Preliminary Bridge Plan serves to document the main features of the
bridge (type, size, location, aesthetics, etc.) and is used to obtain
YTD 6.9.18 Crack - Crack Key For U and coordination before final design begins. By doing this, the
time and expense of revising a completed plan will hopefully be avoided.
The plan coordinates the work between Road Design and the Bridge
Office and enables the cost and scope of the work to be estimated.

Specific users of the plan include:
• Road Design to verify the grade, alignment and roadway widths and
to obtain the approximate limits of grading, paving and guardrail at
the bridge ends.



FEBRUARY 2007 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-29
• FHWA to review and approve projects.
• Bridge Agreements and Permits Unit to select and negotiate contracts
with consultants.
• Final Bridge Design Units and Consultants to prepare final plans.
• Bridge Programs and Estimates Unit to prepare a preliminary estimate
of the bridge costs.
• DNR, Coast Guard, Corps of Engineers and Watershed Districts to
review and issue required permits for stream crossings.
• Cities, Planning Agencies, and citizen groups to review and approve
projects.
• Site Development Unit to recommend aesthetic treatments.
• Signing, Lighting, and TMC Units to convey their needs on the new
bridge.
• Railroad Administration Section for use in negotiating railroad
agreements.

In preparing preliminary bridge plans, the plan users should always be
kept in mind, particularly those without bridge or technical experience.

Requirements for Preliminary Bridge Plans
Preliminary bridge plans are required for all new trunk highway bridges
(including Mn/DOT precast concrete arch structures) and all bridge
widenings where substructure widening is required. In addition,
preliminary plans signed by the State Bridge Engineer are required for all
county and local bridges that cross a trunk highway. Preliminary bridge
plans are not required for culverts, overlays, deck replacements, and
other projects where substructures are not widened.

The Bridge Preliminary Unit normally prepares preliminary plans for new
trunk highway bridges, although consultants occasionally develop plans.
Preliminary plans for bridge widenings are normally prepared by the
Bridge Design Units since significant design work is required to evaluate
the existing structure and schemes for widening and handling traffic.

Preliminary plans prepared by Consultants or Design Units are submitted
to the Bridge Preliminary Unit for review, submittal to the State Bridge
Engineer for signature, and distribution of signed copies.

Contents
The Preliminary Bridge Plan consists of a general plan and elevation sheet
and survey sheet with borings. For the more complex urban structures
additional road design sheets giving alignment, superelevation diagrams,
utilities, contours, traffic staging or intersection layout may be included.
The Preliminary Bridge Plan contains: plan and elevation views, a cross



FEBRUARY 2007 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-30
section, design data, data on the type of structure, foundation
requirements, and aesthetic treatment. When aesthetics are of special
importance, architectural type drawings showing the proposed treatment
or type of construction may also be included. For bridge widenings, the
survey sheet may be eliminated or a copy of the survey sheet from the
existing bridge may be included.

Preparation of Preliminary Bridge Plans
The steps involved in preparing a typical preliminary plan set for a new
trunk highway bridge by the Preliminary Unit are as follows:
1) Layouts are received from Pre-Design and bridge numbers are
assigned and listed in PPMS.
2) Bridge Survey sheets are received from the district surveys section.
Copies are sent to the Foundations Unit of the Office of Materials and
Research requesting soil borings. For stream crossings a copy is sent
to the Hydraulics Unit requesting a hydraulics analysis.
3) A depth of structure and span arrangement are determined using the
layout and Waterway Analysis and are given to Road Design. This
typically involves communication between the Bridge Office, Road
Design, and Hydraulics to arrive at a structure depth and span
arrangement that produces the best overall solution. If a railroad is
involved, negotiations are held with the railroad to determine what
features should be incorporated into the plan to satisfy the railroad's
needs and also meet Mn/DOT standards.
4) Final grades and alignment are received from Road Design.
5) Traffic data is requested and received from the district traffic office.
6) The Preliminary Bridge Plans Engineer, District Project Manager, and
Environmental Services Section determine the extent of aesthetic
treatment.
7) A CADD operator is assigned the project and drafting of the plan
begins. Clearances are checked and more exact span lengths
determined.
8) Borings are received electronically from the Foundations Unit and
plotted on the survey sheets.
9) The Engineering Specialist in the Design Unit checks the completed
preliminary package, except the foundation type.
10) The preliminary package is given to the Regional Bridge Construction
Engineer along with the foundation report for determining pile type,
lengths, and bearing. When received, the pile information is added
to the preliminary plan.
11) The completed Preliminary Bridge Plan is reviewed with the Bridge
Planning and Hydraulics Engineer and taken to the State Bridge
Engineer for signature.




FEBRUARY 2007 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-31
Time Schedule for Preliminary Plan Preparation
The time schedule for receiving information and completing preliminary
bridge plans for normal bridges, as given in PPMS, is shown in Table
2.3.1.1.

Table 2.3.1.1
Preliminary Plan Time Schedule
WORK ITEM
TIME PRIOR TO SCHEDULED
LETTING DATE
Bridge Survey 17 months
Hydraulics 14 ½ months
Grades and Alignment 14 ½ months
Foundations 13 months
Preliminary Plan Completed 12 months
Additional lead-time is required for major bridges, bridges involving agreements with
cities or railroads, and bridges with extensive aesthetic requirements.

Use of Preliminary Bridge Plans
The completed and signed Preliminary Bridge Plan becomes the
department’s official proposal for that structure. The following steps are
then taken:
1) Unless cost estimates have been prepared to determine structure
type, the Program and Estimates Unit of the Bridge Office prepares an
estimated contract construction cost for the structure. This is
generally based on an estimated cost per square foot.

2) Sets of prints of the Preliminary Bridge Plan are distributed to the
various offices of Mn/DOT and outside agencies for information,
review, and approval, as the case may be. (See Table 2.3.1.2.)

Approval by all concerned of the proposed structure dimensions, type
of construction, and geometrics before the start of final design is one
of the most important functions of the Preliminary Bridge Plan. This
is particularly true of stream crossings, railroad crossings (over and
under), and structures requiring special aesthetic treatment.




FEBRUARY 2007 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-32

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Table 2.3.1.2



FEBRUARY 2007 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-33
The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) is one of the outside
agencies that reviews bridge projects. The following categorizes
bridge projects according to the amount of FHWA oversight required
and also sets forth submittal requirements:

• Bridge Projects that Require Full Oversight by FHWA
This category includes new or reconstruction (rehabilitation and
improvement) bridge projects on the Interstate System with total
project cost more than $1,000,000 (bridges that carry interstate
traffic and interchange bridges). It also includes other National
Highway System bridges in which the bridge structure estimated
cost is equal to or over $10 million. Preliminary bridge plans, if
prepared, as well as final plans, specifications and estimates
(PS&E) will be submitted to FHWA for approval. Final plans at
85% to 90% completion will also be submitted to FHWA for
concurrent review. Please note that preliminary plans are not
normally prepared for bridge improvement projects.

• Bridge Projects that Require Partial Oversight by FHWA
This category includes new or reconstruction (rehabilitation and
improvement) bridge projects that carry traffic over the Interstate
Highway regardless of funding source. Preliminary bridge plans, if
prepared, will be submitted to FHWA for approval. This
submission is only for the purpose of evaluating horizontal and
vertical clearances on the Interstate System.

• Bridge Projects for which Mn/DOT Maintains Oversight
This category includes any bridge project not included in the
above full and partial oversight categories.

The following apply to Bridge Projects that Require Full Oversight by
FHWA, Bridge Projects that Require Partial Oversight by FHWA, and
Bridge Projects for which Mn/DOT Maintains Oversight:

The Preliminary Bridge Plan will be submitted to FHWA with a
transmittal letter. FHWA will not require a preliminary cost estimate
but will review the preliminary plan, elevation, and transverse
sections. It is very important that these plans be submitted to FHWA
as soon as they are developed and prior to proceeding with final
design.

Funding source does not change the above processes.




FEBRUARY 2007 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-34
For Mn/DOT oversight projects, a courtesy copy of the letter
transmitting the Preliminary Bridge Plan for the proposed bridge
project will be sent to FHWA (without the plans) for informational
purposes.

FHWA Headquarters Bridge Division shall be responsible for the
approval of preliminary plans for unusual bridges and structures on
the Interstate System. FHWA Headquarters Bridge Division will be
available for technical assistance on other Federal-aid and non-
Federal-aid highways when requested.

For the purpose of this guidance, unusual bridges are those bridges:
(1) that have difficult or unique foundation problems, (2) that have
new or complex designs with unique operational or design features,
(3) with exceptionally long spans, (4) being designed with procedures
that depart from currently recognized acceptable practices. Examples
of unusual bridges include cable-stayed, suspension, arch, segmental
concrete, movable, or truss bridges. Other examples are bridge types
that are not addressed by the AASHTO bridge design standards and
guide specifications, bridges requiring abnormal dynamic analysis for
seismic design, bridges with spans exceeding 500 feet, and bridges
with major supporting elements of “ultra” high strength concrete or
steel.

Unusual structures include tunnels, geotechnical structures featuring
new or complex wall systems or ground improvement systems, and
hydraulic structures that involve complex stream stability
countermeasures, or designs or design techniques that are atypical or
unique.

Preliminary documents submitted to FHWA Headquarters should
include the Preliminary Bridge Plan and supporting data along with
FHWA Division’s review comments and recommendations. Supporting
information should include bridge/structures related environmental
concerns and suggested mitigation measures, studies of bridge types
and span arrangements, approach bridge span layout plans and
profile sheets, controlling vertical and horizontal clearance
requirements, roadway geometry, design specifications used, special
design criteria, special provisions (if available), and cost estimates.
Hydraulic and scour design studies/reports should also be submitted
showing scour predictions and related mitigation measures.
Geotechnical studies/reports should be submitted along with
information on substructure and foundation types.




FEBRUARY 2007 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-35
For these projects, the State Bridge Engineer will submit two copies of
the Preliminary Bridge Plan along with a transmittal letter requesting
approval directly to the Division Engineer of the Federal Highway
Administration. The transmittal letter also includes the estimated
contract construction cost of the structure. (See Figure 2.3.1.1 for a
sample transmittal letter). The FHWA is the only outside agency to
which the Bridge Office sends a direct request for approval. All other
outside agencies are contacted through other offices of Mn/DOT.

3) The Preliminary Bridge Plan is used as a basis for preparing permit
drawings to accompany applications to construct structures and
approaches over navigable waters of the United States within or
bordering our state. Such drawings are prepared in the Preliminary
Plans Unit in accordance with detailed instructions issued by the U.S.
Coast Guard. The Coast Guard is charged with the responsibility of
issuing permits for bridges over navigable waters of the United States
within or bordering our state. This includes all bridge spans
(including land spans) from abutment to abutment. The Corps of
Engineers is responsible for issuing permits for any other
miscellaneous structures or work to be performed in navigable waters
of the United States.

There are two Coast Guard districts that have jurisdiction within the
State of Minnesota; the 9
th
Coast Guard District based in Cleveland
has jurisdiction over the Duluth harbor and navigable portion of the
St. Louis River, and the 8
th
Coast Guard District based in St. Louis has
jurisdiction over the navigable portions of the Mississippi, Minnesota,
and St. Croix Rivers.

After receiving a permit application, the Coast Guard issues a public
notice of application with prints of the permit drawings. These are
sent to shipping interests, other agencies, displayed in post offices,
etc. Generally, if no comments are received from others within
30 days of the notice of application, and if environmental statements
have been submitted and a certification given by the Minnesota
Pollution Control Agency, a permit will be issued.

Correspondence to the Coast Guard is generally prepared for the
signature of the State Bridge Engineer.

4) When all approvals have been obtained, the Preliminary Bridge Plan is
used as the basis for the bridge design and for the preparation of final
detailed plans. If the design is to be by a consulting engineer, the



FEBRUARY 2007 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-36
Preliminary Bridge Plan is also used as the basis for negotiation of the
consultant fee.

Preliminary Plans for Local Bridges
Consult the State-Aid Bridge Web site at:
http://www.dot.state.mn.us/bridge/StateAidBridge/ for the submittal and
approval process of State-Aid Preliminary Bridge Plans.





FEBRUARY 2007 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-37
Figure 2.3.1.1



FEBRUARY 2007 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-38
2.3.2 Bridge Type
Selection
General
The type of structure and span arrangement selected will depend on cost,
aesthetics, depth available, geometrics, and site conditions. For some
bridges this may be an obvious choice. For others it may involve a great
deal of study, especially if aesthetics is a main concern. The section that
follows gives some general guidelines on the selection process.

Aesthetic Design Process
See Section 2.2 of this manual for a discussion of the aesthetic design
process.

Structure Type
The most commonly used structure types and their characteristics are as
follows:
1) Prestressed Concrete Beam
This is the most common structure type in Minnesota. Advantages
include: low initial and future maintenance costs, high quality factory
produced product, a stiff deck, and simple spans that accommodate
tapers. Beams are limited to standard depths and straight segments,
and a maximum length of about 145 feet based on shipping
limitations.

2) Welded or Rolled Steel Beam
This type of structure is well suited to complex urban freeways with
limited depth, long spans, and complex geometrics. Steel beam
bridges are also well suited for areas with bad soils, such as the Red
River Valley, as steel allows the flexibility of modifying the bearing
location and adding or reducing span lengths to accommodate shifting
abutments and piers. Advantages include: a shallower depth of
structure than prestressed concrete, beams with the ability to be field
spliced to produce long span lengths, web plates that can be cut to
any depth or to a haunched shape, beams that can be curved
horizontally, and beams that can be painted a color which contrasts
with the slab to make the structure appear thinner. Disadvantages
include: a typically higher cost than other structure types, more
difficult fabrication and inspection, a longer fabrication time, the
possible need for painting and future maintenance painting,
weathering steel staining of supports, rusting of weathering steel
when under salt exposure, and required annual inspections.

3) Cast-In-Place Concrete Slab Span
This type of structure is used for shorter span bridges where depth is
a major consideration. For simple spans conventionally reinforced,
spans range up to 40 feet. Continuous spans are limited to about



FEBRUARY 2007 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-39
60 feet. (See table in Section 5.3.1 of this manual for limits.)
Advantages include: a minimum depth superstructure, ease of design
and detailing, pleasing aesthetics, and economy for short span
bridges. Disadvantages include: span lengths are limited, falsework
is required, concrete delivery rate requirements may be a problem, a
wearing course may be required to achieve a smooth ride, and the
maximum skew angle is 45°.

4) Concrete Box Girder
Concrete box girders provide an attractive structure with high
torsional resistance making them especially well suited for curved
structures. The ability to accommodate an integral pier cap is an
advantage since horizontal clearance is only required to the column
top and not the cap top. Limitations and drawbacks include the need
for falsework, the inability to redeck or widen, and the higher
construction cost.

5) Timber
This bridge structure is used only on the local road system, for 1 or 3
spans with a maximum span length of about 25 feet. Advantages
include: timber has a natural and aesthetically pleasing appearance,
special equipment is not required total network inventory demo - Free Activators installation, and construction can
be done in virtually any weather conditions. Disadvantages include:
timber is not an economical structure type, it is limited to low-volume
roads (roads with an ADT under 750), and the asphalt wearing
surface tends to crack due to differential deck deflections.

6) Pre-cast Double Tee Beam Span
This bridge structure is used only on the local road system. The
maximum span length is 48 feet for 22" depth stem, and a span
length of 64 feet for 30" depth stem is typical. Advantages include:
reduced construction time, reduced inspection time, and an
economical pre-cast bridge in the 30 foot to 40 foot span range.
Disadvantages include: not appropriate on steep grades, flared
bridges, curved bridges, and skewed bridges of higher ADT roadways
where salt is applied to the bridge.

7) Box Culvert
Box culverts provide a quickly constructed, and economical structure
for stream crossings. Precast concrete box culvert standards are
available for culverts up to 14 ft. x 14 ft. in size. Use of up to two
large barrel boxes will be economical compared with a bridge.
Advantages include: quick installation and low maintenance.
Disadvantages include: span limitations, possible debris build-up



FEBRUARY 2007 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-40
when multiple barrels are used, and lack of a natural stream for fish
unless the invert is lowered and riprapped.

8) Three-Sided Bridge Structure
Three-sided precast concrete structures offer an alternative for short
span structures up to 42 feet. Advantages include: quick installation,
and a natural stream bottom. Disadvantages include: a higher cost
than cast-in-place structures.

Abutment and Pier Locations
The following guidelines aid in setting abutment and pier locations:
1) Stream Crossings
For stream crossings the number of substructures in the stream
should be kept to the minimum practical. Piers in streams block the
natural flow of the waterway, trap ice and debris, impede navigation,
and are subject to scour. In addition, construction of a stream pier is
expensive (especially if cofferdams are needed), and environmentally
disturbs the stream bottom and water quality. Piers and abutments
should ideally be set on shore to minimize dewatering and allow easy
access for the Contractor. Substructures should also be set to avoid
interference with inplace substructures, including piling, wherever
practical. Setting spans and structure depth involves balancing the
hydraulic requirements of the low member elevation and waterway
area with the constraints of approach grades, structure depth, and
cost.

2) Grade Separations
For grade separations fewer piers are also desirable wherever
practical. Piers should be kept out of the clear zone unless absolutely
necessary. In locations where ramps enter or exit a highway under a
bridge, piers should be avoided between the mainline and ramp, if
possible, as they restrict visibility.

Abutment Types
Abutments can generally be classified as stub, semi-high or high
abutments. A further breakdown of stub abutments can be made
according to the way expansion is handled – integral (fixed) or parapet
type.

Stub abutments with a standard berm were used extensively on four-
span freeway overpass structures. Since the end spans are short there is
no problem providing additional length for the berms, which provides
extra protection for the abutment. The use of longer two-span structures
for overpasses has diminished its use, but this abutment type is still used



FEBRUARY 2007 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-41
where depth and spans will permit. The extra protection provided by the
berm is especially important for stream crossings.

Semi-high abutments part way up the fill slope have become more
popular as two-span overpasses have come into use. A higher abutment
and elimination of the berm reduces the span length and depth of beam,
which makes the structure more economical. From an aesthetic
standpoint an exposed face greater than the depth of the beam and less
than half the roadway clearance below the beams is desirable. Exposed
heights of abutment face should be limited to about 8 feet, if possible.

High abutments at the bottom of the fill slope are used primarily in
congested urban design where structure depth is critical. Their use is
discouraged since they are difficult to construct, expensive, and give a
closed-in feel to the highway.

Parallel wingwalls, parallel to the bridge roadway, are used most often for
aesthetic reasons. An angled wingwall, 45 degrees for bridges with no
skew, will give shorter wingwall lengths and less length of railing. These
are used on some stream crossings where the elevation view of the
bridge is not as prominent and the wingwalls help direct the stream flow
under the bridge. Straight wingwalls, an extension of the abutment
parapet, are the simplest to construct but are appropriate only for
shallow beams where aesthetics is not a concern.

Guidelines for the use of integral and parapet abutments are given in
Section 11 of this manual.

Pier Types
1) Stream Crossings
Pile bent piers, consisting of a row of piles with a concrete cap
encasing the pile tops, are the simplest and most economical type of
pier. They are used for stream crossings where the maximum height
from the top of pier to streambed is under 20'-0" and there is no ice
or debris problem. Spans must also be short enough to allow a single
row of piles to support the deck at reasonable spacing. The piles act
as columns, and bending strength to resist side impacts from ice or
debris is important. For cast-in-place piles (the most widely used) a
16" minimum diameter is required. If H-piles are used, the upper
portion is encased by a cast-in-place pile shell filled with concrete.
Timber piles are not permitted. Concerns with pile bent piers include
the potential to trap debris, and its appearance.




FEBRUARY 2007 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-42
A wall type pier, consisting of a single row of piles (especially H-piles)
encased with concrete to form a wall, provides more resistance to ice
and debris and allows debris to pass through without becoming
entangled on the piles. This type of pier is used where more
resistance to ice and debris than afforded by the pile bent is needed,
and yet the size and expense of a solid shaft pier can be avoided.
This type of pier can be constructed by driving the piling, supporting
the wall forms on the stream bed, placing a seal with a tremie,
dewatering, adding reinforcement, and pouring the wall.

A solid shaft pier is used for major stream crossings where heavy
loads, tall piers or sizable ice and debris loads may occur. This type
of pier has a separate footing located a minimum of 6'-0" below
streambed. Construction of this type of pier involves driving sheeting
to form a cofferdam, excavating inside the cofferdam, driving piles,
pouring a seal, dewatering, and concrete placement.

2) Grade Separations
Piers at grade separations are typically multiple column type with a
cap. Piers are visible to passing how to activate windows 10 with cmd - Activators Patch and the emphasis on
aesthetics has led to more use of rectangular shaped column type
piers, often with form liner treatments or rustication grooves. For
narrow ramp bridges a single shaft pier may be considered. Where
aesthetics is not a concern, a round column pier will usually provide
the lowest cost.

For bridges over railroads, piers located within 25 feet of the
centerline of railroad tracks must either be of “heavy construction”
(refer to Section 11.2.4 for requirements) or have crash walls. Piers
located between 25 and 50 feet of the centerline of railroad tracks
must be designed to withstand a 400 kip load unless they are
protected as specified in LRFD 3.6.5.1.

For the majority of bridges over roadways, piers located within
30 feet of the roadway edge (defined as the edge of the lane nearest
to the pier) must be designed to withstand a 400 kip load unless they
are protected as specified in LRFD 3.6.5.1. See Section 11.2.4 of this
manual for complete pier protection policy and requirements.





FEBRUARY 2007 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-43
2.4 Final Bridge
Plans and Special
Provisions
The primary purpose for preparing the Final Bridge Plan and special
provisions is to communicate the geometric, material, and procedural
requirements for the construction of a bridge. Several audiences will use
the final design or contract documents during the life of the bridge.
Initially, contractors use the documents to prepare their bids. A clear,
accurate, and complete set of documents will result in competitive
bidding. Well-communicated information reduces contractor uncertainty
regarding what is required for different elements of construction.

During construction, many parties will use the contract documents. For
example, surveyors will locate and mark the position of working points,
fabricators and construction engineers will prepare shop drawings and
other submittals/drawings, inspectors and suppliers will use the
documents for their work, and the contractor’s forces will use the
documents.

After construction of the bridge the detailed plans will be referenced
when modifying the bridge (e.g., adding signage), performing load rating
of the bridge, or rehabilitating/replacing the bridge.

The Final Bridge Plan contains geometric information, a schedule of
quantities and pay items for the bridge, traffic phasing (if applicable),
limits of removal of existing structures and foundation items (if
applicable), foundation details, substructure details, superstructure
details, typical sections, utilities (if applicable), survey information, and
other miscellaneous items.

Specifications are also required for each project. They describe
procedures for award and execution of the contract, how work will be
measured and paid, procedures to be followed during execution of the
work, and material and testing requirements for items incorporated into
the project.

Bridge projects use specifications from four different sources:
1) Most of the specifications used for a project are provided in Mn/DOT’s
Standard Specifications for Construction. They are necessarily
general in nature and are intended to cover all types of Mn/DOT
projects.

2) The Bridge Office has assembled additional specifications. Because
they are not included in the standard specifications they are called
special provisions. A list of available bridge special provisions is
provided in Appendix 2-B. Special provisions address a variety of
work items, ranging from concrete placement in District 8 to the



FEBRUARY 2007 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-44
2.4.1 Final Design
I nstructions
fabrication and installation of pot bearings. Not all of the special
provisions are intended to be used on every project; rather, designers PDF Combine For Windows should use only those applicable to the project.

3) The State-Aid Unit has additional bridge special provisions that apply
to local road bridge projects.

4) Custom special provisions. If a work item is of such unique character
that the standard specifications and the bridge special provisions
don’t describe or address the work, a custom special provision will
need to be prepared. Custom special provisions may be generated
for any number of items. Items may include schedules (e.g., dates
the contractor will have access to certain portions of the project) or
lists of required submittals, etc.

In general, information that is highly graphical or geometric in nature
should be presented on plan sheets. Large amounts of information
conveyed with text should be assembled in special provisions.

A specification or special provision usually contains the following five
sections:
1) A description
2) A list of the materials used (and their specifications)
3) Construction requirements for the work
4) A description of how the work will be measured
5) The basis of payment (pay item for the work)

Oversight by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) is required for
some bridge projects. See Section 2.3.1 of this manual under “Use of
Preliminary Bridge Plans” for FHWA degree of oversight categories and
plan submittal requirements.


Unless specified otherwise within this manual, all structures shall be
designed in accordance with the current AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design
Specifications. For those few cases where LRFD specifications have not
been created or adopted, the AASHTO Standard Specifications for
Highway Bridges shall be used. These exceptions to the LRFD
specifications include: long span specialty bridges and sheet piling.
Discuss exceptions with the Bridge Design Engineer prior to beginning
final design.




FEBRUARY 2007 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-45
2.4.1.1
Superstructure
2.4.1.1.1 Framing
Plan
Railroad bridges shall be designed according to the current AREMA
specifications for the live load specified by the railroad. Additional notes
concerning the design of railroad bridges:
1) Railroad bridges will usually be designed with simple spans to avoid
uplift from the live load.
2) Bridges for the Duluth Mesabe & Iron Range Railway require a special
live load.

Plans and documents prepared during the preliminary design phase
should be reviewed prior to beginning final design. These documents
include:
1) Preliminary Bridge Plan
2) Bridge Construction Unit Foundation Recommendation Report
3) Design Study Report
4) Letter File

When reviewing preliminary plans, pay particular attention to geometry
and utilities. Check the layout. This includes reviewing grades,
stationing, end slopes, beams, railings, roadways, shoulders, and the
median (if applicable).


Space beams so moments in fascia beams will not be larger than
moments in interior beams.


For steel beams and prestressed I-beams, deck projections beyond the
centerline of the fascia beam should generally not exceed the smaller of:
1) Depth of beam
2) 40% of the beam spacing
3) 2'-8" plus one-half the flange width

The minimum slab projection beyond the tip of the flange shall be
6 inches.

For rectangular prestressed beams, the overhang is a concern when the
location of a wheel line falls outside of the beam. Keep the maximum
overhang projection beyond the centerline of the fascia beam to
approximately 2'-8".





FEBRUARY 2007 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-46
2.4.1.1.2 Concrete
Wearing Course
2.4.1.1.3
Diaphragms and
Cross Frames
For bridges with reinforced concrete decks, the deck may be cast in one
or two lifts. If two lifts are used, the second one is called the wearing
course and is placed during original construction of the bridge. Note that
the wearing course and the future wearing course are separate and
distinct items.

The wearing course shall be low slump concrete. Bridges meeting any of
the following criteria shall use a concrete wearing course:
1) All bridges carrying interstate traffic.
2) All interstate highway bridges at an interchange with access to the
interstate.
3) All bridges carrying trunk highway traffic in major metropolitan areas
and municipalities with populations of 5000 or greater.
4) All bridges on highways with 20-year projected ADT greater than
2,000.

The State Bridge Engineer shall determine the appropriate action on any
individual exceptions to this policy.


In most bridges, the orientation of the primary superstructure elements
is parallel to the centerline of the bridge. Aside from slab bridges, most
bridges in Minnesota are supported on multiple beam lines. The beam
lines are typically spaced on 5 to 15 foot centers. These bridges usually
have diaphragms or cross frames. They serve a number of purposes:
1) They provide compression flange bracing during erection and
construction of the bridge.
2) They increase lateral load distribution (more beams or girders
participate in carrying live loads).
3) They provide a load path for lateral loads to be carried from the deck
to the bearings.

During final plan assembly, specify the type of diaphragm on the framing
plan, the deck cross section, and the longitudinal section.

For bridges with integral abutments, the end diaphragm also functions as
an abutment element. Provide a construction joint between the end
diaphragm and the approach panel to accommodate settlement under the
approach panel. To facilitate the transfer of axial load from the deck into
the end diaphragms, provide a concrete fillet as shown on Details B809
and B811.





FEBRUARY 2007 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-47
2.4.1.2 Pedestrian
Bridges
Pedestrian bridges shall be designed in accordance with the Guide
Specifications for Design of Pedestrian Bridges. Several additional
constraints are placed on pedestrian bridges to ensure they are
accessible, safe, and durable:
1) The standard width for pedestrian bridges is 8'-0". This dimension is
from face of handrail to face of handrail. Bridges carrying bicycle
traffic shall be 2'-0" wider than the approaching bikeway width with a
maximum width of 12'-0".
2) The maximum grade permitted on a pedestrian bridge is 8.33%. A
grade flatter than the maximum is preferable. When the grade is
steeper than 5%, a 5'-0" platform shall be provided for each change
in elevation of 2'-6".
3) Protective screening, preferably a chain link fence system or a railing
system, must be placed on both sides of the bridge. The height of
the fence or railing must be 8'-0" above the top of the sidewalk. For
sites with special aesthetic treatments involving ornamental railings, a
minimum height of 6'-0" will be allowed.
4) A 6'-0" clear platform shall be provided at the bottom of each ramp.
5) A platform shall be provided at each abrupt change in a horizontal
direction. The minimum plan dimension of a platform is 5'-0" by
5'-0".
6) The profile grade should be laid out such that there are no abrupt
grade breaks at expansion devices.
7) Only in the rare case where handicap accessibility need not be
provided can stairs be incorporated into a design. When stairs are
provided, use the following guidelines:
a) Stairs shall have a 1'-0" tread and a 6" rise.
b) Adjust the sidewalk or superstructure elevations to make all risers
6" tall.
c) The preferred number of risers in a flight of stairs is 14 to 16. The
maximum number is 19.
8) The rails shall be detailed with regard to the following:
a) Pedestrian railings must be at least 3'-6" in height.
b) Bicycle railings must be at least 4'-6" in height.
c) For pedestrian bridges over roadways, the opening between
elements of a pedestrian railing shall not permit a 4" sphere to
pass through.
d) For pedestrian bridges that are not over roadways, the opening
between elements of a pedestrian railing shall not permit a 4"
sphere to pass through the lower 27" of the railing. A 6" sphere
shall not be able to pass through any opening above 27".
e) Handrails shall be placed 2'-8" above the top of the deck.



FEBRUARY 2007 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-48
9) Provide an electrical ground for continuous chain link fences,
ornamental railings, and metal handrails. If appropriate, provide
bicycle ramps on pedestrian bridges that contain stairs.

Materials
The superstructure of a pedestrian bridge shall be steel, prestressed
concrete, reinforced concrete, or timber. Aluminum is not an acceptable
material for use in any portion of the superstructure.

The minimum structural steel thickness is
1
/
4
inch for pipe or tube
sections and
5
/
16
inch for all other sections. The minimum thickness
requirements do not apply to railings. Details associated with structural
tubing shall be watertight or designed such that moisture cannot be
trapped in or on the member to accelerate corrosion.

The concrete for the deck of a pedestrian bridge shall be Mn/DOT Mix
No. 3Y33 or 3Y33A.

The Brazilian hardwood known as IPE, though very durable, is not an
accepted decking material on state or federally funded projects. If the
use of IPE wood is desired by the owner, it shall be paid for by local
funds.

Bridge Substructure
The bridge substructure shall be reinforced concrete supported on piling
or spread footings as recommended in the Bridge Construction Unit
Foundation Recommendations report. Incorporate drainage systems
(Details B910 or B911) into the abutments as needed.

Bridge Superstructure
Bearing assemblies shall be elastomeric pads or masonry plates. All
other types will require approval by the Bridge Design Engineer.

To limit transverse deck cracking due to negative flexure, provide
additional longitudinal bars in the top of the deck over the YTD 6.9.18 Crack - Crack Key For U. Stagger
the ends of the additional longitudinal bars to transition the capacity of
the section. (See Figure 9.2.3.5.)

Detail anchorages for the piers and abutments to resist uplift and
overturning forces associated with wind loads.

Provide a cover plate over all pedestrian bridge expansion joint openings
to protect YTD 6.9.18 Crack - Crack Key For U from a tripping hazard.




FEBRUARY 2007 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-49
2.4.1.3 Temporary
Bridges and
Widenings
Type 5.0 strip seals with expansion joint openings up to 5.0 inches are
allowed on pedestrian bridges since the joint is concealed by a cover
plate.

Highway Geometrics
A pedestrian bridge over a roadway shall meet Mn/DOT design standards
for horizontal and vertical clearances.


Temporary Bridges
Temporary bridges are used to detour traffic while removal of an existing
bridge and construction of a new bridge occur on the mainline of the
roadway. The superstructure consists of a glue-laminated wood panel
deck on steel or prestressed beams. Substructures typically are pile bent
structures with steel pile caps.

Design temporary bridges in accordance with the LRFD Specifications
using the HL-93 live load with an associated load factor of 1.75.

The posted speed for work zones is 45 mph. Per LRFD 13.7.2, design the
railings, the railing/deck connection, and the deck overhang on
temporary bridges to meet railing Test Level 2.

Temporary Widenings
Temporary widening occurs when staging requires widening of an existing
bridge while construction of an adjacent new bridge occurs.

Design structural components of the temporary widening to meet or
exceed the capacity of the existing bridge components. The deck
material of the widening shall match the deck material of the existing
bridge.

For temporary widenings, design the railings, the railing/deck connection,
and the deck overhang to meet the railing test level required for the
roadway.





FEBRUARY 2007 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-50
2.4.1.4 Bridge
Approaches
2.4.1.5 Survey
2.4.1.6 Utilities
In most cases, the bridge approach panel will be included with the
roadway grading plans for a project. For situations where approach panel
details can’t be wrapped into roadway plans, guidance for the treatment
and details of approach panels can be found in the following:

Bridge Approach Treatment
The approach treatment standard sheets describe the limits and
treatment of excavation and backfill near the abutments. These
sheets are found in the Mn/DOT Standard Plans Manual, Figures
5-297.233 and 5-297.234.

Bridge Approach Panel
The standard sheets covering bridge approach panels are found in the
Mn/DOT Standard Plans Manual, Figures 5-297.223 through
5-297.232. These figures cover standard approach panels for
abutments with joints, abutments without joints, abutments with
different amounts of skew, different mainline pavement types, and
miscellaneous details. A special design for approach panels is
required when a bridge has a skew angle equal to or greater than 45°.

Specify a concrete wearing course on approach panels when the bridge
deck has a concrete wearing course. The wearing course on the
approach panels will be placed at the same time as the wearing course on
the bridge. Include the approach panel wearing course quantity in the
summary of quantities for the superstructure. When using integral
abutments, provide approach panel detail to roadway design for inclusion
into the roadway plans.


When assembling the survey sheets for final plans, verify that the most
current grading plans are being used.

The final design survey sheets should contain the centerlines and object
lines for the abutment and pier footings. All test piles should be
identified and located.


The Utilities Unit determines if provision must be made for lighting
(roadway, navigation, inspection, etc.), signing, signals, utilities, etc.

If no current utilities are required to be carried on a bridge, provide
details in the abutments for a future conduit system for all Mn/DOT
bridges with beam superstructures. Provide a clear passageway to install
one future 4 inch diameter conduit on one side of the bridge between the



FEBRUARY 2007 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-51
fascia and first interior beams. For twin bridges, allow for a conduit in
the outside bay of both bridges. The provisions for the future conduit
include a 6 inch diameter PVC pipe sleeve block-out with cap in the
parapet wall at each abutment. All other hardware such as hangers,
inserts, etc. will be the responsibility of the utility that utilizes the
block-outs.

The conduit for utilities is to be suspended below the deck on hanger
systems between the beams. Locate the entire conduit and hanger
system above the bottom of the beams and generally below the
diaphragms or in the lower openings of a cross frame diaphragm. To
minimize the impact to the structure in the future, avoid casting conduits
for utility companies in the deck, sidewalk, or rail.

Roadway lighting conduit (1
1
/
2
inch diameter maximum) will be allowed
in rails and sidewalks.

When conduit is embedded in concrete rail, deck, or sidewalk, use a
combination expansion/deflection fitting at the abutments. This will
accommodate horizontal movements (due to temperature change, creep,
shrinkage, etc.) and vertical movements (due to jacking operations for
bearing replacement, etc.).

For hanging systems, only an expansion fitting is required at the
abutments. Hangers and conduit can accommodate vertical deflection
(due to superstructure jacking) at the abutment. Lateral bracing of
conduit is needed only for fiberglass conduit. The temperature
movements of rigid steel conduit approximate those of concrete.
Consequently, lateral bracing is not needed. Choose a transverse
spacing for the conduits that permits proper placement of concrete
between embedded anchors.

To ensure the integrity of substructure units, the following restrictions
should be included in all permits to install utilities near bridge structures
supported on spread footings:
1) No soils shall be disturbed below a line extending from the bottom of
the footing horizontally for a distance of 3 feet from the edge of the
footing and then continuing downwards and outward on a 1:2 slope.
2) Any water, sanitary sewer, or storm lines that are within 50 feet of
the edge of any spread footings shall be cased unless the elevation of
the line is 15 feet or more above or 50 feet below the footing
elevation. Storm sewer lines that are impractical to case shall be
placed outside the “50 foot line&rdquo.




FEBRUARY 2007 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 2-52
2.4.1.7 Precedence
of Construction
Documents
2.4.1.8 Design
Calculation
Requirements
2.4.2 Final Plans
Designers, while striving to produce accurate error-free construction
documents, may at times end up with documents that have conflicting
content. A hierarchy has been established to determine which content is
governing for a project. In general, the more project specific the
document, the higher the document’s position in the hierarchy.
Section 1504 of the Standard Specifications for Construction describes
the precedence of construction documents for a project:

In case of discrepancy, calculated dimensions will govern over scaled
dimensions; Special Provisions will govern over Standard and
supplemental Specifications and Plans, Plans will govern over
Standard and supplemental Specifications, and supplemental
Specifications will govern over Standard Specifications.


Office practice is to permit the limit states to be exceeded by a maximum
of 3%. However, caution should be exercised to ensure that a 3%

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Saturday/Sunday, January 16 - 17, 2016 P W L C 10 11 12 H T G K B F A M 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 O I X X **** THE WALL STREET JOURNAL. State Polls Tell a Different Story BY GERALD F. SEIB top by a whisker in two of the BushGets Graham’s The presidential campaign has reached that point in the past four polls there. In New Hampshire, Mr. Sanders leads in the RealClearPolitics.com Nod,Fights calendar when the key question is this: Are we in a national average of the past five polls. So, as in the Republican WithRubio CHARLIE NEIBERGALL/ASSOCIATED PRESS race, or a series of state races? race, the comfortable national The question arises anew lead doesn’t look so comfort- BY BETH REINHARD with some new findings on the able in the opening states. And AND REBECCA BALLHAUS Republican race from the Wall that matters, of course, be- Street Journal/ cause the race for a presiden- NORTH CHARLESTON, S.C.— ANALYSIS NBC News poll. tial nomination is, in fact, a The acrimony from Thursday But recent devel- series of statewide races, night’s Republican debate opments suggest which explains why candidates spilled into another day of the question is equally relevant pick states where they think backbiting on the campaign on the Democratic side. they can do especially well— trail Friday as home-state ri- In the new Journal/NBC Donald Trump opens a big lead nationally, but not in Iowa, where he campaigned Friday in Waukee. think of Mr. Christie in New vals Jeb Bush and Marco Rubio News look at the GOP race, Hampshire—plant a flag there traded their harshest insults Donald Trump leads the field ment only by Mr. Cruz. Totally lead in statewide polling that Mr. Bush has risen a bit. and hope to do well enough to so far in the primary. nationally, with 33% to 20% for missing from those numbers is does, in fact, resemble the one None of those movements is build momentum for the states South Carolina Sen. Lindsey Sen. Ted Cruz of Texas, 13% any sense of a rise by New Jer- he has nationally in the new matched in national polling. that come. Graham’s endorsement of Mr. for Sen. Marco Rubio of Flor- sey Gov. Chris Christie, or any Journal/NBC News poll. But A similar picture emerges Early on, a strong national Bush, a former governor of ida and 12% for retired neuro- renaissance by former Florida below that, Mr. Cruz isn’t as on the Democratic side. In the standing can affect how candi- Florida, at a hotel right across surgeon Ben Carson. Gov. Jeb Bush, or any sign of strong as the alternatives, and RealClearPolitics.com average dates are perceived in individ- the street from the debate site He also leads when the field life by Ohio Gov. John Kasich. the situation looks signifi- of national polls of the Demo- ual states. That certainly hap- turned into a platform for is hypothetically reduced to In the world of early pri- cantly different overall. cratic race, former Secretary pened for Mr. Trump, where broadsides against Mr. Rubio, three candidates, with 40% of mary states, though, the pic- Mr. Rubio, rather than Mr. of State Hillary Clinton leads his ability to catch on with dis- Florida’s junior senator. support, compared with 31% ture is different. In Iowa, home Cruz, tends to land in second Sen. Bernie Sanders by almost affected voters nationally Flanked by Mr. Graham, Mr. for Mr. Cruz and 26% for Mr. of the caucuses that will kick place in New Hampshire poll- nine percentage points—a helped him build strength in a Bush mocked Mr. Rubio for Rubio. He trails in a hypotheti- off presidential voting on Feb. ing. Mr. Kasich, who seems to comfortable though not over- state such as Iowa, which isn’t complaining about negative cal one-on-one matchup with 1, Mr. Cruz has led in three of be enjoying a late spurt, has whelming lead. natural ground for him. ads. “If you’re a candidate, DJay Pro 3.0.4 Crack + Serial Key Free Download 2021 Mr. Cruz, 51% to 43%, though the past seven statewide polls. moved up to third in the latest The picture looks quite dif- But now, the campaign is can’t play the role of a victim. he beats Mr. Rubio, 52% to There is no commanding RealClearPolitics average of ferent in the opening states of arriving at a phase in which a So I’m not going to do it, and 45%. Trump lead. New Hampshire polling. Mr. Iowa and New Hampshire. In strong performance in YTD 6.9.18 Crack - Crack Key For U early he shouldn’t either,” he said. So, the national picture is of Meanwhile, in New Hamp- Christie nearly matches Mr. Iowa, Mrs. Clinton and Mr. state can change the national Mr. Rubio, who has sur- a generally powerful Mr. shire, home of the nation’s Cruz there, and even the Sanders are nearly tied in poll- picture of who is rising and passed his onetime mentor in Trump, threatened at the mo- first primary, Mr. Trump has a chronically underperforming ing, with each coming out on who is falling. the polls, unleashed his first negative television ad against Mr. Bush, saying, “Jeb Bush is Heard on desperate and spending mil- lions on false attacks. Don’t the Stump fall for it.” The biting exchanges reflect how unsettled the Republican Lawmakers Pick Film primary is just weeks before Over GOP Debate voting begins in Iowa. The race While GOP presidential front- features layers of rivalries, as runner Donald Trump clashed front-runners Donald Trump Thursday night with rival Ted and Ted Cruz vie for the top Cruz at a primary debate, the finishes in Iowa and then New House Republicans convening in Hampshire, and Mr. Rubio, Mr. Baltimore for a policy retreat Bush and New Jersey Gov. concluded there was something Chris Christie jockey for better to see. Instead of watching the de- bate, dozens of Republican law- Florida senator also makers could be seen marching goes after Christie down the street to see a screen- ing of the movie “13 Hours: Se- and Cruz in post- cret Soldiers Of Benghazi,” which debate appearances. depicts the 2012 attack on the American diplomatic outpost in Benghazi, Libya. strong enough finishes to “There were folks who were move on in the race. interested in seeing the portrayal Mr. Rubio, who has seen lit- of Benghazi, and it held I guess tle movement in state and na- more attraction than last night,” tional polls, was the most ag- MATT ROURKE/ASSOCIATED PRESS said Rep. Tom Price (R., Ga.), who gressive in his post-debate declared the movie “incredible.” appearances, using various After a gaggle of reporters media to go after Mr. Bush, Mr. chastised Mr. Price for putting a Christie and Mr. Cruz, a Texas movie ahead of a Republican senator. presidential debate, he said “Don’t In an interview on Fox throw me under the bus, now!” News, he criticized Mr. Cruz “Sorry—the bus is already roll- for switching positions on a ing,” one reporter teased back. number of key issues, includ- —Siobhan Hughes Marco Rubio campaigns on Friday in Hillsboro, N.H., as the senator and a website trade attacks over his position on cap-and-trade. ing crop insurance, ethanol subsidies and new trade rules. GOP Field Shifts Right on Climate “He campaigns as a consis- Trump’s Hats Are tent conservative,” Mr. Rubio ‘The Hottest Thing’ said of the Texas senator. “The Businessman Donald Trump only thing consistent is the may show little daring in his uni- BY AMY HARDER a 2008 bill authorizing the cans supported cap-and-trade. mer Florida Gov. Jeb Bush and consistent political calculation form of dark suits and red ties, AND BETH REINHARD state to come up with rules for Once Mr. Obama won the New Jersey Gov. Chris Chris- that ‘I’m going to change my but he’s happy that his cam- a cap-and-trade plan, though White House, Republicans tie, have said recently that it position if it helps me politi- paign gear is proving to be fash- Shortly after a conservative he raised questions about its swiftly unified against nearly is unclear how much, if at all, cally in a given moment.’ ” ion-forward. website on Wednesday posted cost and effectiveness. all of his initiatives, including humans are contributing to In a campaign stop in Derry, During a campaign event in 2008 footage of Sen. Marco But since running for U.S. a cap-and-trade bill that would warmer temperatures. N.H., on Friday, Mr. Rubio crit- Iowa on Friday, Mr. Trump inter- Rubio backing a cap-and-trade Senate in 2010 as the conser- have set limits on carbon The GOP front-runners, icized Mr. Christie for support- rupted his pitch to voters to ac- program to combat climate vative alternative to then-Gov. emissions and allowed compa- Donald Trump and Sen. Ted ing the appointment of liberal knowledge attendees wearing change, his campaign roared Charlie Crist, Mr. Rubio has nies to trade pollution credits Cruz (R., Texas), have been Supreme Court Justice Sonia his “Make America Great Again” back with a counterattack that questioned whether climate to comply. the most consistent in ques- Sotomayor, a charge the New hats. included an entire web page change is man-made, and op- Responding to what they tioning and even denying cli- Jersey governor disputed “Look at those beautiful aimed at debunking the video. posed potential remedies like call big-government overreach mate change. in Thursday’s debate. hats,” Mr. Trump said at the Liv- Mr. Rubio’s response re- cap-and-trade that he says by Mr. Obama, many Republi- For now, that consistency During the stop, Mr. Rubio ing History Farms in Urbandale, vealed how toxic the issue of would hurt the economy. cans have moved to the right has worked to their advantage, took a piece of paper out of his Iowa. “It’s the hottest thing.” climate change has become in Shifts by Mr. Rubio and on several other issues as well, Republican strategists say, pocket and read aloud com- Mr. Trump ribbed the uniden- the Republican Party under some of his rivals recall a past including illegal immigration, leaving rivals little room to ments Mr. Christie had made tified hat-wearers for sporting President Barack Obama, who that many in the GOP would health-insurance mandates outflank them on the right. in 2009 saying, “I support her imitation models that didn’t ap- has sought to make reducing like to forget: Republicans, not and the Common Core aca- Meanwhile, the three Dem- appointment to the Supreme pear to have been made in the carbon emissions to alleviate Democrats, first championed demic standards. ocratic candidates, including Court and urge the Senate to U.S. The issue, Mr. Trump said, is global warming one of his sig- market-based systems to con- GOP candidates who had front-runner Hillary Clinton, keep politics out of the process that the hats had become fash- nature accomplishments. trol pollution, as a way to generally accepted the scien- have consistently pushed for and confirm her nomination.” ion items, making the originals As speaker of the Florida avoid more direct regulation. tific consensus on man-made more aggressive climate poli- “Sounds like support,” Mr. hard to find. House, Mr. Rubio did vote for Until 2008, many Republi- climate change, including for- cies than Mr. Obama’s. Rubio said. “You know the problem, the Mr. Christie’s position on hats have become so hot,” Mr. Ms. Sotomayor was in fact Trump said. “It’s one of the hot- In the first 12 days of the some candidates—but the Campaign Capital slightly more nuanced. Mr. Ru- test accessories for women. year, a super PAC backing Jeb course of the past two cycles bio didn’t read aloud the por- Spending by super PACs so far this GOP primary cycle, most of it They go to fancy balls wearing Bush spent more than $13.5 has shown the limits of their tion of Mr. Christie’s 2009 backing Jeb Bush, has widely eclipsed money spent before the the hats.” million in Iowa, New Hampshire influence. comments in which he said primaries of early 2012. —Heather Haddon and other states on ads and di- Mr. Perry, for example, came that she “would not have been rect mail promoting the former in fifth in the Iowa caucuses in Super PAC spending in support of GOP candidates my choice,” but that he sup- Florida governor and attacking January 2012 and dropped out 2016 cycle* ported her appointment. his rivals. of the race later that month. Meanwhile, a super PAC That amount is more than The $60.9 million that the Jeb Bush $60.9 MILLION backing Mr. Rubio is running a super PACs spent in the entire super PAC backing Mr. Bush Chris Christie 12.4 spot that calls Mr. Bush’s cam- year leading up to the 2012 has reported spending on ad- Marco Rubio 12.2 paign “a train wreck” while a Iowa caucuses. vertising has done little to John Kasich group backing Mr. Bush, Right 7.6 Since the campaign season budge the candidate’s poll to Rise USA, is airing ads de- Ted Cruz 4.4 began last year, super PACs numbers. By contrast, Donald picting Mr. Rubio as a weather have spent more than $109 Trump has led in national poll- Rand Paul 4.1 vane who has shifted with the million to trumpet the major ing while super PACs have Ben Carson 3.4 $109.2 popular winds on immigration. candidates for the Republican spent only about $170,600 to Carly Fiorina 2.0 MILLION* Mr. Graham’s endorsement nomination, a Wall Street Jour- promote his candidacy, accord- of Mr. Bush is valued because Mike Huckabee 1.9 nal analysis of Federal Election ing to the FEC filings. of his status as one of the Commission filings shows. Much of the $109 million in Donald Trump 0.2 leading national-security By contrast, super PACs in advertising and mailers super hawks in Congress. ’I know that that is 2011 spent just $6.4 million in PACs purchased to promote 2012 cycle The alliance between Mr. Rick Perry $3.8 what Hillary Clinton support of their candidates. GOP candidates also includes Bush and Mr. Graham More than half of that pro- negative messages aimed at ri- Rick Santorum 0.8 prompted Mr. Trump to take says, but Hillary moted Texas Gov. Rick Perry. vals. In addition to that, super Newt Gingrich 0.5 to Twitter to try to undermine Clinton is not right.’ Super PACs are political-ac- PACs, some of them Demo- Mitt Romney 0.5 it: “Sen. Lindsey Graham em- tion committees that can raise cratic-leaning, have reported barrassed himself with his Herman Cain 0.4 and spend unlimited amounts spending $6.3 million on adver- failed run for president, and BERNIE SANDERS on CBS, of money but are barred from tising expressly intended to Ron Paul 0.4 $6.4 MILLION now further embarrasses him- responding to accusations that coordinating with campaigns. sully GOP candidates this cycle. in 2012 cycle self with endorsement of he is running negative ads. They have played a big role for —Daniel Nasaw *As of Jan. 14 Source: FEC filings THE WALL STREET JOURNAL. Bush.”

For personal non-commercial use only. Do not edit or alter. Reproductions not permitted. To reprint or license content, please contact our reprints and licensing department at +1 800-843-0008 or www.djreprints.com THE WALL STREET JOURNAL. * * * * * * Saturday/Sunday, January 16 - 17, 2016 A5 Democrats Diverge on Banks Mrs. Fiorina’s comments came H H H H H in response to a question about her criticism of Mrs. Clinton’s CAMPAIGN marriage in Thursday night’s de- WIRE bate, in which she said, “Unlike another woman in this race, I ac- The Wall Street regulation H H H H H tually love spending time with plans put forward by Bernie my husband.” Sanders and Hillary Clinton Brian Fallon, a spokesman for are as different as the candi- REPUBLICAN PRIMARY the Clinton campaign, called at- dates themselves: a fiery popu- tacks on Mr. Clinton’s past list versus a policy wonk. Second Trump TV Ad “crass” in an interview with CNN Targets Early States Friday. “I think the voters recoil By Laura Meckler, Republican Donald Trump has at it,” he said Ryan Tracy released his second television ad The more-personal rhetoric and Andrew Ackerman in early primary states, putting a against Mrs. Clinton marks a modest amount of money be- sharp departure from a few Mr. Sanders, citing what he hind mass communication after months ago, when Mrs. Fiorina sees as greed and irresponsi- coasting to front-runner status said in a People magazine inter- bility on Wall Street, has put mostly for free on cable TV. view that personal attacks were forth proposals that would re- The businessman’s campaign off-limits. “I never make a per- shape American finance, prom- will spend $1.1 million for the sonal comment about Hillary ising to break up the biggest spot to run in Iowa, and nearly Clinton—my criticism of her is banks in his first year in office. $1 million in New Hampshire, ac- fact-based, based on her actions “Greed, fraud, dishonesty cording to Mr. Trump’s campaign. and track record,” Mrs. Fiorina and arrogance—these are the SCOTT MORGAN/REUTERS The 30-second spot, called “Our said. “And that is fair game.” words that best describe the Country,” had started running on —Rebecca Ballhaus reality of Wall Street today,” networks in the two states as of the Vermont senator said in a Friday morning, spokeswoman ELIGIBILITY speech this month. Hope Hicks said. If Mr. Sanders is wielding a “We are going to take our Houston Trial Lawyer mallet, Mrs. Clinton has a scal- country and we’re going to fix it. Files Suit Over Cruz pel. Her campaign has devel- Sen. Bernie Sanders, above, promises to break up the largest banks in his first year in office. We are going to make it great An 85-year-old Houston trial oped more than two dozen again,” Mr. Trump says in the ad- lawyer has had enough of politi- ideas that form a web of regu- Charleston, S.C., Sunday when risky Wall Street investing and posals get to in a less direct vertisement. cal debate over whether Sen. lation, prosecution and taxa- the candidates debate for the prosecute bad actors. But she way. She would place curbs on Mr. Trump’s GOP competitors Ted Cruz’s Canadian birth affects tion aimed at deterring what last time before voting begins would only break up big banks how nonbank financial firms— and super PACs supporting them his presidential eligibility, decid- she considers bad behavior. in Iowa on Feb. 1, alongside as a last resort, if other poli- like brokerages and investment have spent millions of dollars al- ing to attempt to raise the issue “I have a risk-oriented ap- Democrat Martin O’Malley. cies aren’t effective. funds—borrow and lend. Such ready on TV ads flooding the air- in court. proach that goes much further The clearest divide is over If banks want to stay large rules might have limited the waves in the early-voting states Newton B. Schwartz, Sr. filed than reinstating Glass-Stea- how best to avoid a repeat of and complex, they would have risk-taking that led to the of Iowa and New Hampshire— a complaint Thursday in U.S. Dis- gall,” the former senator and the 2008 financial crisis, when to adhere to stricter rules that downfall of Lehman Brothers primarily ads in which the candi- trict Court in Texas asking for a secretary of state said last the government bailed out ensure future losses don’t fall and Bear Stearns, two nonbank dates and their surrogates at- judgment on whether Mr. Cruz month in New Hampshire, in a large financial firms to prevent on taxpayers. She would add a firms that didn’t have to fol- tack each other. America Leads, can run or serve as president. reference to the Depression- a banking collapse. new tax on firms that engage low the kind of requirements the super PAC supporting New Now a leading Republican era law that separated com- Mr. Sanders’s plan is in certain borrowing, and em- Mrs. Clinton is advocating. Jersey Gov. Chris Christie’s presi- candidate, Mr. Cruz was born in mercial and investment bank- straightforward: Appoint offi- Mr. Sanders says he would dential bid, put up its 13th ad in Calgary, Alberta, in 1970 to an ing. “Now, it will take a little cials who will prosecute Wall break up shadow banks if they New Hampshire on Friday, for American mother. while longer to explain it.” Street lawbreakers, break up Sanders wields a are “too big to fail” and that example. His U.S. citizenship isn’t in The ideas from both candi- the largest banks, and per- mallet in his plan to his plan also would hit them —Heather Haddon doubt, but the Constitution sets dates are viewed with caution suade Congress to reinstate a indirectly: by breaking up the out a requirement that the presi- by Wall Street. The big firms modern version of the Glass- regulate Wall Street; big banks, he would limit their SHARP DEPARTURE dent and vice president be “natu- fear Mr. Sanders’s proposals Steagall Act. Clinton a scalpel. ability to lend to shadow ral born” citizens. The phrase more, although smaller compa- That would bring to an end banks. Many shadow banks Fiorina Digs In With isn’t defined by the Constitution, nies might stand to benefit. some of the largest financial aren’t large, however, and New Shot at Clinton and the question of presidential Analysts say Mrs. Clinton’s firms in the country as they power regulators to break up much of their funding doesn’t As her campaign continues to eligibility has never been firmly ideas are more detailed and are currently constituted, in- firms as they see fit. She come from banks. His plan struggle in the polls, Republican settled by the Supreme Court. get into the nooks and cran- cluding J.P. Morgan Chase & wouldn’t order them to do kmplayer full crack product key - Crack Key For U. doesn’t address that. presidential hopeful Phototheca giveaway Fiorina Mr. Cruz’s campaign didn’t re- nies of financial markets. Co. and Bank of America Corp. Her ideas are more incre- Mr. Sanders and Mrs. Clin- is digging in on personal attacks spond to a request for comment. Her plan appeals to many “Break them up,” the crowd mental, but tackle more parts ton both stand in contrast to against Democratic front-runner The Texas senator addressed the academics who see regulation chanted at Mr. Sanders’s Jan. 5 of the financial system, includ- Republican candidates, who Hillary Clinton. controversy in Thursday’s GOP as an important tool for creat- speech. ing regulatory shortcomings generally call for rolling back In an interview Friday on debate in South Carolina. ing a more stable financial sys- Mr. Sanders argues that by she says make markets suscep- the 2010 Dodd-Frank financial MSNBC, the former Hewlett- “The facts and the law here tem. But the candidates are shrinking banks, the govern- tible to future problems but law on the grounds it put too Packard chief executive said, “I are really quite clear. Under long- competing for votes, not pre- ment would curb their political aren’t familiar to most voters. big a regulatory burden and guess I would say, you know, if standing U.S. law, the child of a senting dissertations, and Mr. and market influence and pre- Her plan aims to rein in risk cost on the financial system. my husband had done some of U.S. citizen born abroad is a nat- Sanders’s plan is the one firing vent future bailouts. beyond big banks, in the so- Some GOP contenders criticize the things Bill Clinton had done, I ural-born citizen,” said Mr. Cruz. up Democratic crowds. The Mrs. Clinton promises to called shadow banking system, big banks, but mostly haven’t would’ve left him long ago.” —Byron Tau differences will be on stage in rein in what she considers something Mr. Sanders’s pro- laid out plans to rein them in. Don’t miss our SPECIAL SECTION in print on Wednesday 1/20 OUTLOOK 2016: WORLD ECONOMIC FORUM OPPORTUNITIES AND UPHEAVALS IN THE COMING YEAR What are the prospects for growth in 2016? As the World Economic Forum gathers in Davos, our journalists explore the potential and the pitfalls ahead, from poverty and geopolitical instability to the promise of the tech revolution. It's the insight you need to keep in control when the economic landscape changes. Read our special section in the paper on 1/20 ©2016 Dow Jones & Company, Inc. All rights reserved. 6DJ3128

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Published on May 2016 ARTS & ENTERTAINMENT A17 MaryAnne Gilmartin MaryAnne Gilmartin stood Max. Humidity before New York Times Co. ex- Chief executive officer, Graduated from Fordham 81% ecutives more than 15 years Forest City Ratner Cos. University MORNING Sunrise/Sunset ago, making a pitch that For- SHOWERS 7:18 a.m./4:54 p.m. est City Ratner Cos. would be Led development projects Member of Phi Beta Kappa the best developer to build the including the New York Times Society, an academic honors Sunday’s High newspaper’s new headquar- Co. building group ters. 37° Suddenly a young man Lives in Brooklyn’s Park Hobbies include reading, walked in, dressed as a vintage Slope with her husband and travel, food and wine ANDREW HINDERAKER FOR THE WALL STREET JOURNAL paperboy. “Extra! Extra! Forest their three children N.Y. Sports Lineup City builds headquarters building on time and ahead of Ann Tighe, chief executive of hasn’t lost the verve that she 2 p.m. Saturday schedule,” he cried, according CBRE Group Inc.’s New York displayed back then, say those Devils to meeting attendees. He un- Tri-State Region, who served who know her. @ Coyotes furled a long project schedule, as the Times’ broker on the “You know what my motto which Bruce Ratner, then chief project. “We were all stunned is?” Ms. Gilmartin said. “If it’s executive of the company, cut that these people, the dark easy, we’re not interested.” 8 p.m. Saturday in half with an oversize pair of horse, gave the most compel- Her plate is full of projects Knicks scissors. ling presentation.” that aim to challenge the real- @ Grizzlies It was a showstopper. More than a decade since estate industry’s norms. “It captured their sense of winning that bid, Ms. Gilmar- Among them: Forest City’s the historic moment that this tin, 51 years old, is now Forest work with Cornell University, For N.Y. sports coverage, see A18 was for the Times,” said Mary City Ratner’s CEO, and she Please see page A17

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YTD Video Downloader Pro Keygen The Activity window shows you the status of your download, and we found that downloading a three-minute video took roughly one minute. You can also then play back videos you have downloaded straight from the Activity tab or by going to the Play tab. There is a right-click menu in the activity tab where you can choose to play in YTD or your default player and delete the file, stop pause, rename, etc.

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Supports Mac and Windows.

Cons

Only Supports Internet Explorer.

Not support most of the popular sites.

Only the paid version provides customer support.

Download multiple videos buying a paid version.

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  • One gigahertz processor is needed
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Saturday/Sunday, January 16 - 17, 2016 * *** THE WALL STREET JOURNAL. OPINION REVIEW & OUTLOOK LETTERS TO THE EDITOR Trump’s New York Advantage Carson’s Flat Tax Isn’t That Flat—Hurrah! T he sixth Republican debate on Thursday manely than New York,” he said. Regarding your editorial “Ben Car- tax,” and then let the opponents to tax showed off a smaller top tier of candidates, The exchange was all the more notable because son’s Pure Flat Tax” (Jan. 8): It is not reform try to refute that. a flat tax. Not everyone pays the same MARTIN C. SIRERA who also showed that they’re getting bet- Mr. Trump delivered the message in an un-Trum- rate. When considering the effective New Orleans ter the more they debate. All of pian way: deliberate, almost tax rate—which is the only rate that the contenders had their mo- Disdain for half the softly. It showed a more gra- matters—Dr. Carson’s plan is steeply A wealthy individual whose income ments, but the main event was country won’t create a cious candidate than the name- progressive. This is a good feature of may be two-thirds interest, dividends Donald Trump versus Ted Cruz, caller he has often been and the plan for conservatives and should and capital gains would have an effec- and Mr. Trump won handily conservative majority. suggested he might possibly be be trumpeted loudly. It is the result of tive tax rate of only 5% under Dr. Car- with a big assist from “New York able to appeal to a larger set of the exemption up to 150% of the fed- son’s plan, compared with about 25% values,” of all things. voters than he has so far. eral poverty line. Thus a taxpayer today. About half of household filers The Texas Senator this week said Mr. Trump The exchange also exposed a couple of Mr. earning a poverty-line income pays today pay no federal income tax and “embodies New York values” as a way to sug- Cruz’s weaknesses. One is his opportunistic, only the 1% skin-in-the-game provi- would likely not benefit directly from sion. Someone earning slightly more the proposed zero tax on investment gest that the Manhattan businessman isn’t re- implausible populism. The Texan is a Prince- than the poverty line pays a rate sub- income. The wealthy will benefit, and ally a conservative. The two are fighting it out ton debate champion who attended Harvard stantially less than the single rate (to- the lower-middle class will have to to finish first in the Iowa caucuses on Feb. 1, and Law School, clerked at the Supreme Court, tal earned income isn’t taxed, only the make up the difference. Mr. Cruz decided to change his previous strat- worked in the Justice Department and held the excess above the exemption). Those VICTOR WOOLLEY egy of praising Mr. Trump and slip-streaming second highest legal job in Texas. If he’s an Ev- earning above the median income will Howardsville, Va. in his policy wake. eryman from the provinces, Hillary Clinton is pay an effective rate somewhat higher, He’s right that Mr. Trump isn’t a conventional Mother Teresa. yet still not close to the single rate. Dr. Carson’s flat tax would put out conservative. The branding expert has no con- As for New York values, Mr. Cruz’s wife works Top earners will pay a rate closely ap- of business legions of highly paid lob- sistent philosophy that we can detect, and his for Goldman Sachs, which is headquartered in proximating the single rate. This is a byists, lawyers, accountants and their economic instincts are sometimes free market, evil Manhattan and which lent him as much as steeply progressive tax regime. staffs, who no longer could win carve- but more often mercantilist. He understands $500,000 so he could float his 2012 Senate cam- Calling this approach to income outs and complexity for themselves taxation a “flat” tax is throwing a and their clients. Many would need corporate taxes but is a flat-out protectionist on paign. We’re willing to credit Mr. Cruz’s explana- softball to opponents who can easily new jobs. The transition would be bru- trade. Mr. Trump says the Chinese will roll over tion that his failure to report that loan to the argue that Warren Buffett’s secretary tal and resistance monumental. Mem- on trade if he threatens them with, say, a 45% Federal Election Commission was a “paperwork should not pay the same tax rate as bers of Congress would lose election tariff, but that is a leap in the dark of beggar-thy- error,” and he did report it on his Senate public Mr. Buffett does. Media types feed on fundraising leverage. Dr. Carson is neighbor economics. As President he would be disclosure form. But his Goldman ties show that this sort of thing, so proponents right, but the plan is naive. a policy adventure, and his Treasury Secretary Mr. Cruz certainly knows all about “money” as should exorcise the term “flat tax.” I ROBERT HALE might need to be the second coming of Alexan- a New York value. suggest we call it the “progressive Bellevue, Wash. der Hamilton. The other problem with the Princetonian’s But Mr. Trump is a better politician than we anti-New York riff is that it echoes Sarah Palin’s ever imagined, and he is becoming a better 2008 disdain for the part of the country that she GOP Must Explain How It Will Help the Poor candidate. The Texan was asked about his said wasn’t “real America.” Mr. Cruz is playing Regarding House Speaker Paul ment-controlled economy. “New York values” gibe, and he said with al- the same kind of polarizing politics to win over Ryan and Sen. Tim Scott’s “A Re- Too many Americans are addicted most a sneer that “you know, I think most peo- conservatives in Iowa, but showing contempt for publican Cure for Liberal Failures to government handouts. They need ple know exactly what New York values are.” half the country is not a way to build a governing on Poverty” (op-ed, Jan. 8): It’s no to be reminded of what it was that Pressed on the point, Mr. Cruz then rang the conservative majority. mystery why poverty hasn’t been made this country great. It wasn’t Iowa conservative bells of “socially liberal or The strategy may win Mr. Cruz the nomination, defeated. As noted in the piece, “the handouts. History is littered with ex- pro-abortion or pro-gay-marriage, focus though there’s still a long way to go, but to win federal government now runs more amples of countries that have taken around money and the media.” in November he would have to show he’s more than 80 different antipoverty pro- government intervention to the ex- Mr. Trump struck back that “conservatives than a political divider. The GOP and the country grams at a cost of about $750 bil- treme and in the process destroyed actually do come out of Manhattan, including don’t need a Barack Obama of the right. lion a year.” Each of those programs their economies. Paradoxically, these William F. Buckley and others, just so you un- The polls are clear that Messrs. Trump and is supported by a specific bureau- policies ended up creating societies cracy that reports to another bu- where poverty and crime are ram- derstand.” He then won the round in a knock- Cruz are now the front-runners for the nomina- reaucracy right up to the relevant pant. The current situation in Vene- out by invoking the response of the firefight- tion, but the challenge for both is to show that cabinet secretary. zuela is one of many examples. ers, police and the entire city after 9/11. they can reach beyond the GOP base to win in While many of these bureaucrats If the Republicans are going to “When the World Trade Center came down, November. The “New York values” exchange sug- truly want to help people with bene- win this fall, they need to get the I saw something that no place on Earth could gests that Mr. Trump understands the task bet- fits, there is no desire to really help 47% excited about the prospect of have handled more beautifully, more hu- ter than Mr. Cruz does. them escape poverty. Doing so would the American dream because Uncle eliminate the need for the bureau- Sam’s handouts aren’t working, and cracies and the bureaucrats. he can’t afford them any more. $29 Oil and the Dollar DON CUZZOCREA Trabuco Canyon, Calif. DAVID SCHWARZENBERGER San Francisco E quities took another beating on Friday, growth in China, Morgan Stanley estimated that Were I a Republican candidate, I Anyone who believes in Republi- on the heels of one more Chinese market increasing dollar strength could take the oil would remind the 47% that it was can solutions to poverty is a fool, af- selloff and oil sinking below $29 a barrel price down to $20 a barrel. John Kennedy, a hero of the Demo- ter 35 years of talk about opportu- for the first time in 12 years. The Fed’s inevitable un- crats, who argued that a rising tide nity. One third of the jobs created The Dow industrials and the As the greenback keeps winding of its post-panic mon- lifts all boats. In the Kennedy era, each month are low income. What S&P 500 are down more than rising, commodity etary exertions explains part the U.S. was still viewed as a coun- these people need is good day-care, 8% in two weeks, and the but not all of the dollar’s re- try where you were driven to work public transportation, fully funded growing fear is that this is a prices keep falling. bound. Central banks in Japan hard and take risks to achieve the after-school programs and affordable harbinger of recession. and Europe have been pursu- American dream. Today, too many college and technical training. You’re Amid the hunt for culprits, ing a devaluation strategy and people believe in the nonexistent fooling yourselves. one place to look is the link between the price capital flight from China is causing the yuan to utopia that progressives and social- WILLIAM GRUHN of oil and the dollar. There has long been an in- depreciate. As more investors demand dollars, ists promise comes from a govern- St. Louis verse correlation between dollar strength and the greenback strengthens and the chances of commodity prices, as we saw more than a decade currency markets overshooting grows. ago. As the Federal Reserve made its historic If oil does fall to $20, the economic pain is mistake of staying too easy for too long in the likely to be considerable throughout the oil Why Should Drugs for Americans Cost More? early 2000s, oil began its long march upward to patch and commodity markets. Energy bank- As a family physician practicing in those other countries. Multinational $100 a barrel and beyond. The correlation has ruptcies will proliferate. Eventually low prices Texas for the past 30 years, I find it pharmaceutical companies aren’t sell- been going in reverse in the last year as the dol- will lead to cuts in supply and oil will find a bot- appalling that pharmaceutical compa- ing substandard versions of drugs in lar strengthens and oil plunges. tom. But the carnage might be reduced if the dol- nies continue to raise their prices foreign markets. If those pharmaceuti- Morgan Stanley tracked this correlation in a lar stabilized against major currencies. Mean- (“Drug Firms Ring In Higher Prices,” cals are good enough for the Swiss, smart research note earlier this week. While not time, the world desperately needs pro-growth Business & Tech., Jan. 11). Even the Germans or Japanese, they are good new drugs that treat routine condi- enough for Americans. ignoring the fundamentals of oil supply and de- economic policies, but it’s hard to see where tions such as diabetes often cost over J. TAYLOR STARKEY, M.D. mand, especially lower oil demand from slower they’ll be coming from any time soon. $300 a month. Victoria, Texas When I ask why the new drug is so Honest and Dishonest Socialism expensive, drug reps give me the stan- dard reply that it costs $350 million or As I peruse your list of the selected branded drugs and their price in- B more to bring each new drug to mar- creases since December 2015, I am ernie Sanders’s surge in Iowa and New class families and working families,” she elabo- ket. I know it is expensive to develop struck by how many of these drugs Hampshire must be at least partly real, rated. “And also explain why, after this historic new drugs, and I am amazed at the in- constitute the glut of direct-to-con- because he’s getting an education in how achievement of President Obama, we’ve been novations. What I don’t understand is sumer television ads. Multiple studies the Hillary Clinton machine fighting to get some kind of af- why it is the duty of the American have shown that when patients visit operates under threat. The Sanders admits what fordable care since Harry Tru- public to pay so much more of the re- their physicians and ask for a drug search and development cost for drugs they know only because they have Vermont Senator is now the Clinton believes man, now he wants to start all sold across the world. seen it advertised on TV, over 97% of target of a familiar enfilade of over again.” Congress could act in two ways to physicians will fill the requested pre- deceptive attacks, misdirec- but refuses to say. In fact Mr. Sanders has stop this unfair pricing: establish an scription just to keep the patient tion and character assassina- been candid about the need to agency that would monitor individual happy, regardless of the drug’s pur- tion—even if liberals don’t like raise taxes, even if he calls the drug prices in the top 20 industrial- ported benefit or side effects. Adver- seeing this divisive style deployed against one hikes “public insurance premiums” that would ized nations of the world; create a law tising works, the drug may or may not. of their own. eliminate private premiums. But you don’t have that allows Americans to be charged KEITH O. REEVES, M.D. The Clinton political method appears to be to be Chief Justice John Roberts to understand no more than the average price that is Houston a dominant gene, because Chelsea started the he’s talking about taxes. charged for the identical drug abroad. onslaught. Mr. Sanders “wants to dismantle” The difference between Mr. Sanders and Mrs. In addition, allow individuals or retail- Medicare, ObamaCare and the state children’s Clinton is political character. He’s a sincere so- ers to freely import drugs from legiti- Snapshot Penalizes Braking, mate sellers or suppliers in any of health insurance program, she said. “I worry if cialist who follows his principles, however un- Ignores Red Light Runners we give Republicans Democratic permission to realistic or calamitous, to their logical conclu- I tried Progressive Corp’s Snap- do that, we’ll go back to an era—before we had sions. Mrs. Clinton will conceal her true Sunny Florida Should Try shot program for two months, until I the Affordable Care Act—that would strip mil- ambitions if that’s what it takes to win, and saw that my moderately good driving lions and millions and millions of people of their she’ll drop on her opponents any political anvils Dusklight Savings Time habits earned me only $14 annually health insurance.” that happen to be handy. Florida state Rep. Kristin Jacobs (“Car Insurers Find Tracking Is The nominal basis for these claims is that Mr. As President, Mrs. Clinton would head in has it precisely wrong (“Daylight-Sav- Tough Sell,” page one, Jan. 11). These Sanders, as a committed socialist, wants to so- Bernie’s direction only more slowly. If Obama- ing Time Gets Old,” U.S. News, Jan. 9). devices pervert the idea of safe driv- cialize American medicine. He’d replace the pro- Care continues to underperform, she’d also ex- Florida should opt out of DST alto- ing. In a 35-mile-per-hour zone, it’s grams Ms. Clinton invoked with a single-payer pand government control, dragging the U.S. gether, as federal law allows. Changing easy for traffic signals to change 60 clocks twice a year is one of the most or so feet ahead. In these cases “hard system that would supposedly cover everyone— ever closer to single payer. She might not go full ridiculous acts we perform as a nation, braking” (decelerating faster than 7 Medicare for all. Government medicine would Bernie, but she’d likely expand Medicare to peo- especially given the debatable benefit. mph per second) is the safe thing to be ruinously expensive and destructive of the ple over age 55 and push Medicaid deeper into Florida is blessed by intense sun- do. Yet a driver who brakes earns a quality of care, but Mr. Sanders is sincere in the middle class. light most of the year. The one hour of Snapshot penalty point, while those wanting everyone to experience this utopia. Far On Tuesday Mrs. Clinton said that “there is dusk provided by a permanent Eastern cruising through red lights maintain from an enemy of government coverage, by pro- no way that can be paid for without raising Standard Time would allow for a far clean records. I unplugged the thing gressive standards he’s a purer standard-bearer taxes on the middle class. The arithmetic just more comfortable late afternoon. and sent it back to Progressive. than Mrs. Clinton. doesn’t add up.” That at least is true—but it ap- Imagine more Floridians walking pets, RAY LYONS The former first lady was confronted with plies to her agenda too. She’s pretending that playing sports and enjoying the out- Cleveland Chelsea’s cheap shot on ABC’s “Good Morning all the new programs she wants to create from doors, rather than staying indoors to America” on Wednesday. “You know, I adore my free child care to debt-free college can be footed avoid the heat. With a natural sub- Letters intended for publication should tropical climate and an abundance of be addressed to: The Editor, 1211 Avenue daughter and I know what she was saying,” she by millionaires and billionaires. sunlight, Florida doesn’t require an ar- of the Americas, New York, NY 10036, replied, going on to argue that her daughter was The middle class is due for a huge tax in- tificial hour of sunlight as Hawaii and or emailed to wsj.ltrs@wsj.com. Please technically right that Mr. Sanders would “dis- crease under the next liberal President for the much of Arizona have already wisely include your city and state. All letters mantle” entitlements in their current form. same reason that Willie Sutton robbed banks— discerned. are subject to editing, and unpublished “Tell the people how much it will cost them. because that’s where the money is. Only Mr. YVETTE WOOLEY letters can be neither acknowledged nor returned. Every analysis shows it’s going to cost middle- Sanders is honest about it. Key Biscayne, Fla.

For personal non-commercial use only. Do not edit or alter. Reproductions not permitted. To reprint or license content, please contact our reprints and licensing department at +1 800-843-0008 or www.djreprints.com THE WALL STREET JOURNAL. * * * * Saturday/Sunday, January 16 - 17, 2016 Saturday/Sunday, January 16 - 17, 2016 P W L C 10 11 12 H T G K B F A M 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 O I X X **** THE WALL STREET JOURNAL. State Polls Tell a Different Story BY GERALD F. SEIB top by a whisker in two of the BushGets Graham’s The presidential campaign has reached that point in the past four polls there. In New Hampshire, Mr. Sanders leads in the RealClearPolitics.com Nod,Fights calendar when the key question is this: Are we in a national average of the past five polls. So, as in the Republican WithRubio CHARLIE NEIBERGALL/ASSOCIATED PRESS race, or a series of state races? race, the comfortable national The question arises anew lead doesn’t look so comfort- BY BETH REINHARD with some new findings on the able in the opening states. And AND REBECCA BALLHAUS Republican race from the Wall that matters, of course, be- Street Journal/ cause the race for a presiden- NORTH CHARLESTON, S.C.— ANALYSIS NBC News poll. tial nomination is, in fact, a The acrimony from Thursday But recent devel- series of statewide races, night’s Republican debate opments suggest which explains why candidates spilled into another day of the question is equally relevant pick states where they think backbiting on the campaign on the Democratic side. they can do especially well— trail Friday as home-state ri- In the new Journal/NBC Donald Trump opens a big lead nationally, but not in Iowa, where he campaigned Friday in Waukee. think of Mr. Christie in New vals Jeb Bush and Marco Rubio News look at the GOP race, Hampshire—plant a flag there traded their harshest insults Donald Trump leads the field ment only by Mr. Cruz. Totally lead in statewide polling that Mr. Bush has risen a bit. and hope to do well enough to so far in the primary. nationally, with 33% to 20% for missing from those numbers is does, in fact, resemble the one None of those movements is build momentum for the states South Carolina Sen. Lindsey Sen. Ted Cruz of Texas, 13% any sense of a rise by New Jer- he has nationally in the new matched in national polling. that come. Graham’s endorsement of Mr. for Sen. Marco Rubio of Flor- sey Gov. Chris Christie, or any Journal/NBC News poll. But A similar picture emerges Early on, a strong national Bush, a former governor of ida and 12% for retired neuro- renaissance by former Florida below that, Mr. Cruz isn’t as on the Democratic side. In the standing can affect how candi- Florida, at a hotel right across surgeon Ben Carson. Gov. Jeb Bush, or any sign of strong as the alternatives, and RealClearPolitics.com average dates are perceived in individ- the street from the debate site He also leads when the field life by Ohio Gov. John Kasich. the situation looks signifi- of national polls of the Demo- ual states. That certainly hap- turned into a platform for is hypothetically reduced to In the world of early pri- cantly different overall. cratic race, former Secretary pened for Mr. Trump, where broadsides against Mr. Rubio, three candidates, with 40% of mary states, though, the pic- Mr. Rubio, rather than Mr. of State Hillary Clinton leads his ability to catch on with dis- Florida’s junior senator. support, compared with 31% ture is different. In Iowa, home Cruz, tends to land in second Sen. Bernie Sanders by almost affected voters nationally Flanked by Mr. Graham, Mr. for Mr. Cruz and 26% for Mr. of the caucuses that will kick place in New Hampshire poll- nine percentage points—a helped him build strength in a Bush mocked Mr. Rubio for Rubio. He trails in a hypotheti- off presidential voting on Feb. ing. Mr. Kasich, who seems to comfortable though not over- state such as Iowa, which isn’t complaining about negative cal one-on-one matchup with 1, Mr. Cruz has led in three of be enjoying a late spurt, has whelming lead. natural ground for him. ads. “If you’re a candidate, you Mr. Cruz, 51% to 43%, though the past seven statewide polls. moved up to third in the latest The picture looks quite dif- But now, the campaign is can’t play the role of a victim. he beats Mr. Rubio, 52% to There is no commanding RealClearPolitics average of ferent in the opening states of arriving at a phase in which a So I’m not going to do it, and 45%. Trump lead. New Hampshire polling. Mr. Iowa and New Hampshire. In strong performance in an early he shouldn’t either,” he said. So, the national picture is of Meanwhile, in New Hamp- Christie nearly matches Mr. Iowa, Mrs. Clinton and Mr. state can change the national Mr. Rubio, who has sur- a generally powerful Mr. shire, home of the nation’s Cruz there, and even the Sanders are nearly tied in poll- picture of who is rising and passed his onetime mentor in Trump, threatened at the mo- first primary, Mr. Trump has a chronically underperforming ing, with each coming out on who is falling. the polls, unleashed his first negative television ad against Mr. Bush, saying, “Jeb Bush is Heard on desperate and spending mil- lions on false attacks. Don’t the Stump fall for it.” The biting exchanges reflect how unsettled the Republican Lawmakers Pick Film primary is just weeks before Over GOP Debate voting begins in Iowa. The race While GOP presidential front- features layers of rivalries, as runner Donald Trump clashed front-runners Donald Trump Thursday night with rival Ted and Ted Cruz vie for the top Cruz at a primary debate, the finishes in Iowa and then New House Republicans convening in Hampshire, and Mr. Rubio, Mr. Baltimore for a policy retreat Bush and New Jersey Gov. concluded there was something Chris Christie jockey for better to see. Instead of watching the de- bate, dozens of Republican law- Florida senator also makers could be seen marching goes after Christie down the street to see a screen- ing of the movie “13 Hours: Se- and Cruz in post- cret Soldiers Of Benghazi,” which debate appearances. depicts the 2012 attack on the American diplomatic outpost in Benghazi, Libya. strong enough finishes to “There were folks who were move on in the race. interested in seeing the portrayal Mr. Rubio, who has seen lit- of Benghazi, and it held I guess tle movement in state and na- more attraction than last night,” tional polls, was the most ag- MATT ROURKE/ASSOCIATED PRESS said Rep. Tom Price (R., Ga.), who gressive in his post-debate declared the movie “incredible.” appearances, using various After a gaggle of reporters media to go after Mr. Bush, Mr. chastised Mr. Price for putting a Christie and Mr. Cruz, a Texas movie ahead of a Republican senator. presidential debate, he said “Don’t In an interview on Fox throw me under the bus, now!” News, he criticized Mr. Cruz “Sorry—the bus is already roll- for switching positions on a ing,” one reporter teased back. number of key issues, includ- —Siobhan Hughes Marco Rubio campaigns on Friday in Hillsboro, N.H., as the senator and a website trade attacks over his position on cap-and-trade. ing crop insurance, ethanol subsidies and new trade rules. GOP Field Shifts Right on Climate “He campaigns as a consis- Trump’s Hats Are tent conservative,” Mr. Rubio ‘The Hottest Thing’ said of the Texas senator. “The Businessman Donald Trump only thing consistent is the may show little daring in his uni- BY AMY HARDER a 2008 bill authorizing the cans supported cap-and-trade. mer Florida Gov. Jeb Bush and consistent political calculation form of dark suits and red ties, AND BETH REINHARD state to come up with rules for Once Mr. Obama won the New Jersey Gov. Chris Chris- that ‘I’m going to change my but he’s happy that his cam- a cap-and-trade plan, though White House, Republicans tie, have said recently that it position if it helps me politi- paign gear is proving to be fash- Shortly after a conservative he raised questions about its swiftly unified against nearly is unclear how much, if at all, cally in a given moment.’ ” ion-forward. website on Wednesday posted cost and effectiveness. all of his initiatives, including humans are contributing to In a campaign stop in Derry, During a campaign event in 2008 footage of Sen. Marco But since running for U.S. a cap-and-trade bill that would warmer temperatures. N.H., on Friday, Mr. Rubio crit- Iowa on Friday, Mr. Trump inter- Rubio backing a cap-and-trade Senate in 2010 as the conser- have set limits on carbon The GOP front-runners, icized Mr. Christie for support- rupted his pitch to voters to ac- program to combat climate vative alternative to then-Gov. emissions and allowed compa- Donald Trump and Sen. Ted ing the appointment of liberal knowledge attendees wearing change, his campaign roared Charlie Crist, Mr. Rubio has nies to trade pollution credits Cruz (R., Texas), have been Supreme Court Justice Sonia his “Make America Great Again” back with a counterattack that questioned whether climate to comply. the most consistent in ques- Sotomayor, a charge the New hats. included an entire web page change is man-made, and op- Responding to what they tioning and even denying cli- Jersey governor disputed “Look at those beautiful aimed at debunking the video. posed potential remedies like call big-government overreach mate change. in Thursday’s debate. hats,” Mr. Trump said at the Liv- Mr. Rubio’s response re- cap-and-trade that he says by Mr. Obama, many Republi- For now, that consistency During the stop, Mr. Rubio ing History Farms in Urbandale, vealed how toxic the issue of would hurt the economy. cans have moved to the right has worked to their advantage, took a piece of paper out of his Iowa. “It’s the hottest thing.” climate change has become in Shifts by Mr. Rubio and on several other issues as well, Republican strategists say, pocket and read aloud com- Mr. Trump ribbed the uniden- the Republican Party under some of his rivals recall a past including illegal immigration, leaving rivals little room to ments Mr. Christie had made tified hat-wearers for sporting President Barack Obama, who that many in the GOP would health-insurance mandates outflank them on the right. in 2009 saying, “I support her imitation models that didn’t ap- has sought to make reducing like to forget: Republicans, not and the Common Core aca- Meanwhile, the three Dem- appointment to the Supreme pear to have been made in the carbon emissions to alleviate Democrats, first championed demic standards. ocratic candidates, including Court and urge the Senate to U.S. The issue, Mr. Trump said, is global warming one of his sig- market-based systems to con- GOP candidates who had front-runner Hillary Clinton, keep politics out of the process that the hats had become fash- nature accomplishments. trol pollution, as a way to generally accepted the scien- have consistently pushed for and confirm her nomination.” ion items, making the originals As speaker of the Florida avoid more direct regulation. tific consensus on man-made more aggressive climate poli- “Sounds like support,” Mr. hard to find. House, Mr. Rubio did vote for Until 2008, many Republi- climate change, including for- cies than Mr. Obama’s. Rubio said. “You know the problem, the Mr. Christie’s position on hats have become so hot,” Mr. Ms. Sotomayor was in fact Trump said. “It’s one of the hot- In the first 12 days of the some candidates—but the Campaign Capital slightly more nuanced. Mr. Ru- test accessories for women. year, a super PAC backing Jeb course of the past two cycles bio didn’t read aloud the por- Spending by super PACs so far this GOP primary cycle, most of it They go to fancy balls wearing Bush spent more than $13.5 has shown the limits of their tion of Mr. Christie’s 2009 backing Jeb Bush, has widely eclipsed money spent before the the hats.” million in Iowa, New Hampshire influence. comments in which he said primaries of early 2012. —Heather Haddon and other states on ads and di- Mr. Perry, for example, came that she “would not have been rect mail promoting the former in fifth in the Iowa caucuses in Super PAC spending in support of GOP candidates my choice,” but that he sup- Florida governor and attacking January 2012 and dropped out 2016 cycle* ported her appointment. his rivals. of the race later that month. Meanwhile, a super PAC That amount is more than The $60.9 million that the Jeb Bush $60.9 MILLION backing Mr. Rubio is running a super PACs spent in the entire super PAC backing Mr. Bush Chris Christie 12.4 spot that calls Mr. Bush’s cam- year leading up to the 2012 has reported spending on ad- Marco Rubio 12.2 paign “a train wreck” while a Iowa caucuses. vertising has done little to John Kasich group backing Mr. Bush, Right 7.6 Since the campaign season budge the candidate’s poll to Rise USA, is airing ads de- Ted Cruz 4.4 began last year, super PACs numbers. By contrast, Donald picting Mr. Rubio as a weather have spent more than $109 Trump has led in national poll- Rand Paul 4.1 vane who has shifted with the million to trumpet the major ing while super PACs have Ben Carson 3.4 $109.2 popular winds on immigration. candidates for the Republican spent only about $170,600 to Carly Fiorina 2.0 MILLION* Mr. Graham’s endorsement nomination, a Wall Street Jour- promote his candidacy, accord- of Mr. Bush is valued because Mike Huckabee 1.9 nal analysis of Federal Election ing to the FEC filings. of his status as one of the Commission filings shows. Much of the $109 million in Donald Trump 0.2 leading national-security By contrast, super PACs in advertising and mailers super hawks in Congress. ’I know that that is 2011 spent just $6.4 million in PACs purchased to promote 2012 cycle The alliance between Mr. Rick Perry $3.8 what Hillary Clinton support of their candidates. GOP candidates also includes Bush and Mr. Graham More than half of that pro- negative messages aimed at ri- Rick Santorum 0.8 prompted Mr. Trump to take says, but Hillary moted Texas Gov. Rick Perry. vals. In addition to that, super Newt Gingrich 0.5 to Twitter to try to undermine Clinton is not right.’ Super PACs are political-ac- PACs, some of them Demo- Mitt Romney 0.5 it: “Sen. Lindsey Graham em- tion committees that can raise cratic-leaning, have reported barrassed himself with his Herman Cain 0.4 and spend unlimited amounts spending $6.3 million on adver- failed run for president, and BERNIE SANDERS on CBS, of money but are barred from tising expressly intended to Ron Paul 0.4 $6.4 MILLION now further embarrasses him- responding to accusations that coordinating with campaigns. sully GOP candidates this cycle. in 2012 cycle self with endorsement of he is running negative ads. They have played a big role for —Daniel Nasaw *As of Jan. 14 Source: FEC filings THE WALL STREET JOURNAL. Bush.”

For personal non-commercial use only. Do not edit or alter. Reproductions not permitted. To reprint or license content, please contact our reprints and licensing department at +1 800-843-0008 or www.djreprints.com THE WALL STREET JOURNAL. * * * * * * Saturday/Sunday, January 16 - 17, 2016 0:02. Previous track Play or pause track Next track. Tech Explorer WAV MiDi

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Netflix says its testing a shuffle feature for when you dont know what to watch
Breaking the Internet: Identity Tourism, Image-Sharing, and Whitewashing the Black Female Body
Obama warns of catastrophe if stimulus delayed

Источник: https://agpubcornsi.tistory.com/22

Wednesday, December 31, 2014

DVDFab DVD Creator 9.1.8.1 (Trial)

Burn all sorts of videos onto DVD discs with this particular piece of software and also create simple DVD menus for your video content

DVDFab DVD Creator 9.1.8.1 (Trial)

Alternate Timer 3.130 (Freeware)

A lightweight and user-friendly program that can successfully help you manage any timing operation (work, Internet usage or others)

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ArcReader 10.3 Build 4332 (Freeware)

An easy to use map viewer for ArcMap files that comes with a handy set of printing features to help you list the maps you need on the fly

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Batch Image Watermarker 5.5.2.0 (Demo)

A neat software solution that is designed to help you stamp your favorite picture and crop, sharpen or blur the created watermark

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Visual Paradigm Standard Edition Portable 12.0 Build 20141223 (Trial)

Model your software system with UML and SysML diagrams, retrieve data without writing any SQL code or JDBC calls in your source code

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FastKeys 2.21 (Trial)

A powerful automation software that helps you configure programs to start different activities on your computer, assign keystrokes for performing various operations, define abbreviation strings for your frequently used text, and manage mouse gestures

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glogg 1.0.2 (GPL)

A lightweight, yet dependable application that helps you seamlessly analyze log files and search for information regarding certain problems

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VMD 1.9.1 / 1.9.2 Beta 2 (Freeware)

A powerful application that is designed to provide a means of looking at biomolecular systems in order to perform molecule analysis or similar tasks

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Bgcall 2.6.5.1 (Freeware)

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An intuitive and user-friendly application whose main purpose is to capture your screen and to output the recording in animated GIF files

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A practical utility that combines professional UML modeling, integration with major IDEs, code generation or reverse engineering and excellent interoperability with other applications

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An intuitive and user-friendly application that was designed to converts DVDs to other video/audio formats while preserving the quality of the original files

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An intuitive tool designed to help you write down your dreams into a electronic journal and assign locations, characters, actions, themes and emotions

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A practical and effective enhancement tool specially designed for your mouse that helps you to switch between multiple windows effortlessly

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On-demand scanner that detects and removes popular forms of malware, which does not require installation and can be run from a pen drive

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Girder 6.0.2 Build 02 (Trial)

The leading Windows automation utility that allows you to remote control your computer using wireless or InfraRed based remote controls

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Smuds - SoftOve Multi Database Scripter 3.02 (GPLv3)

A simple to use application that allows you to connect to the server and execute a series of scripts on several databases in on go

Smuds - SoftOve Multi Database Scripter 3.02 (GPLv3)

Estimator 1.99.24.65 (Freeware)

An application for the construction industry that can estimate the costs of a contract, as well as to keep track on projects and clients

Estimator 1.99.24.65 (Freeware)

MinT Portable 2.6.0.0 (Freeware)

Text editing software application with some standard, yet handy features for all types of users, regardless of their level of experience

MinT Portable 2.6.0.0 (Freeware)

Display Driver Uninstaller 13.5.5.0 (Freeware)

Quickly uninstalls NVIDIA, AMD and Intel display drivers in a matter of clicks, featuring support for saving program activity to file

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Pixopedia 2014 0.2.3 (Freeware)

A fast and intuitive program designed to provide users with a new approach to editing of images, paintings, animations and videos

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IsMyHdOK 1.12 (Freeware)

You can use this effective and use-friendly application to run benchmarking tests on SSD, HDD, SD card, USB stick and estimate their read and write speeds

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FileOptimizer 6.80.329 / 7.00.352 Beta 3 (Freeware)

A simple, useful and effective program whose main purpose is to help users such as content creators to re-compress and optimize multiple files

FileOptimizer 6.80.329 / 7.00.352 Beta 3 (Freeware)

GuardAxon 2.9 (Freeware)

An application used to encrypt and decrypt your sensitive files for safe transportation or to ensure secure transfer over the Internet

GuardAxon 2.9 (Freeware)

IconEdit2 [DISCOUNT: 50% OFF] 6.9 (Demo)

Helps you edit your icons to the last pixel while working in a user-friendly and intuitive environment, with all the tools at hand

IconEdit2 [DISCOUNT: 50% OFF] 6.9 (Demo)

Musican 1.10 (Freeware)

This MP3 player and music organizer aims to help you save the time needed to group files in your audio library and create playlists for future use

Musican 1.10 (Freeware)

Artweaver Plus 5.0.2 (Trial)

Complex painting and editing software application that provides a friendly environment and a large number of options to tinker with

Artweaver Plus 5.0.2 (Trial)

BinaryMark Batch Image Enhancer 5.5.2.0 (Demo)

A complex application that is designed to help you edit batch images using the crop, rotate, resize, sharp or blur functions, and also add effects to your pictures

BinaryMark Batch Image Enhancer 5.5.2.0 (Demo)

Asman Task Management 1.2.0.0 (Shareware)

An interesting application that aims to help you organize your work into drawer-like compartments, letting you set reminders for upcoming tasks

Asman Task Management 1.2.0.0 (Shareware)

ETU SQL for DB2 7.0.0 Update 1 (Trial)

A comprehensive, yet user-friendly application that enables you to access and operate an IBM DB2 database, even with minimal instruction

ETU SQL for DB2 7.0.0 Update 1 (Trial)
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