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    SAMHSA Authors

    Rebecca Ahrnsbrak
    Jonaki Bose
    Sarra L. Hedden
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    All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission from SAMHSA. Citation of the source is appreciated. However, this publication may not be reproduced or distributed for a fee without the specific, written authorization of the Office of Communications, SAMHSA, HHS.

    Electronic Access and Printed Copies

    This publication may be downloaded or ordered at https://store.samhsa.gov. Or call SAMHSA at 1-877-SAMHSA-7(1-877-726-4727) (English and Español).

    Recommended Citation

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (2017). Key substance use and mental health indicators in the United States: Results from the 2016 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (HHS Publication No. SMA 17-5044, NSDUH Series H-52). Rockville, MD: Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Retrieved from https://www.samhsa.gov/data/

    Originating Office

    Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 5600 Fishers Lane, Room 15-E09D, Rockville, MD 20857.


    September 2017

    Summary

    This national report summarizes key findings from the 2016 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) for indicators of substance use and mental health among people aged 12 years old or older in the civilian, noninstitutionalized population of the United States. Results are provided for the overall category of individuals aged 12 or older as well as by age subgroups. The NSDUH questionnaire underwent a partial redesign in 2015 to improve the quality of the NSDUH data and to address the changing needs of policymakers and researchers. For measures that started a new baseline in 2015, estimates are discussed only for 2016.

    Tobacco Use

    In 2016, an estimated 51.3 million people aged 12 or older were current cigarette smokers, including 29.7 million who were daily cigarette smokers and 12.2 million who smoked approximately a pack or more of cigarettes per day. Although about 1 in 5 people aged 12 or older were current cigarette smokers, cigarette use generally declined between 2002 and 2016 across all age groups.

    Alcohol Use

    NSDUH collects information on past month alcohol use, binge alcohol use, and heavy alcohol use. For men, binge alcohol use is defined in NSDUH as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion on at least 1 day in the past 30 days. For women, binge drinking is defined as drinking four or more drinks on the same occasion on at least 1 day in the past 30 days. Heavy alcohol use is defined as binge drinking on 5 or more days in the past 30 days. In 2016, 136.7 million Americans aged 12 or older reported current use of alcohol, including 65.3 million who reported binge alcohol use in the past month and 16.3 million who reported heavy alcohol use in the past month.

    In 2016, about 1 in 5 underage individuals aged 12 to 20 were current alcohol users. About 7.3 million people aged 12 to 20 reported drinking alcohol in the past month, including 4.5 million who reported binge alcohol use and 1.1 million who reported heavy alcohol use. The percentage of underage drinkers in 2016 was lower than the percentages in 2002 through 2014 but was similar to the percentage in 2015. About 2 out of 5 young adults aged 18 to 25 in 2016 were binge alcohol users, and about 1 in 10 were heavy alcohol users.

    Illicit Drug Use

    In 2016, 28.6 million people aged 12 or older used an illicit drug in the past 30 days, which corresponds to about 1 in 10 Americans overall (10.6 percent) but ranges as high as 1 in 4 for young adults aged 18 to 25. Regardless of age, the illicit drug use estimate for 2016 continues to be driven primarily by marijuana use and the misuse of prescription pain relievers. Among people aged 12 or older, 24.0 million were current marijuana users and 3.3 million were current misusers of prescription pain relievers. Smaller numbers of people were current users of cocaine, hallucinogens, methamphetamine, inhalants, or heroin or were current misusers of prescription tranquilizers, stimulants, or sedatives.

    The percentage of people aged 12 or older who were current marijuana users in 2016 was higher than the percentages from 2002 to 2015. In contrast, the percentages among people aged 12 or older have shown little change since 2007 for current use of cocaine, since 2008 for current use of crack cocaine, and since 2014 for current use of heroin. The increase in marijuana use reflects increases in marijuana use among adults aged 26 or older and, to a lesser extent, among young adults aged 18 to 25. Marijuana use among adolescents aged 12 to 17 was lower in 2016 than in most years from 2009 to 2014.

    NSDUH also allows for analysis of opioid misuse, which is the use of heroin or the misuse of prescription opioid pain relievers. In 2016, an estimated 11.8 million people misused opioids in the past year, including 11.5 million pain reliever misusers and 948,000 heroin users. Additional information is gathered in NSDUH for the misuse of pain relievers in the past year. Among people aged 12 or older who misused pain relievers in the past year, about 6 out of 10 people indicated that the main reason they misused pain relievers the last time was to relieve physical pain (62.3 percent), and about half (53.0 percent) indicated that they obtained the last pain relievers they misused from a friend or relative.

    Substance Sketch 51.2 crack - Crack Key For U Disorders

    In 2016, approximately 20.1 million people aged 12 or older had a substance use disorder (SUD) related to their use of alcohol or illicit drugs in the past year,1 including 15.1 million people who had an alcohol use disorder and 7.4 million people who had an illicit drug use disorder. Among those who had an illicit drug use disorder, the most common disorder was for marijuana (4.0 million people). An estimated 2.1 million people had an opioid use disorder, which includes 1.8 million people with a prescription pain reliever use disorder and 0.6 million people with a heroin use disorder.

    Substance Use Treatment

    In 2016, an estimated 21.0 million people aged 12 or older needed substance use treatment. This translates to about 1 in 13 people needing treatment. Among young adults aged 18 to 25, however, about 1 in 7 people needed treatment. For NSDUH, people are defined as needing substance use treatment if they had an SUD in the past year or if they received substance use treatment at a specialty facility in the past year.2

    In 2016, 1.4 percent of people aged 12 or older (3.8 million people) received any substance use treatment in the past year, and 0.8 percent (2.2 million) received substance use treatment at a specialty facility. Only about 1 in 10 people aged 12 or older who needed substance use treatment received treatment at a specialty facility in the past year (10.6 percent).

    Major Depressive Episode

    In 2016, 12.8 percent of adolescents aged 12 to 17 (3.1 million adolescents) and 10.9 percent of young adults aged 18 to 25 (3.7 million) had a major depressive episode (MDE) during the past year. The percentages of adolescents and young adults in 2016 who had a past year MDE were higher than the corresponding percentages prior to 2015. Percentages of adolescents and young adults with a past year MDE have subsequently shown less change. In contrast, the percentages of adults aged 26 to 49 and those aged 50 or older with a past year MDE have remained stable.

    Among the 3.1 million adolescents and 3.7 million young adults in 2016 who had a past year MDE, 1.2 million adolescents (40.9 percent) and 1.6 million young adults (44.1 percent) received treatment for depression. The percentage of adolescents in 2016 with an MDE who received treatment for their depression was similar to the percentages in most prior years. Among young adults, the percentage with an MDE who received treatment for depression was similar to or lower than the percentages in prior years.

    Mental Illness among Adults

    In 2016, an estimated 44.7 million adults aged 18 or older (18.3 percent) had any mental illness (AMI) in the past year. An estimated 10.4 million adults in the nation had a serious mental illness (SMI) in the past year, representing 4.2 percent of all U.S. adults.3 Although the 2016 percentages of adults with AMI or SMI among adults aged 18 or older were similar to the percentages since 2010, a higher percentage of young adults was experiencing AMI and SMI. The 2016 percentage of young adults with SMI was higher than the percentages in each year since 2008, and the 2016 percentage of young adults with AMI was higher than the percentages in 2008 to 2014.

    Mental Health Service Use among Adults

    In 2016, an estimated 35.0 million adults aged 18 or older (14.4 percent of adults) received mental health care during the past 12 months. Among the 44.7 million adults with AMI, 19.2 million (43.1 percent) received mental health services in the past year. About 6.7 million of the 10.4 million adults with past year SMI (64.8 percent) received mental health services in the past year. The percentages of adults with AMI or SMI who received mental health care in 2016 were similar to the corresponding percentages in most years from 2008 to 2015.

    Co-Occurring MDE and Substance Use among Adolescents

    In 2016, the percentage of adolescents aged 12 to 17 who used illicit drugs in the past year was higher among those with a past year MDE than it was among those without a past year MDE (31.7 vs. 13.4 percent). An estimated 333,000 adolescents (1.4 percent of all adolescents) had an SUD and an MDE in the past year. Among adolescents who had a co-occurring MDE and an SUD in the past year, 71.9 percent received either substance use treatment at a specialty facility or mental health services in the past year.

    Co-Occurring Mental Illness and Substance Use Disorders among Adults

    An estimated 8.2 million adults aged 18 or older (3.4 percent of all adults) had both AMI and SUDs in the past year, and 2.6 million adults (1.1 percent of all adults) had co-occurring SMI and SUDs in the past year. About half of the adults with co-occurring AMI and an SUD in the past year did not receive either mental health care or specialty substance use treatment, and about 1 in 3 adults with co-occurring SMI and an SUD did not receive either type of care.

    Suicidal Thoughts and Behavior among Adults

    In 2016, an estimated 9.8 million adults aged 18 or older reported they had thought seriously about trying to kill themselves, 2.8 million reported that they had made suicide plans, and 1.3 million made a nonfatal suicide attempt. The percentage of young adults aged 18 to 25 with serious thoughts of suicide was higher in 2016 than in 2008 to 2014. In contrast, similar percentages of adults aged 18 or older, those aged 26 to 49, and those aged 50 or older had serious thoughts of suicide in most years between 2008 and 2016.

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    Introduction

    Substance use and mental health issues affect millions of adolescents and adults in the United States and contribute heavily to the burden of disease.1,2,3 The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) is the primary source for statistical information on illicit drug use, alcohol use, substance use disorders (SUDs), and mental health issues for the civilian, noninstitutionalized population of the United States. Information on mental health and substance use allows the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) and other policymakers to gauge progress toward improving the health of the nation.

    This report summarizes findings for key substance use and mental health indicators from the 2016 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH).

    This report contains the first set of findings from the 2016 NSDUH for key substance use and mental health indicators in the United States. Comprehensive 2016 NSDUH detailed tables that show additional substance use and mental health-related outcomes, including data for various subpopulations covered in NSDUH, are available separately at https://www.samhsa.gov/data/.4

    Survey Background

    NSDUH is an annual survey of the civilian, noninstitutionalized population of the United States aged 12 years old or older.5 The survey is sponsored by SAMHSA within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). The survey covers residents of households and individuals in noninstitutional group quarters (e.g., shelters, boarding houses, college dormitories, migratory workers' camps, halfway houses). The survey excludes people with no fixed address (e.g., homeless people not in shelters), military personnel on active duty, and residents of institutional group quarters, such as jails, nursing homes, mental institutions, and long-term care hospitals.

    NSDUH employs a stratified multistage area probability sample that is designed to be representative of both the nation as a whole and for each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia. The 2016 NSDUH annual target sample size of 67,500 interviews was distributed across three age groups, with 25 percent allocated to adolescents aged 12 to 17, 25 percent allocated to young adults aged 18 to 25, and 50 percent allocated to adults aged 26 or older. From 2002 through 2013, the NSDUH sample was allocated equally across these three age groups. Although the sample design changed in 2014, NSDUH had the same total target sample size per year of 67,500 interviews between 2002 and 2016.6

    NSDUH is a face-to-face household interview survey that is conducted in two phases: the screening phase and the interview phase. The interviewer conducts a screening of the sampled household with an adult resident (aged 18 or older) in order to determine whether zero, one, or two residents aged 12 or older should be selected for the interview.7 NSDUH collects data using audio computer-assisted self interviewing (ACASI) in which respondents read or listen to the questions on headphones, then enter their answers directly into a NSDUH laptop computer. ACASI is designed for accurate reporting of information by providing respondents with a highly private and confidential mode for responding to questions about illicit drug use, mental health, and other sensitive behaviors. NSDUH also uses computer-assisted personal interviewing (CAPI) in which interviewers read less sensitive questions to respondents and enter the respondents' answers into a NSDUH laptop computer.

    This report is based on data from 67,942 completed interviews from 2016 NSDUH respondents aged 12 or older.

    In 2016, screening was completed at 135,188 addresses, and 67,942 completed interviews were obtained, including 17,109 interviews from adolescents aged 12 to 17 and 50,833 interviews from adults aged 18 or older. Weighted response rates for household screening and for interviewing were 77.9 and 68.4 percent, respectively, for an overall response rate of 53.3 percent for people aged 12 or older. The weighted interview response rates were 77.0 percent for adolescents and 67.6 percent for adults.8 Further details about the 2016 NSDUH design and methods can be found on the web at https://www.samhsa.gov/data/.9

    Data Presentation and Interpretation

    This report focuses on substance use and mental health in the United States based on NSDUH data from 2016 and earlier years.10 Estimates of substance use and substance use treatment are presented for individuals aged 12 or older, adolescents, and adults.11 However, estimates of mental health issues and mental health service use are not presented jointly for individuals aged 12 or older. Rather, these estimates are presented separately for adolescents aged 12 to 17 and adults aged 18 or older because adolescents and adults completed different sets of questions regarding mental health and mental health service utilization. All estimates (e.g., percentages and numbers) presented in the report are derived from NSDUH survey data that are subject to sampling errors. The estimates have met the criteria for statistical precision. Estimates that do not meet these criteria have been suppressed and are not shown.12

    One of NSDUH's strengths is the stability in the sample and survey designs. This stability allows for the examination of trends across time. However, the benefit of using NSDUH data to assess trends has to be balanced with the periodic need to revise NSDUH content to address changes in society and emerging issues. Consequently, the NSDUH questionnaire underwent a partial redesign in 2015 to improve the quality of the NSDUH data and to address the changing needs of policymakers and researchers with regard to substance use and mental health issues. New baselines were started in 2015 for estimates that were affected by changes to the 2015 NSDUH questionnaire.13,14,15

    Trends are presented in this report for estimates from the 2016 NSDUH that are assumed to have remained comparable with estimates from 2015 and prior years.14,15 All trends that are presented in the report compare 2016 estimates with estimates from 3 or more prior years. When new baselines started in 2015, estimates are discussed only for 2016. Trends that are discussed in this report focus on percentages because the percentages take into account changes in the size of the total population and facilitate the comparison of estimates across years.16

    Analyses of trends in this report focus on long-term trends in substance use and mental health issues.

    Statistical tests also have been conducted for comparisons that appear in the text of the report. Statistically significant differences are described using terms such as "higher," "lower," "increased," or "decreased." Statements use terms such as "similar," "remained steady," or "stable" when a difference is not statistically significant. Analyses of long-term trends in this report summarize whether the 2016 estimates are different from or similar to estimates in most or all previous years,17 while minimizing discussion of anomalous differences between any 2 years that can occur due to these estimates being based on samples.18,19 Graphics and tables contain estimates that support the statements in this report, and supplementary tables of estimates (including standard errors) are included in Appendix A.

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    Tobacco Use in the Vsdc video editor pro tutorial - Crack Key For U Month

    Tobacco use continues to be the leading cause of preventable death in the United States.20 NSDUH data can be used to estimate the percentage of individuals who used tobacco products and can be used to monitor changes in use over time. NSDUH asks respondents aged 12 or older about their tobacco use in the 30 days before the interview. Tobacco products include cigarettes, smokeless tobacco (such as snuff, dip, chewing tobacco, or "snus"), cigars, and pipe tobacco. Cigarette use is defined as smoking "part or all of a cigarette." A discussion of the estimates for daily cigarette smoking follows a presentation of the estimates for any current cigarette smoking. Finally, this section presents estimates for current use of cigars, pipe tobacco, and smokeless tobacco. Estimates for smokeless tobacco use since 2015 are not comparable with estimates prior to 2015 because of questionnaire changes in 2015.

    The majority of current (i.e., past month) tobacco users in 2016 were current cigarette smokers (Figure 1), as has been the case historically.21 Among current users aged 12 or older of any tobacco product, 66.8 percent smoked cigarettes but did not use other tobacco products, 14.1 percent smoked cigarettes and used some other type of tobacco product, and 19.1 percent used only tobacco products other than cigarettes (Figure 2). This same pattern was observed across the two older age groups in 2016 (young adults aged 18 to 25 and adults aged 26 or older), with most current tobacco users smoking only cigarettes, followed by the use of tobacco products other than cigarettes or the use of both cigarettes and other tobacco products (Table A.5B in Appendix A). Among young adults and adults aged 26 or older who were current users of tobacco products, about 20 percent did not smoke cigarettes (21.6 and 18.1 percent, respectively). In contrast, among adolescents who were current tobacco users, 35.4 percent used tobacco products other than cigarettes but did not smoke cigarettes. In addition, about one fourth of adolescents and young adults who were current tobacco users smoked cigarettes and used other tobacco products (24.6 and 24.4 percent, respectively). Among adults aged 26 or older who were current tobacco users, about 1 in 8 (11.8 percent) were current cigarette smokers and current users of other tobacco products.

    Figure 1. Numbers of Past Month Tobacco Users among People Aged 12 or Older: 2016

    Figure 1     D

    Note: Estimated numbers of people refer to people aged 12 or older in the civilian, noninstitutionalized population in the United States. The numbers do not sum to the total population of the United States because the population for NSDUH does not include people aged 11 years old or younger, people with no fixed household address (e.g., homeless or transient people not in shelters), active-duty military personnel, and residents of institutional group quarters, such as correctional facilities, nursing homes, mental institutions, and long-term care hospitals.

    Note: The estimated numbers of current users of different tobacco products are not mutually exclusive because people could have used more than one type of tobacco product in the past month.


    Figure 2. Type of Past Month Tobacco Use among Current Tobacco Users Aged 12 or Older: Percentages, 2016

    Figure 2     D

    Cigarette Use

    In 2016, an estimated 51.3 million people aged 12 or older were current cigarette smokers (Figure 1). This number corresponds to 19.1 percent of the population being current cigarette smokers (Figure 3). The percentage of people aged 12 or older who smoked cigarettes in the past month was lower in 2016 than in 2002 to 2014, but it was similar to the percentage in 2015. Stated another way, about 1 in 5 people aged 12 or older in 2016 were current cigarette smokers. In comparison, about 1 in 4 people aged 12 or older were current cigarette smokers in 2002 to 2008 (ranging from 24.0 to 26.0 percent). Although cigarette smoking has declined, some of this decline may reflect the use of electronic vaporizing devices for delivering nicotine, such as e-cigarettes. For example, research indicates that in 2013, more than a quarter million middle school and high school students (263,000) never smoked a conventional cigarette but used e-cigarettes, which may pertain to products with or without nicotine.22 Future research on both cigarette use and e-cigarette use is needed to continue monitoring these developments; however, NSDUH does not currently ask direct questions about e-cigarette use.

    Figure 3. Past Month Cigarette Use among People Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, 2002-2016

    Figure 3     D

    + Difference between this estimate and the 2016 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.

    Age020304050607080910111213141516
    ≥1226.0+25.4+24.9+24.9+25.0+24.3+24.0+23.3+23.0+22.1+22.1+21.3+20.8+19.419.1
    12-1713.0+12.2+11.9+10.8+10.4+9.9+9.2+9.0+8.4+7.8+6.6+5.6+4.9+4.2+3.4
    18-2540.8+40.2+39.5+39.0+38.5+36.2+35.7+35.8+34.3+33.5+31.8+30.6+28.4+26.7+23.5
    ≥2625.2+24.7+24.1+24.3+24.7+24.1+23.8+23.0+22.8+21.9+22.4+21.6+21.5+20.020.2

    Aged 12 to 17

    In 2016, 855,000 adolescents aged 12 to 17 smoked cigarettes in the past month. This number represents 3.4 percent adolescents who were current cigarette smokers (Figure 3). The percentage of adolescents who were past month cigarette smokers declined from 13.0 percent in 2002 (or about 1 in 8 adolescents) to 3.4 percent in 2016 (or fewer than 1 in 20). The percentage of adolescents who were current cigarette smokers in 2016 also was lower than the percentages in each year from 2002 to 2015.

    Aged 18 to 25

    Among young adults aged 18 to 25 in 2016, 8.1 million individuals smoked cigarettes in the past month. This number of young adults who were current cigarette smokers represents about one quarter of young adults (23.5 percent) (Figure 3). The percentage of young adults who were current cigarette smokers in 2016 was lower than the percentages in 2002 to 2015.

    Aged 26 or Older

    In 2016, 42.4 million adults aged 26 or older smoked cigarettes in the past month. Stated another way, 1 out of 5 adults aged 26 or older (20.2 percent) were current cigarette smokers in 2016 (Figure 3). The 2016 estimate for current cigarette smoking among adults 26 or older was lower than the estimates from 2002 to 2014, but it was similar to the estimate for 2015.

    Daily Cigarette Use

    Among the 51.3 million current cigarette smokers aged 12 or older in 2016, 29.7 million were daily cigarette smokers. The 29.7 million daily smokers represent 57.9 percent of current cigarette smokers (Figure 4). Thus, nearly three fifths of current cigarette smokers in 2016 smoked cigarettes daily. The percentage of current smokers aged 12 or older in 2016 who smoked cigarettes daily was lower than the percentages in most years from 2002 to 2012, but it was similar to the percentages in 2013 to 2015 (Table 1).

    Figure 4. Daily Cigarette Use among Past Month Cigarette Smokers Aged 12 or Older and Smoking of One or More Packs of Cigarettes per Day among Current Daily Smokers: 2016

    Figure 4     D

    Note: Current daily smokers with unknown data about the number of cigarettes smoked per day were excluded from the pie graph on the right.

    Age Group200220032004200520062007200820092010201120122013201420152016
    12 or Older63.4+62.9+62.3+63.0+62.3+61.3+61.5+61.0+59.560.7+60.7+59.658.858.157.9  
    12 to 1731.8+29.7+27.6+25.8+26.5+26.4+22.3+23.0+22.5+22.7+22.0+19.4+24.1+20.0+15.0  
    18 to 2551.8+52.7+51.6+50.1+48.8+49.2+47.8+45.3+45.8+45.3+45.1+43.1+43.0+42.039.9  
    26 or Older68.8+68.0+67.8+68.9+67.9+66.3+67.0+67.2+64.8+66.5+66.0+64.9+63.362.762.2  

    Among the 29.7 million daily smokers aged 12 or older in 2016, 12.2 million reported smoking 16 or more cigarettes per day (i.e., approximately one pack or more per day). Stated another way, about 2 out of 5 daily smokers (41.1 percent) reported smoking a pack or more of cigarettes per day (Figures 4 and 5). The percentage of daily smokers aged 12 or older who smoked one or more packs of cigarettes per day was lower in 2016 than the percentages in 2002 to 2011.

    Figure 5. Smokers of One or More Packs of Cigarettes per Day among Past Month Daily Cigarette Smokers Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, 2002-2016

    Figure 5     D

    + Difference between this estimate and the 2016 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.

    Age020304050607080910111213141516
    ≥1253.1+53.5+54.0+51.4+50.6+50.9+49.2+45.9+45.1+43.8+42.041.340.341.141.1
    12-1721.822.019.420.117.918.718.417.916.714.810.811.911.97.8*
    18-2539.1+37.1+34.9+36.9+34.4+32.9+31.6+29.527.326.125.122.3+22.5+22.5+26.2
    ≥2657.1+58.0+59.2+55.1+54.5+55.1+53.0+49.4+48.8+47.4+45.244.743.344.143.1

    Aged 12 to 17

    In 2016, about 129,000 adolescents aged 12 to 17 smoked cigarettes every day in the past month, which represents about 1 in 7 (15.0 percent) adolescents who were current smokers (Table 1). The 2016 percentage was lower than the percentages in 2002 to 2015. The percentage of adolescent daily smokers who smoked one or more packs of cigarettes per day was not reported for 2016 due to low precision (Figure 5).

    Aged 18 to 25

    About 3.2 million young adults aged 18 to 25 in 2016 were daily cigarette smokers in the past month, or 39.9 percent of young adults who were current cigarette smokers (Table 1). Thus, about 2 in 5 young adults in 2016 who were current cigarette users smoked cigarettes daily. The percentage of young adult current smokers who smoked cigarettes daily in 2016 was lower than the sketch 51.2 crack - Crack Key For U in years from 2002 to 2014, and it was similar to the percentage in 2015. The percentage of young adult daily smokers who smoked one or more packs of cigarettes per day was lower in 2016 (26.2 percent) than in 2002 to 2008, but it was higher than the percentages in 2013 to 2015 (Figure 5).

    Aged 26 or Older

    In 2016, about 26.3 million adults aged 26 or older smoked cigarettes every day in the past month, which represents 62.2 percent of the adults aged 26 or older who were current smokers (Table 1). The percentage of current smokers aged 26 or older in 2016 who smoked cigarettes every day was lower than the percentages in 2002 to 2013, but it was similar to the percentages in 2014 and 2015. Despite the decline since 2002, when nearly 70 percent of current smokers aged 26 or older were daily smokers, about three fifths of current smokers in this age group in 2016 were daily smokers. Among daily smokers aged 26 or older, the percentage who smoked one or more packs of cigarettes per day was lower in 2016 (43.1 percent) than in 2002 to 2011, but the percentage was stable between 2012 and 2016 (Figure 5).

    Cigar and Pipe Tobacco Use

    An estimated 12.3 million people aged 12 or older in 2016 were current cigar smokers, and 2.3 million were current pipe tobacco smokers (Figure 1). These numbers correspond to 4.6 percent of the population aged 12 or older who were current cigar smokers (Figure 6) and 0.8 percent who were current pipe tobacco smokers (Figure 7). Among people aged 12 or older, the percentage who were current cigar smokers was lower in 2016 than in 2002 through 2012, but it was similar to the percentages in 2013 to 2015. The percentage of people who were current pipe tobacco smokers in 2016 was similar to the percentages in most years between 2002 and 2015.

    Figure 6. Past Month Cigar Use among People Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, 2002-2016

    Figure 6     D

    + Difference between this estimate and the 2016 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.

    Age020304050607080910111213141516
    ≥125.4+5.4+5.7+5.6+5.6+5.4+5.3+5.3+5.2+5.0+5.2+4.74.54.74.6
    12-174.5+4.5+4.8+4.2+4.1+4.3+3.8+4.0+3.2+3.4+2.6+2.3+2.12.11.8
    18-2511.0+11.4+12.7+12.0+12.1+11.9+11.4+11.5+11.3+10.9+10.7+10.0+9.7+8.98.8
    ≥264.64.54.6+4.7+4.6+4.44.44.44.44.24.54.13.94.34.2

    Figure 7. Past Month Pipe Tobacco Use among People Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, 2002-2016

    Figure 7     D

    + Difference between this estimate and the 2016 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.

    Age020304050607080910111213141516
    ≥120.80.7+0.80.90.90.80.80.80.80.81.00.90.80.80.8
    12-170.60.60.7+0.60.70.7+0.7+0.9+0.60.7+0.70.60.7+0.30.5
    18-251.1+0.9+1.2+1.51.3+1.2+1.41.81.81.91.82.2+1.91.81.7
    ≥260.80.60.70.80.90.80.60.70.70.70.90.70.70.80.7

    Aged 12 to 17

    Among adolescents aged 12 to 17 in 2016, 448,000 individuals smoked cigars, and 123,000 smoked pipe tobacco in the past month. These numbers indicate that 1.8 percent of adolescents were current cigar smokers (Figure 6) and 0.5 percent were current pipe tobacco smokers in 2016 (Figure 7). A lower percentage of adolescents in 2016 were current cigar smokers than in 2002 to 2013, but the 2016 estimate was similar to the estimates in 2014 and 2015. The estimate for current pipe tobacco smoking among adolescents in 2016 was similar to or slightly lower than the estimates in 2002 to 2015.

    Aged 18 to 25

    In 2016, 3.0 million young adults aged 18 to 25 smoked cigars, and 573,000 smoked pipe tobacco. These numbers indicate that 8.8 percent of young adults were current cigar smokers (Figure 6) and 1.7 percent were current pipe tobacco smokers in 2016 (Figure 7). The percentage of young adults in 2016 who were current cigar smokers was lower than in 2002 to 2014, but it was similar to the percentage in 2015. The percentage of young adults in 2016 who were current pipe tobacco smokers was greater than the percentages in most years from 2002 to 2008, but the 2016 estimate was similar to the estimates in most years from 2009 to 2015. Although the percentage of young adults who were current pipe tobacco smokers increased relative to the percentages in 2002 to 2007 and was fairly stable after 2007, current smoking of pipe tobacco among young adults in 2016 was less common than the use of other types of tobacco.

    Aged 26 or Older

    About 8.8 million adults aged 26 or older in 2016 smoked cigars, and 1.6 million smoked pipe tobacco. These numbers correspond to current cigar smoking by 4.2 percent of adults aged 26 or older (Figure 6) and current pipe tobacco smoking by 0.7 percent of adults in this age group (Figure 7). The 2016 estimates for current cigar use among adults aged 26 or older were similar to estimates in 2007 to 2015. The 2016 estimates for current pipe tobacco smoking among adults aged 26 or older were similar to estimates between 2002 and 2015.

    Smokeless Tobacco Use

    In 2015, questions on snuff and chewing tobacco were combined into a single set of questions about smokeless tobacco, and a moist tobacco powder referred to as snus was added to the question as an example of smokeless tobacco. Consequently, estimates of smokeless tobacco use in 2016 are not comparable with those prior to 2015.

    In 2016, an estimated 8.8 million people aged 12 or older in 2016 were current smokeless tobacco users (Figure 1). This number of current smokeless tobacco users corresponds to 3.3 percent of the population aged 12 or older (Figure 8). About 352,000 adolescents aged 12 to 17 used smokeless tobacco in the past month, or 1.4 percent of adolescents. An estimated 1.8 million young adults aged 18 to 25 used smokeless tobacco in the past month, or 5.2 percent of young adults. About 6.6 million adults aged 26 or older used smokeless tobacco in the past month, which represents 3.1 percent of adults in this age group.

    Figure 8. Past Month Smokeless Tobacco Use among People Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, 2016

    Figure 8     D

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    Alcohol Use in the Past Month

    NSDUH asks respondents aged 12 or older about their alcohol use in the 30 days before the interview. Current alcohol use is defined as any use of alcohol in the past 30 days. In addition to asking about any alcohol use, NSDUH collects information on binge alcohol use and heavy alcohol use.23 Until the 2015 NSDUH, the threshold for binge drinking was defined the same for male and females. Consistent with federal definitions24 and other federal data collections, the NSDUH definition for binge alcohol use since 2015 differs for males and females. Binge drinking for males is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion on at least 1 day in the past 30 days, which is unchanged from the threshold prior to 2015. Since 2015, binge alcohol use for females has been defined as drinking four or more drinks on the same occasion on at least 1 day in the past 30 days. Heavy alcohol use is defined as binge drinking on 5 or more days in the past 30 days based on the thresholds that were described previously for males and females. Any alcohol use, binge drinking, and heavy drinking are not mutually exclusive categories of use; heavy use is included in estimates of binge and current use, and binge use is included in estimates of current use (Figure 9). Because of the 2015 changes to the definition of binge alcohol use in NSDUH, overall estimates of binge and heavy alcohol use in 2016 are presented in this report, but these 2016 estimates are not comparable with estimates prior to 2015.25

    Figure 9. Current, Binge, and Heavy Alcohol Use among People Aged 12 or Older: 2016

    Figure 9     D

    Note: Since 2015, the threshold for determining binge alcohol use for males is consuming five or more drinks on an occasion and for females is consuming four or more drinks on an occasion.

    In 2016, 136.7 million Americans aged 12 or older reported current use of alcohol, 65.3 million reported binge alcohol use in the past month, and 16.3 million reported heavy alcohol use in the past month (Figure 9). Thus, nearly half of current alcohol users reported binge alcohol use (47.8 percent), and 1 in 8 current alcohol users reported heavy alcohol use (11.9 percent). Among binge alcohol users, about 1 in 4 (24.9 percent) were heavy users.

    Any Alcohol Use

    The estimate of 136.7 million current alcohol users aged 12 or older in 2016 (Figure 9) corresponds to alcohol use in the past month by slightly more than half (50.7 percent) of people aged 12 or older (Figure 10). The 2016 estimate of past month alcohol use was similar to the estimates in most years between 2002 and 2008, but it was lower than the estimates in 2009 to 2015.

    Figure 10. Past Month Alcohol Use among People Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, 2002-2016

    Figure 10     D

    + Difference between this estimate and the 2016 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.

    Age020304050607080910111213141516
    ≥1251.050.150.351.8+51.051.251.651.9+51.8+51.8+52.1+52.2+52.7+51.7+50.7
    12-1717.6+17.7+17.6+16.5+16.7+16.0+14.7+14.8+13.6+13.3+12.9+11.6+11.5+9.69.2
    18-2560.5+61.4+60.5+60.9+62.0+61.3+61.1+61.8+61.4+60.7+60.2+59.6+59.6+58.357.1
    ≥2653.952.5+53.0+55.153.754.154.754.954.955.155.655.9+56.5+55.654.6

    Aged 12 to 17

    The percentage of adolescents aged 12 to 17 who were current alcohol users was 9.2 percent in 2016 (Figure 10), which corresponds to 2.3 million adolescents in 2016 who drank alcohol in the past month. The percentage of adolescents who were current alcohol users in 2016 was lower than the percentages in 2002 through 2014, but it was similar to the percentage in 2015. Although the estimate of current alcohol use among adolescents decreased between 2002 and 2016, about 1 in 11 adolescents were current alcohol users in 2016.

    Aged 18 to 25

    In 2016, 57.1 percent of young adults aged 18 to 25 were current alcohol users (Figure 10), which corresponds to about 19.8 million young adults. The percentage of young adults in 2016 who drank alcohol in the past month was similar to the percentage in 2015. Although the 2016 estimate was lower than the estimates in 2002 through 2014, about three fifths of young adults were current alcohol users in each year between 2002 and 2016 (ranging from 57.1 to 62.0 percent).

    Aged 26 or Older

    More than half (54.6 percent) of adults aged 26 or older in 2016 were current alcohol users (Figure 10). This percentage corresponds to about 114.7 million adults in this age group who drank alcohol in the past month. The percentage of adults aged 26 or older in 2016 who were current alcohol users was similar to the percentages in most years from 2002 to 2015. In each year between 2002 and 2016, slightly more than half of adults aged 26 or older were current alcohol users (ranging from 52.5 to 56.5 percent).

    Binge Alcohol Use

    In 2016, an estimated 65.3 million people aged 12 or older were binge alcohol users in the past 30 days (Figure 9). This number of people who were current binge drinkers corresponds to about 1 in 4 people aged 12 or older (24.2 percent) (Figure 11). About 1.2 million adolescents aged 12 to 17 were past month binge alcohol users, which corresponds to 4.9 percent of adolescents. Thus, about 1 in 20 adolescents aged 12 to 17 in 2016 were current binge drinkers. An estimated 38.4 percent of young adults aged 18 to 25 were binge alcohol users in the past month, which corresponds to about 13.3 million young adults. Stated another way, about 2 out of 5 young adults in 2016 were current binge alcohol users. About a quarter (24.2 percent) of adults aged 26 or older were current binge alcohol users. This percentage corresponds to about 50.9 million adults in this age group who were binge drinkers.

    Figure 11. Past Month Binge and Heavy Alcohol Use among People Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, 2016

    Figure 11     D

    Note: Since 2015, the threshold for determining binge alcohol use for males is consuming five or more sketch 51.2 crack - Crack Key For U on an occasion and for females is consuming four or more drinks on an occasion.

    Heavy Alcohol Use

    The estimate of 16.3 million people aged 12 or older in 2016 who were heavy alcohol users in the past month (Figure 9) represents 6.0 percent of the population aged 12 or older (Figure 11). In 2016, 191,000 adolescents aged 12 to 17 were current heavy alcohol users. Stated another way, about 1 out of 125 adolescents (0.8 percent) engaged in binge drinking on 5 or more days in the past 30 days. About 1 out of every 10 young adults aged 18 to 25 (10.1 percent) were heavy alcohol users in the past month, which corresponds to 3.5 million young adults. An estimated 6.0 percent of adults aged 26 or older in 2016 were current heavy alcohol users. This percentage corresponds to about 12.6 million adults aged 26 or older who were heavy alcohol users in the past month.

    Underage Alcohol Use

    All 50 states and the District of Columbia currently prohibit possession of alcoholic beverages by individuals younger than 21, and most prohibit underage consumption (i.e., consumption of alcoholic beverages prior to the age of 21).26 In 2016, about 7.3 million people aged 12 to 20 reported drinking alcohol in the past month, including 4.5 million who reported binge alcohol use and 1.1 million who reported heavy alcohol use (Figure 12). Thus, about three fifths of underage current drinkers (62.5 percent) were binge alcohol users, and about 1 in 7 were heavy alcohol users (14.7 percent). About one fourth of underage binge alcohol users (23.5 percent) were heavy drinkers.

    Figure 12. Current, Binge, and Heavy Alcohol Use among People Aged 12 to 20: 2016

    Figure 12     D

    Note: Since 2015, the threshold for determining binge alcohol use for males is consuming five or more drinks on an occasion and for females is consuming four or more drinks on an occasion.

    The estimate of 7.3 million underage people in 2016 who reported current alcohol use represents 19.3 percent of 12 to 20 year olds (Figure 13). Among people aged 12 to 20 in 2016, 12.1 percent were binge drinkers, and 2.8 percent were heavy drinkers. The percentage of underage individuals who reported current alcohol use in 2016 was lower than the percentages in 2002 through 2014, but it was similar to the percentage in 2015 (Figure 14). Despite these declines over time, about 1 in 5 individuals aged 12 to 20 in 2016 drank alcohol in the past month.

    Figure 13. Current, Binge, and Heavy Alcohol Use among People Aged 12 to 20: Percentages, 2016

    Figure 13     D

    Note: Since 2015, the threshold for determining binge alcohol use for males is consuming five or more drinks on an occasion and for females is consuming four or more drinks on an occasion.


    Figure 14. Current Alcohol Use among People Aged 12 to 20: Percentages, 2002-2016

    Figure 14     D

    + Difference between this estimate and the 2016 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.

    Use020304050607080910111213141516
    Current28.8+29.0+28.7+28.2+28.4+28.0+26.5+27.2+26.2+25.1+24.3+22.7+22.8+20.319.3

    Go to Top of PageGo to the Table of Contents

    Illicit Drug Use in the Past Month

    NSDUH obtains information on 10 categories of illicit drugs: marijuana, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, and methamphetamine, as well as the misuse of prescription pain relievers, tranquilizers, stimulants, and sedatives; see the section on the misuse of psychotherapeutic drugs for the definition of misuse. Estimates of "illicit drug use" reported from NSDUH reflect the data from these 10 drug categories. Because of changes in measurement in 2015 for 7 of the 10 illicit drug categories—hallucinogens, inhalants, methamphetamine, and the misuse of prescription pain relievers, tranquilizers, stimulants, and sedatives—estimates of use of any illicit drug and these 7 illicit drug categories in 2016 are not comparable with estimates prior to 2015.

    In 2016, an estimated 28.6 million Americans aged 12 or older were current (past month) illicit drug users, meaning that they had used an illicit drug during the month prior to the survey interview (Figure 15). The most commonly used illicit drug in the past month was marijuana, which was used by 24.0 million people aged 12 or older. An estimated 6.2 million people reported misusing psychotherapeutic drugs at least once in the past month, including 3.3 million people who were misusers of prescription pain relievers. Thus, the number of current misusers of pain relievers was second to marijuana among specific illicit drugs. Smaller numbers of people in 2016 were current users of the other illicit drugs shown in Figure 15.27

    Figure 15. Numbers of Past Month Illicit Drug Users among People Aged 12 or Older: 2016

    Figure 15     D

    Note: Estimated numbers of people refer to people aged 12 or older in the civilian, noninstitutionalized population in the United States. The numbers do not sum to the total population of the United States because the population for NSDUH does not include people aged 11 years old or younger, people with no fixed household address (e.g., homeless or transient people not in shelters), active-duty military personnel, and residents of institutional group quarters, such as correctional facilities, nursing homes, mental institutions, and long-term care hospitals.
    Note: The estimated numbers of current users of different illicit drugs are not mutually exclusive because people could have used more than one type of illicit drug in the past month.

    Any Illicit Drug Use

    The estimated 28.6 million people aged 12 or older who were current illicit drug users in 2016 represent 10.6 percent of the population aged 12 or older (Figures 15and 16). Stated another way, 1 in 10 individuals aged 12 or older in the United States used illicit drugs in the past month. Approximately 2.0 million adolescents aged 12 to 17 in 2016 were current users of illicit drugs, which represents 7.9 percent of adolescents. Approximately 1 in 4 young adults aged 18 to 25 (23.2 percent) were current users of illicit drugs in 2016. This percentage corresponds to about 8.0 million young adults who were current users of illicit drugs. An estimated 8.9 percent of adults aged 26 or older were current users of illicit drugs, or about 18.6 million adults in this age group.

    Figure 16. Past Month Illicit Drug Use among People Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: 2016

    Figure 16     D

    Marijuana Use

    As noted in the illicit drug use section, an estimated 24.0 million Americans aged 12 or older in 2016 were current users of marijuana (Figure 15). This number of past month marijuana users corresponds to 8.9 percent of the population aged 12 or older (Figure 17). The percentage of people aged 12 or older who were current marijuana users in 2016 was higher than the percentages from 2002 to 2015. This increase in marijuana use among people aged 12 or older reflects the increase in marijuana use by adults aged 26 or older and, to a lesser extent, the increase in marijuana use among young adults aged 18 to 25.

    Figure 17. Past Month Marijuana Use among People Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, 2002-2016

    Figure 17     D

    + Difference between this estimate and the 2016 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.

    Age020304050607080910111213141516
    ≥126.2+6.2+6.1+6.0+6.0+5.8+6.1+6.7+6.9+7.0+7.3+7.5+8.4+8.3+8.9
    12-178.2+7.9+7.6+6.86.76.76.77.4+7.4+7.9+7.2+7.17.4+7.06.5
    18-2517.3+17.0+16.1+16.6+16.3+16.5+16.6+18.2+18.5+19.0+18.7+19.1+19.619.820.8
    ≥264.0+4.0+4.1+4.1+4.2+3.9+4.2+4.6+4.8+4.8+5.3+5.6+6.6+6.5+7.2

    Aged 12 to 17

    In 2016, 6.5 percent of adolescents aged 12 to 17 were current users of marijuana (Figure 17). This means that approximately 1.6 million adolescents used marijuana in the past month. The percentage of adolescents in 2016 who were current marijuana users was lower than the percentages in most years from 2009 to 2014, but it was similar to the percentage in 2015.

    Aged 18 to 25

    In 2016, about 1 in 5 young adults aged 18 to 25 (20.8 percent) were current users of marijuana (Figure 17). This means that 7.2 million young adults used marijuana in the past month. The percentage of young adults who were current marijuana users in 2016 was higher than the percentages between 2002 and 2013, but it was similar to the percentages in 2014 and 2015.

    Aged 26 or Older

    In 2016, 7.2 percent of adults aged 26 or older were current users of marijuana (Figure 17), which represents about 15.2 million adults in this age group. The percentage of adults aged 26 or older who were current marijuana users in 2016 was higher than the percentages in 2002 to 2015.

    Misuse of Psychotherapeutic Drugs

    NSDUH collects data on four categories of prescription drugs (pain relievers, tranquilizers, stimulants, and sedatives) covering numerous medications that currently are or have been available by prescription. NSDUH respondents are asked to report misuse of these drugs, defined as use in any way not directed by a doctor, including use without a prescription of one's own; use in greater amounts, more often, or longer than told to take a drug; or use in any other way not directed by a doctor. Misuse of over-the-counter drugs is not included. NSDUH reports combine the four prescription drug groups into a category referred to as "psychotherapeutics." Because the Sketch 51.2 crack - Crack Key For U prescription drug measures were revised in 2015, the 2016 estimates of prescription drug misuse are not comparable with estimates prior to 2015.

    In this section, a summary of current misuse of any prescription psychotherapeutic drug is presented first, followed by sections on the current misuse of pain relievers, tranquilizers, stimulants, and sedatives. In 2016, an estimated 6.2 million Americans aged 12 or older misused psychotherapeutic drugs at least once in the past month, which represent 2.3 percent of the population aged 12 or older (Figures 18 and 19). Of the four categories of prescription drugs that are presented in this report, prescription pain relievers were the most commonly misused by people aged 12 or older. The 6.2 million people aged 12 or older who misused prescription psychotherapeutic drugs in the past month included 3.3 million who misused prescription pain relievers in that period. Approximately 2.0 million people aged 12 or older misused prescription tranquilizers in the past month. An estimated 1.7 million people aged 12 or older misused prescription stimulants, and 497,000 (0.5 million) misused prescription sedatives in the past month.

    Figure 18. Numbers of Past Month Prescription Psychotherapeutic Misusers among People Aged 12 or Older: 2016

    Figure 18     D

    Note: Estimated numbers of people refer to people aged 12 or older in the civilian, noninstitutionalized population in the United States. The numbers do not sum to the total population of the United States because the population for NSDUH does not include people aged 11 years old or younger, people with no fixed household address (e.g., homeless or transient people not in shelters), active-duty military personnel, and residents of institutional group quarters, such as correctional facilities, nursing homes, mental institutions, and long-term care hospitals.
    Note: The estimated numbers of current misusers of different psychotherapeutics are not mutually exclusive because people could have used more than one type of psychotherapeutic in the past month.


    Figure 19. Past Month Prescription Psychotherapeutic Misuse among People Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: 2016

    Figure 19     D

    An estimated 389,000 adolescents aged 12 to 17 misused psychotherapeutic drugs at least once in the past month, which rounds to the estimate of 0.4 million adolescents shown in Figure 19. Stated another way, about 1 in 60 adolescents (1.6 percent) were current misusers of psychotherapeutic drugs. An estimated 1.6 million young adults aged 18 to 25 were current misusers of psychotherapeutic drugs, which corresponds to 4.6 percent of young adults. There were 4.2 million adults aged 26 or older who were current misusers of psychotherapeutic drugs, or 2.0 percent of adults in this age group.

    Pain Reliever Misuse

    Overall estimates of current prescription psychotherapeutic drug misuse in 2016 among the population aged 12 or older that were described previously were largely driven by the misuse of prescription pain relievers. In 2016, about half of the current misusers of psychotherapeutic drugs who were aged 12 or older (54.0 percent) reported misusing pain relievers at least once in the past month (Figure 20).

    Figure 20. Misuse of Prescription Pain Relievers and Other Prescription Psychotherapeutics among People Aged 12 or Older Who Were Current Misusers of Any Prescription Psychotherapeutics: 2016

    Figure 20     D

    An estimated 3.3 million people aged 12 or older in 2016 were current misusers of pain relievers, which represents 1.2 percent of the population aged 12 or older (Figures 18 and 21). In 2016, an estimated 239,000 adolescents aged 12 to 17 were current misusers of pain relievers, which corresponds to 1.0 percent of adolescents (Figure 21). An estimated 631,000 young adults aged 18 to 25 misused pain relievers in the past month, which represents 1.8 percent of young adults. An estimated 2.5 million adults aged 26 or older were current misusers of pain relievers, which corresponds to 1.2 percent of adults aged 26 or older.

    Figure 21. Past Month Prescription Psychotherapeutic Misuse among People Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, 2016

    Figure 21     D

    Tranquilizer Misuse

    An estimated 2.0 million people aged 12 or older in 2016 were current misusers of tranquilizers, which represents 0.7 percent of people aged 12 or older (Figures 18 and 21). In 2016, an estimated 121,000 adolescents aged 12 to 17 were current misusers of tranquilizers, which represents 0.5 percent of adolescents (Figure 21). An estimated 536,000 young adults aged 18 to 25 misused tranquilizers in the past month, which represents 1.5 percent of young adults. An estimated 1.3 million adults aged 26 or older were current misusers of tranquilizers, which corresponds to 0.6 percent of adults in this age group.

    Stimulant Misuse

    In 2016, an estimated 1.7 million people aged 12 or older, or 0.6 percent of this population, were current misusers of stimulants (Figures 18 and 21). About 92,000 adolescents aged 12 to 17 were current misusers of stimulants, corresponding to about 0.4 percent of adolescents (Figure 21). There were about 767,000 young adults aged 18 to 25 who misused stimulants in the past month, which corresponds to about 2.2 percent of young adults. An estimated 876,000 adults aged 26 or older were current misusers of stimulants, which represents 0.4 percent of this age group.

    Sedative Misuse

    An estimated 497,000 people aged 12 or older were current misusers of sedatives in 2016, which rounds to the 0.5 million people shown in Figure 18. This number represents 0.2 percent of the population aged 12 or older (Figure 21). There were an estimated 23,000 adolescents in 2016 who were current misusers of sedatives (0.1 percent of adolescents). An estimated 50,000 young adults aged 18 to 25 misused sedatives in the past month (0.1 percent of young adults). An estimated 425,000 adults aged 26 or older were current misusers of sedatives (0.2 percent of adults aged 26 or older).

    Cocaine Use

    In this report, estimates of the use of cocaine include use of crack cocaine. Estimates also are presented separately for crack use. In 2016, the estimate of about 1.9 million people aged 12 or older who were current users of cocaine (Figure 15) included about 432,000 current users of crack. The numbers correspond to about 0.7 percent of the population aged 12 or older who were current users of cocaine (Figure 22) and 0.2 percent who were current users of crack (Table A.7B in Appendix A). The 2016 estimate for current cocaine use was similar to the estimates in most years between 2007 and 2015, but it was lower than the estimates in 2002 to 2006. The 2016 estimate of crack use was similar to the estimates in most years from 2008 to 2015, but it was lower than the estimates in most years between 2002 to 2007.

    Figure 22. Past Month Cocaine Use among People Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, 2002-2016

    Figure 22     D

    + Difference between this estimate and the 2016 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.

    Age020304050607080910111213141516
    ≥120.9+1.0+0.8+1.0+1.0+0.80.70.70.60.5+0.60.60.60.70.7
    12-170.6+0.6+0.5+0.6+0.4+0.4+0.4+0.3+0.2+0.3+0.10.20.20.20.1
    18-252.0+2.2+2.1+2.6+2.2+1.71.61.41.51.41.1+1.1+1.41.71.6
    ≥260.70.80.70.80.8+0.70.70.60.5+0.4+0.60.50.50.60.6

    Aged 12 to 17

    There were 28,000 adolescents aged 12 to 17 who were current users of cocaine and 3,000 adolescents who were current crack users in 2016. These numbers represent 0.1 percent of adolescents who used cocaine and less than 0.1 percent who used crack (Figure 22). The 2016 estimate for current cocaine use among adolescents was similar to the estimates between 2012 and 2015, but the 2016 estimate was lower than the estimates in 2002 to 2011. Where estimates had sufficient precision to be reported, estimates of crack use among adolescents in 2002 to 2016 ranged from less than 0.1 percent to 0.1 percent (Table A.8B in Appendix A).

    Aged 18 to 25

    An estimated 1.6 percent of young adults aged 18 to 25 were current users of cocaine in 2016 (Figure 22), and less than 0.1 percent used crack in the past month (Table A.9B in Appendix A). These percentages represent 552,000 young adults who used cocaine, including 15,000 who used crack. The 2016 percentage of young adults who were current cocaine users was lower than the percentages in 2002 through 2006, and it was similar to the percentages in most years between 2007 and 2015. The estimate of current crack use among young adults in 2016 was lower than estimates in 2002 to 2010, but it was similar to the estimates in most years between 2011 and 2015.

    Aged 26 or Older

    In 2016, 0.6 percent of adults aged 26 or older were current users of cocaine (Figure 22), and 0.2 percent used crack in the past month (Table A.10B in Appendix A). These percentages represent 1.3 million adults aged 26 or older who currently used cocaine, including 414,000 who currently used crack. The 2016 estimates of current cocaine use and current crack use among adults aged 26 or older were similar to the estimates in most years between 2002 and 2015.

    Heroin Use

    Heroin is a highly addictive opioid that is illegal and has no accepted medical use in the United States. About 475,000 people aged 12 or older were current heroin users in 2016, which rounds to the 0.5 million people shown in Figure 15. This number corresponds to about 0.2 percent of the population aged 12 or older (Figure 23).

    Figure 23. Past Month Heroin Use among People Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, 2002-2016

    Figure 23     D

    + Difference between this estimate and the 2016 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.

    Age020304050607080910111213141516
    ≥120.1+0.1+0.1+0.1+0.10.1+0.1+0.1+0.1+0.1+0.10.1+0.20.10.2
    12-170.00.1+0.1+0.1+0.1+0.00.10.10.00.1*0.10.10.00.0
    18-250.1+0.1+0.1+0.20.20.10.20.20.30.30.40.30.20.30.3
    ≥260.1+0.0+0.1+0.0+0.10.1+0.1+0.1+0.1+0.1+0.1+0.1+0.20.10.2

    Despite the dangers associated with heroin use, its use has increased in recent years. The percentage of current heroin users aged 12 or older in 2016 was higher than the percentages in most years between 2002 and 2013, but it was similar to the percentages in 2014 and 2015 (Figure 23). However, even when there was a statistically significant difference between the 2016 estimate and estimates in prior years, the estimates ranged between 0.1 and 0.2 percent.

    Aged 12 to 17

    In 2016, less than 0.1 percent of adolescents aged 12 to 17 were current heroin users (Figure 23). This percentage represents 3,000 adolescents who were current users of heroin. The percentage of adolescents in 2016 who were current heroin users was similar to available percentages for heroin use in 2007 to 2015 and lower than the percentages in 2003 to 2006.

    Aged 18 to 25

    Among young adults aged 18 to 25 in 2016, 0.3 percent were current heroin users (Figure 23). This percentage represents 88,000 young adults who were current users of heroin. The percentage of young adults in 2016 who were current heroin users (0.3 percent) was higher than the percentages in 2002 through 2004, and it was similar to the percentages in 2005 through 2015.

    Aged 26 or Older

    In 2016, 0.2 percent of adults aged 26 or older were current heroin users (Figure 23). This percentage represents 383,000 adults aged 26 or older who were current users of heroin. The percentage of adults aged 26 or older in 2016 who were current heroin users (0.2 percent) was higher than the percentages for most years between 2002 and 2013 (ranging from less than 0.1 to 0.1 percent), but it was similar to the percentages in 2014 and 2015.

    Hallucinogen Use

    Several drugs are grouped under the category of hallucinogens, including LSD, PCP, peyote, mescaline, psilocybin mushrooms, "Ecstasy" (MDMA or "Molly"), ketamine, DMT/AMT/"Foxy," and Salvia divinorum.28 In 2015, the NSDUH estimate of any hallucinogen use was expanded to include the use of ketamine, DMT/AMT/"Foxy," and Salvia divinorum. Because driver update for free the 2015 measurement change, the 2016 estimates of hallucinogen use are not comparable with estimates prior to 2015.

    In 2016, an estimated 1.4 million people aged 12 or older were current users of hallucinogens (Figure 15), representing 0.5 percent of the population aged 12 or older (Figure 24). An estimated 114,000 adolescents aged 12 to 17 were current users of hallucinogens, or 0.5 percent of adolescents. An estimated 1.9 percent of young adults aged 18 to 25 were current users of hallucinogens, which represents 668,000 young adults who used hallucinogens. An estimated 0.3 percent of adults aged 26 or older were current users of hallucinogens, which represents 608,000 individuals in this age group who were using hallucinogens.

    Figure 24. Past Month Hallucinogen Use among People Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, 2016

    Figure 24     D

    Inhalant Use

    Inhalants include a variety of substances, such as nitrous oxide, amyl nitrite, cleaning fluids, gasoline, spray paint, computer keyboard cleaner, other aerosol sprays, felt-tip pens, and glue. Respondents are asked to report the use of inhalants to get high but not to include accidental inhalation of a substance. In 2015, the NSDUH estimate of inhalant use was expanded to include the use of felt-tip pens or computer keyboard cleaner to get high. Because of this 2015 change, the 2016 estimates of inhalant use are not comparable with estimates prior to 2015.

    In 2016, approximately 600,000 people aged 12 or older were current users of inhalants, which rounds to the estimate of 0.6 million people shown in Figure 15. This number represents 0.2 percent of the population aged 12 or older (Figure 25). Current use of inhalants in 2016 was more common among adolescents aged 12 to 17 than among people in other age groups. In 2016, 0.6 percent of adolescents, 0.4 percent of young adults aged 18 to 25, and 0.2 percent of adults aged 26 or older were current users of inhalants. About 149,000 adolescents, 121,000 young adults, and 329,000 adults aged 26 or older were current users of inhalants.

    Figure 25. Past Month Inhalant Use among People Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, 2016

    Figure 25     D

    Methamphetamine Use

    Prior to 2015, questions about methamphetamine use were asked in the context of questions about the misuse of prescription stimulants because methamphetamine is legally available by prescription (Desoxyn®). However, most methamphetamine that is now used in the United States is produced and distributed illicitly rather than through the pharmaceutical industry. Therefore, for 2015, a new set of questions specific to methamphetamine was created and administered separately from the questions about the misuse of prescription stimulants. Because of these 2015 measurement changes, the 2016 estimates of methamphetamine use are not comparable with estimates prior to 2015.

    In 2016, approximately 667,000 people aged 12 or older were current users of methamphetamine, which rounds to the estimate of 0.7 million people shown in Figure 15. This number represents 0.2 percent of the population aged 12 or older (Figure 26). About 9,000 adolescents aged 12 to 17 were current methamphetamine users. This number corresponds to less than 0.1 percent of adolescents being current methamphetamine users. There were about 65,000 young adults aged 18 to 25 who used methamphetamine in the past month, which corresponds to about 0.2 percent of young adults. An estimated 594,000 adults aged 26 or older used methamphetamine, which represents 0.3 percent of this age group.

    Figure 26. Past Month Methamphetamine Use among People Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, 2016

    Figure 26     D

    Note: Estimates of less than 0.1 percent round to 0.0 percent when shown to the nearest tenth of a percent.

    Go to Top of PageGo to the Table of Contents

    Opioid Misuse in the Past Year

    Opioids are a group of chemically similar drugs that include heroin and prescription pain relievers such as hydrocodone (e.g., Vicodin®), oxycodone (e.g., OxyContin®), and morphine. Opioid misuse includes the misuse of prescription opioid pain relievers or the use of heroin. In 2016, there were 11.8 million past year opioid misusers aged 12 or older in the United States, the vast majority of whom misused prescription pain relievers (Figure 27). Specifically, 11.5 million people aged 12 or older in 2016 misused prescription pain relievers in the past year compared with 948,000 people who used heroin. The majority of prescription pain reliever misusers had misused only prescription pain relievers in the past year but had not used heroin (10.9 million). Approximately 641,000 people had misused prescription pain relievers and also used heroin in the past year. About 307,000 people used heroin in the past year but had not misused prescription pain relievers. Although 5.6 percent of prescription pain reliever misusers also used heroin in the past year, 67.6 percent of heroin users also misused pain relievers in the past year.

    Figure 27. Past Year Opioid Misuse among People Aged 12 or Older: 2016

    Figure 27     D

    Note: Opioid misuse is defined as heroin use or prescription pain reliever misuse.

    Past Year Opioid Misuse

    This section presents additional 2016 estimates for past year opioid misuse, heroin use, and pain reliever misuse. Because most opioid misuse involves the misuse of prescription pain relievers, this section also provides further details on the misuse of pain relievers in the past year. Specifically, 2016 estimates are presented for the subtypes of prescription pain relievers that people misused, where people obtained the prescription pain relievers that they most recently misused, and the main reason for the most recent misuse of prescription pain relievers in the past year.

    In 2016, approximately 11.8 million people aged 12 or older misused opioids in the past year (Figures 27 and 28). This number represents 4.4 percent of the population aged 12 or older. About 891,000 adolescents aged 12 to 17 misused opioids in the past year. This number corresponds to 3.6 percent of adolescents misusing opioids in the past year. About 2.5 million young adults aged 18 to 25 misused opioids in the past year, which corresponds to about 7.3 percent of young adults. An estimated 8.4 million adults aged 26 or older misused opioids in the past year, which represents 4.0 percent of this age group.

    Figure 28. Past Year Opioid Misuse among People Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: 2016

    Figure 28     D

    Note: Opioid misuse is defined as heroin use or prescription pain reliever misuse.

    Past Year Heroin Use

    In 2016, an estimated 948,000 people aged 12 or older used heroin in the past year (Figure 27). The estimate of past year heroin use in 2016 (0.4 percent) was higher than the estimates for all years between 2002 and 2013, but it was similar to the estimates in 2014 and 2015 (Figure 29).

    Figure 29. Past Year Heroin Use among People Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, 2002-2016

    Figure 29     D

    + Difference between this estimate and the 2016 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.

    Age020304050607080910111213141516
    ≥120.2+0.1+0.2+0.2+0.2+0.2+0.2+0.2+0.2+0.2+0.3+0.3+0.30.30.4
    12-170.2+0.1+0.2+0.1+0.1+0.10.2+0.1+0.10.2+0.10.1+0.10.10.1
    18-250.4+0.3+0.4+0.50.4+0.4+0.5+0.50.60.70.80.70.80.60.7
    ≥260.1+0.1+0.1+0.1+0.2+0.1+0.1+0.2+0.2+0.2+0.2+0.2+0.30.30.3

    Aged 12 to 17

    In 2016, 0.1 percent of adolescents aged 12 to 17 were past year users (Figure 29). This percentage represents 13,000 adolescents who used heroin in the past year. The percentage of adolescents in 2016 who were past year heroin users was similar to or slightly lower than the percentages in 2002 through 2015.

    Aged 18 to 25

    Among young adults aged 18 to 25 in 2016, 0.7 percent were past year heroin users (Figure 29). This percentage represents 227,000 young adults who used heroin in the past year. The 2016 percentage of young adults who were past year heroin users was similar to the percentages between 2009 and 2015 (ranging from 0.5 to 0.8 percent), but this percentage in 2016 was higher than the percentages in most years from 2002 through 2008 (ranging from 0.3 to 0.5 percent).

    Aged 26 or Older

    In 2016, 0.3 percent of adults aged 26 or older were past year heroin users (Figure 29). This percentage represents 708,000 adults aged 26 or older who used heroin in the past year. The percentage of adults aged 26 or older in 2016 who were past year heroin users was similar to the percentages in 2014 and 2015, but it was higher than the percentages in all years from 2002 to 2013.

    Past Year Pain Reliever Misuse

    In 2016, approximately 11.5 million people misused prescription pain relievers in the past year, representing 4.3 percent of the population aged 12 or older (Figure 30). Among youths aged 12 to 17, 3.5 percent misused prescription pain relievers, corresponding to 881,000 youths. There were about 2.5 million young adults aged 18 to 25 who misused pain relievers in the past year, which corresponds to about 7.1 percent of young adults. An estimated 8.2 million adults aged 26 or older misused pain relievers in the past year, which represents 3.9 percent of this age group.

    Figure 30. Past Year Prescription Pain Reliever Misuse among People Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: 2016

    Figure 30     D

    Misuse of Subtypes of Pain Relievers

    NSDUH asked respondents in 2016 to identify the specific prescription pain relievers that they used in the past year. Names of similar prescription drugs (e.g., Vicodin®, Lortab®, Norco®, Zohydro® ER, and generic hydrocodone) and electronic images of these drugs were presented to respondents to aid them in recalling which prescription pain relievers they used. For each specific pain reliever that respondents reported using in the past 12 months, respondents were asked whether they misused that pain reliever in that period. The specific pain relievers that individuals misused in the past year were categorized into 11 subtypes (i.e., not counting other prescription pain relievers), such as hydrocodone products (Figure 31).

    Figure 31. Prescription Pain Reliever Subtypes in the 2016 NSDUH Questionnaire

    Figure 31     D

    Note: Prescription pain reliever categories shown in the red and blue boxes represent estimates for subtypes that are shown in Table A.12B in Appendix A.
    Note: The following drugs in this figure are generic drugs: Hydrocodone, Oxycodone, Tramadol, Extended-Release Tramadol, Codeine Pills, Morphine, Extended-Release Morphine, Fentanyl, Buprenorphine, Buprenorphine Plus Naloxone, Oxymorphone, Extended-Release Oxymorphone, Hydromorphone, Extended-Release Hydromorphone, and Methadone.

    This section presents estimates for individuals aged 12 or older. Estimates in this section are not presented for the specific prescription pain relievers that respondents reported misusing due to potential data quality issues. Specifically, respondents may have reported that they misused a brand name drug whose name they recognized (e.g., Vicodin®) when they may have misused a similar drug (e.g., generic hydrocodone). For classification purposes, however, these reports would be equivalent. For example, respondents who reported the misuse of the pain relievers Vicodin® or hydrocodone were classified as misusers of hydrocodone products.

    In 2016, the most commonly misused subtype of prescription pain relievers consisted of hydrocodone products, which sketch 51.2 crack - Crack Key For U Vicodin®, Lortab®, Norco®, Zohydro® ER, and generic hydrocodone (Figure 32). An estimated 6.9 million people aged 12 or older misused these products in the past year, representing 2.6 percent of the population. An estimated 3.9 million people misused oxycodone products in the past year; this number represents 1.4 percent of people aged 12 or older. Oxycodone products include OxyContin®, Percocet®, Percodan®, Roxicodone®, and generic oxycodone. An estimated 0.3 percent of people aged 12 or older misused buprenorphine products in the past year, and 0.1 percent misused methadone.

    Figure 32. Past Year Prescription Pain Reliever Misuse among People Aged 12 or Older, by Selected Pain Reliever Subtype: 2016

    Figure 32     D

    There were 228,000 people who misused prescription fentanyl products in 2016, representing 0.1 percent of the population (Figure 32). Because NSDUH respondents were shown examples of prescription forms of fentanyl, however, this estimate for fentanyl misuse may underrepresent people who misused fentanyl that was illicitly manufactured in clandestine laboratories29 (i.e., sketch 51.2 crack - Crack Key For U opposed to the misuse of diverted fentanyl that was produced by the pharmaceutical industry). This estimate of fentanyl misuse also may not include people who unknowingly misused fentanyl, such as if heroin was mixed with illicitly manufactured fentanyl.

    Main Reasons for the Last Misuse of Pain Relievers

    Respondents in the 2016 NSDUH who reported prescription pain reliever misuse in the past year were asked to recall the last prescription pain reliever that they misused in the past year. Respondents were then asked to report their reasons for misusing the prescription pain reliever that last time. Respondents who reported more than one reason for misusing the last prescription pain reliever were asked to report the main reason for pain reliever misuse. If respondents reported only one reason for misusing their last prescription pain reliever, then that reason was their main reason for pain reliever misuse.

    Among people aged 12 or older in 2016 who misused prescription pain relievers in the past year, the most commonly reported reason for their last misuse of a pain reliever was to relieve physical pain (62.3 percent), which is the reason pain relievers are prescribed (Figure 33). Even if the reason for misuse was to relieve physical pain, use without a prescription of one's own or use at a higher dosage or more often than prescribed still constituted misuse. Other commonly reported reasons for the last misuse among people who misused pain relievers in the past year were to feel good or get high (12.9 percent) and to relax or relieve tension (10.8 percent). Less common reasons among past year misusers of pain relievers included to help with feelings or emotions (3.9 percent), to help with sleep (3.3 percent), to experiment or see what the drug was like (3.0 percent), because they were "hooked" or needed to have the drug (2.1 percent), and to increase or decrease the effects of other drugs (0.9 percent). In addition, 0.9 percent of past year misusers of pain relievers reported that some other reason was their main reason.

    Figure 33. Main Reason for the Most Recent Prescription Pain Reliever Misuse among People Aged 12 or Older Who Misused Prescription Pain Relievers in the Past Year: Percentages, 2016

    Figure 33     D

    Note: The percentages do not add to 100 percent due to rounding.

    Source of the Last Pain Reliever That Was Misused

    Among people aged 12 or older in 2016 who misused prescription pain relievers in the past year, the most common source for the last pain reliever that was misused was from a friend or relative (Figure 34). More than half (53.0 percent) of people who misused pain relievers in the past year reported that they obtained the pain relievers the last time from a friend or relative. Specifically, 40.4 percent of people who misused pain relievers in the past year obtained pain relievers the last time by getting them from a friend or relative for free, 8.9 percent bought their last pain reliever from a friend or relative, and 3.7 percent took their last pain reliever from a friend or relative without asking. About one third of people who misused pain relievers in the past year (37.5 percent) indicated that they obtained pain relievers the last time through prescription(s) or stole from a health care provider, typically getting the pain relievers through a prescription from one doctor (35.4 percent). About 1 in 16 people who misused pain relievers in the past year (6.0 percent) reported that they bought the last pain reliever they misused from a drug dealer or stranger.

    Figure 34. Source Where Pain Relievers Were Obtained for Most Recent Misuse among People Aged 12 or Older Who Misused Prescription Pain Relievers in the Past Year: Percentages: 2016

    Figure 34     D

    Note: Respondents with unknown data for Source for Most Recent Misuse or who reported Some Other Way but did not specify a valid way were excluded.
    Note: The percentages do not add to 100 percent due to rounding.

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    Substance Use Disorders in the Past Year

    Substance use disorders (SUDs) represent clinically significant impairment caused by the recurrent use of alcohol or other drugs (or both), including health problems, disability, and failure to meet major responsibilities at work, school, or home. NSDUH includes a series of questions to estimate the percentage of the population aged 12 or older who had SUDs in the past 12 months. Respondents were asked questions about SUDs if they previously reported use in the past 12 months of alcohol or illicit drugs. Illicit drugs include marijuana, cocaine, heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, methamphetamine, and the misuse of prescription psychotherapeutic drugs (i.e., pain relievers, tranquilizers, stimulants, and sedatives). These SUD questions classify people as having an SUD in the past 12 months and are based on criteria specified in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV).30,31

    Because of changes that were described previously to the questions for the use of hallucinogens, inhalants, and methamphetamine and the misuse of prescription drugs, the 2016 estimates for overall SUD (i.e., for alcohol or illicit drugs), any illicit drug use disorder, and SUDs for these specific illicit drugs are not comparable with the estimates from years prior to 2015. The questions did not change for identifying past year users of alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, and heroin. Therefore, estimates of SUDs for these substances in 2016 sketch 51.2 crack - Crack Key For U assumed to have remained comparable with estimates from earlier years.

    This section presents estimates for the most common SUDs among the population aged 12 or older. Estimates of less common SUDs are not discussed in this report (e.g., inhalant use disorder) but are available in Tables A.15B through A.18B in Appendix A.

    Alcohol Use Disorder

    Alcohol use disorder was defined as meeting DSM-IV criteria for either dependence or abuse for alcohol. Respondents who used alcohol on 6 or more days in the past 12 months were defined as having dependence if they met three or more of the following seven dependence criteria:

    1. spent a lot of time engaging in activities related to alcohol use,
    2. used alcohol in greater quantities or for a longer time than intended,
    3. developed tolerance,
    4. made unsuccessful attempts to cut down on use,
    5. continued use despite physical health or emotional problems associated with alcohol use,
    6. reduced or eliminated participation in other activities because of alcohol use, and
    7. experienced withdrawal symptoms when cutting back or stopping use.

    Respondents who used alcohol on 6 or more days in the past 12 months and did not meet criteria for alcohol dependence were defined as having abuse if they reported one or more of the following:

    1. problems at work, home, and school because of alcohol use;
    2. regularly using alcohol and then doing something physically dangerous;
    3. repeated trouble with the law because of alcohol use; and
    4. continued use of alcohol despite problems with family or friends.

    An estimated 15.1 million people aged 12 or older had an alcohol use disorder in 2016, which represents 5.6 percent of people aged 12 or older (Figure 35), or about 1 in 18 people aged 12 or older. The percentage of people aged 12 or older with an alcohol use disorder in 2016 was lower than the percentages in 2002 to 2014, but it was similar to the percentage in 2015.

    Figure 35. Alcohol Use Disorder in the Past Year among People Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, 2002-2016

    Figure <i>sketch 51.2 crack - Crack Key For U</i> Difference between this estimate and the 2016 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.</p></div><div><table><thead><tr><th>Age</th><th>02</th><th>03</th><th>04</th><th>05</th><th>06</th><th>07</th><th>08</th><th>09</th><th>10</th><th>11</th><th>12</th><th>13</th><th>14</th><th>15</th><th>16</th></tr></thead><tbody><tr><th>≥12</th><td>7.7<sup>+</sup></td><td>7.5<sup>+</sup></td><td>7.8<sup>+</sup></td><td>7.7<sup>+</sup></td><td>7.7<sup>+</sup></td><td>7.5<sup>+</sup></td><td>7.4<sup>+</sup></td><td>7.5<sup>+</sup></td><td>7.1<sup>+</sup></td><td>6.5<sup>+</sup></td><td>6.8<sup>+</sup></td><td>6.6<sup>+</sup></td><td>6.4<sup>+</sup></td><td>5.9</td><td>5.6</td></tr><tr><th>12-17</th><td>5.9<sup>+</sup></td><td>5.9<sup>+</sup></td><td>6.0<sup>+</sup></td><td>5.5<sup>+</sup></td><td>5.4<sup>+</sup></td><td>5.4<sup>+</sup></td><td>4.9<sup>+</sup></td><td>4.6<sup>+</sup></td><td>4.6<sup>+</sup></td><td>3.8<sup>+</sup></td><td>3.4<sup>+</sup></td><td>2.8<sup>+</sup></td><td>2.7<sup>+</sup></td><td>2.5<sup>+</sup></td><td>2.0</td></tr><tr><th>18-25</th><td>17.7<sup>+</sup></td><td>17.2<sup>+</sup></td><td>17.4<sup>+</sup></td><td>17.5<sup>+</sup></td><td>17.6<sup>+</sup></td><td>16.9<sup>+</sup></td><td>17.4<sup>+</sup></td><td>16.1<sup>+</sup></td><td>15.7<sup>+</sup></td><td>14.4<sup>+</sup></td><td>14.3<sup>+</sup></td><td>13.0<sup>+</sup></td><td>12.3<sup>+</sup></td><td>10.9</td><td>10.7</td></tr><tr><th>≥26</th><td>6.2<sup>+</sup></td><td>6.0<sup>+</sup></td><td>6.3<sup>+</sup></td><td>6.2<sup>+</sup></td><td>6.2<sup>+</sup></td><td>6.2<sup>+</sup></td><td>6.0<sup>+</sup></td><td>6.3<sup>+</sup></td><td>5.9<sup>+</sup></td><td>5.4</td><td>5.9<sup>+</sup></td><td>6.0<sup>+</sup></td><td>5.9<sup>+</sup></td><td>5.4</td><td>5.2</td></tr></tbody></table></div><h4>Aged 12 to 17</h4><p>An estimated 488,000 adolescents aged 12 to 17 in 2016 had a past year alcohol use disorder, or 2.0 percent of adolescents (Figure 35). The percentage of adolescents with an alcohol use disorder in 2016 was lower than the percentages in 2002 to 2015. Although the percentages of adolescents with an alcohol use disorder in 2002 to 2010 were relatively low (ranging from 4.6 to 6.0 percent), the percentage of adolescents in 2016 with an alcohol use disorder was roughly a third to half of these percentages in 2002 to 2010.</p><h4>Aged 18 to 25</h4><p>Approximately 3.7 million young adults aged 18 to 25 in 2016 had an alcohol use disorder in the past year. This number of young adults with an alcohol use disorder represents 10.7 percent of young adults (Figure 35). The percentage of young adults with an alcohol use disorder in 2016 was lower than the percentages in 2002 to 2014, but it was similar to the percentage in 2015. Nevertheless, nearly 1 in 9 young adults in 2016 had an alcohol use disorder.</p><h4>Aged 26 or Older</h4><p>In 2016, approximately 10.9 million adults aged 26 or older had an alcohol use disorder in the past year, which represents 5.2 percent of the adults in this age group (Figure 35). The percentage of adults aged 26 or older with an alcohol use disorder in 2016 was lower than the percentages in most years from 2002 to 2014, but it was similar to the percentage in 2015.</p><h3>Illicit Drug Use Disorder</h3><p>This section presents overall estimates for illicit drug use disorder and then provides SUD estimates for specific illicit drugs. Illicit drug use disorder is defined as meeting DSM-IV criteria for either dependence or abuse for one or more of the following illicit drugs: marijuana, cocaine, heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, methamphetamine, or prescription psychotherapeutic drugs that were misused (i.e., pain relievers, tranquilizers, stimulants, and sedatives). There are seven possible dependence criteria for specific illicit drugs:</p><ol><li>spent a lot of time engaging in activities related to use of the drug,</li><li>used the drug in greater quantities or for a longer time than intended,</li><li>developed tolerance to the drug,</li><li>made unsuccessful attempts to cut down on use of the drug,</li><li>continued to use the drug despite physical health or emotional problems associated with use,</li><li>reduced or eliminated participation in other activities because of use of the drug, and</li><li>experienced withdrawal symptoms when respondents cut back or stopped using the drug.</li></ol><p>For most illicit drugs, dependence is defined as meeting three or more of these seven criteria. However, experiencing withdrawal symptoms is not included as a criterion for some illicit drugs based on DSM-IV criteria. For these substances, dependence is defined as meeting three or more of the first six criteria.</p><p>Respondents who used (or misused) a specific illicit drug in the past 12 months and did not meet the dependence criteria for that drug were defined as having abuse were defined as meeting the abuse criteria for that drug if they reported one or more of the following:</p><ol><li>problems at work, home, and school because of use of the drug;</li><li>regularly using the drug and then doing something physically dangerous;</li><li>repeated trouble with the law because of use of the drug; and</li><li>continued use of the drug despite problems with family or friends.</li></ol><p>Application of these criteria is discussed briefly in the respective SUD sections for specific illicit drugs. Detailed definitions for SUDs for specific illicit drugs also can be found in a glossary of key definitions for the 2016 NSDUH.<sup>9</sup></p><p>In 2016, an estimated 7.4 million people aged 12 or older had an illicit drug use disorder (Figure 36). This number represents 2.7 percent of people aged 12 or older. An estimated 3.2 percent of adolescents aged 12 to 17 had an illicit drug use disorder, or about 789,000 adolescents. Approximately 2.4 million young adults aged 18 to 25 had an illicit drug use disorder in the past year, which represents 7.0 percent of young adults. Approximately 4.2 million adults aged 26 or older had an illicit drug use disorder in the past year, which represents 2.0 percent of adults aged 26 or older.</p><div><p>Figure 36. Illicit Drug Use Disorder in the Past Year among People Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: 2016</p><p><img src=     D

    Marijuana Use Disorder

    Marijuana use disorder occurs when someone experiences clinically significant impairment caused by the recurrent use of marijuana, including health problems, persistent or increasing use, and failure to meet major responsibilities at work, school, or home. NSDUH respondents who used marijuana on 6 or more days in the past 12 months were categorized as having a marijuana use disorder if they met the DSM-IV criteria for either dependence or abuse for marijuana. Dependence and abuse criteria for illicit drugs (including marijuana) were described previously.

    Approximately 4.0 million people aged 12 or older in 2016 had a marijuana use disorder in the past year, which represents 1.5 percent of people aged 12 or older (Figure 37). The 2016 percentage of the population aged 12 or older with a marijuana use disorder was lower than the percentages in most years between 2002 and 2010 and was similar to the percentages in 2011 to 2015.

    Figure 37. Marijuana Use Disorder in the Past Year among People Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, 2002-2016

    Figure 37     D

    + Difference between this estimate and the 2016 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.

    Age020304050607080910111213141516
    ≥121.8+1.8+1.9+1.7+1.7+1.61.7+1.7+1.8+1.61.71.61.61.51.5
    12-174.3+3.8+3.9+3.6+3.4+3.1+3.4+3.4+3.6+3.5+3.2+2.9+2.72.62.3
    18-256.0+5.9+6.0+5.9+5.7+5.65.65.65.7+5.7+5.55.44.95.15.0
    ≥260.80.70.80.70.80.70.80.80.90.70.80.80.90.80.8

    Aged 12 to 17

    In 2016, 2.3 percent of adolescents aged 12 to 17 had a marijuana use disorder in the past year (Figure 37), or about 584,000 adolescents. The percentage of adolescents with a marijuana use disorder in 2016 was lower than the percentages in 2002 to 2013, but it was similar to the percentages in 2014 and 2015.

    Aged 18 to 25

    Approximately 1.7 million young adults aged 18 to 25 in 2016 had a marijuana use disorder in the past year, or 5.0 percent of young adults (Figure 37). The percentage of young adults with a marijuana use disorder in 2016 was lower than the percentages in 2002 through 2006, but it was similar to the percentages in most years from 2007 to 2015.

    Aged 26 or Older

    In 2016, approximately 1.7 million adults aged 26 or older had a marijuana use disorder in the past year, or 0.8 percent of adults in this age group (Figure 37). The 2016 percentage of adults aged 26 or older with a marijuana use disorder was similar to the percentages in all years between 2002 and 2015.

    Cocaine Use Disorder

    Cocaine use disorder occurs when someone experiences clinically significant impairment caused by the recurrent use of cocaine, including health problems, physical withdrawal, persistent or increasing use, and failure to meet major responsibilities at work, school, or home. NSDUH respondents who used cocaine or crack in the past 12 months were categorized as having a cocaine use disorder if they met the DSM-IV criteria for either dependence or abuse for cocaine. Dependence and abuse criteria for illicit drugs (including cocaine) were described previously.

    About 867,000 people aged 12 or older in 2016 had a cocaine use disorder in the past year. This number of people with a cocaine use disorder represents 0.3 percent of the population aged 12 or older (Figure 38). The percentage of the population aged 12 or older with a cocaine use disorder remained fairly stable between 2010 and 2016. However, the percentage in 2016 was lower than the percentages in 2002 to 2009.

    Figure 38. Cocaine Use Disorder in the Past Year among People Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, 2002-2016

    Figure 38     D

    + Difference between this estimate and the 2016 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.

    Age020304050607080910111213141516
    ≥120.6+0.6+0.7+0.6+0.7+0.6+0.6+0.4+0.40.30.4+0.30.30.30.3
    12-170.4+0.3+0.4+0.4+0.4+0.4+0.3+0.20.10.20.20.10.10.10.1
    18-251.2+1.2+1.4+1.5+1.3+1.4+1.2+0.9+0.70.60.60.70.50.70.6
    ≥260.6+0.6+0.6+0.5+0.6+0.6+0.5+0.40.40.30.4+0.30.30.30.3

    Aged 12 to 17

    An estimated 0.1 percent of adolescents aged 12 to 17 in 2016 had a cocaine use disorder in the past year (Figure 38), or about 29,000 adolescents. The percentage of adolescents with a cocaine use disorder in 2016 was lower than the percentages in 2002 to 2008, but it was similar to the percentages in 2009 to 2015.

    Aged 18 to 25

    Approximately 215,000 young adults aged 18 to 25 in 2016 had a cocaine use disorder in the past year. This number represents 0.6 percent of young adults (Figure 38). Similar to the pattern for adolescents aged 12 to 17, the percentage of young adults with a cocaine use disorder in 2016 was lower than the percentages in 2002 to 2009, but it was similar to the percentages in 2010 to 2015.

    Aged 26 or Older

    In 2016, approximately 623,000 adults aged 26 or older had a cocaine use disorder in the past year, which represents 0.3 percent of adults in this age group (Figure 38). The percentage of adults aged 26 or older with a cocaine use disorder in 2016 was lower than the percentages in 2002 to 2008, but it remained steady when compared with the percentages in most years between 2009 and 2015.

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    Heroin use disorder occurs when someone Audials Tunebite 2020 Crack + Activation Number Free Download clinically significant impairment caused by the recurrent use of heroin, including health problems, physical withdrawal, persistent or increasing use, and failure to meet major responsibilities at work, school, or home. NSDUH respondents who used heroin in the past 12 months were categorized as having a heroin use disorder if they met the DSM-IV criteria for either dependence or abuse for heroin. Dependence and abuse criteria for illicit drugs (including heroin) were described previously.

    About 626,000 people aged 12 or older in 2016 had a heroin use disorder. This number of people with a heroin use disorder represents 0.2 percent of people aged 12 or older (Figure 39). The percentage of people aged 12 or older with a heroin use disorder in 2016 was higher than the percentages in 2002 to 2010 (0.1 percent), but it was similar to the percentages in 2011 to 2015.

    Figure 39. Heroin Use Disorder in the Past Year among People Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, 2002-2016

    Figure 39     D

    + Difference between this estimate and the 2016 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.

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    Less than 0.1 percent of adolescents aged 12 to 17 in 2016 had a heroin use disorder in the past year (Figure 39), which corresponds to about 1,000 adolescents. The percentage of adolescents with a heroin use disorder in 2016 was lower than the estimates in most years from 2002 to 2014, but it was similar to the percentage in 2015.

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    Approximately 152,000 young adults aged 18 to 25 in 2016 had a heroin use disorder in the past year, which represents 0.4 percent of young adults (Figure 39). The percentage of young adults with a heroin use disorder in 2016 was greater than the percentages in 2002 to 2007, but it was similar to the percentages in 2008 to 2015.

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    In 2016, approximately 473,000 adults aged 26 or older had a heroin use disorder in the past year, which represents 0.2 percent of adults in this age group (Figure 39). Between 2002 and 2016, 0.1 to 0.2 percent of adults aged 26 or older had a heroin use disorder in the past year. The 2016 estimate was higher than the estimates in 2002 to 2012, but it remained steady when compared with the percentages between 2013 and 2015.

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    With the addition of questions about methamphetamine use in 2015 that were separate from questions about the misuse of prescription stimulants, questions also were added in 2015 about SUD symptoms that respondents attributed specifically to their use of methamphetamine. Consequently, estimates for methamphetamine use disorder are available for 2015 and 2016 but are not available prior to 2015. Also, methamphetamine use disorder does not include stimulant use disorder, which is measured and reported separately.

    Methamphetamine use disorder occurs when someone experiences clinically significant impairment caused by the recurrent use of methamphetamine, including health problems, physical withdrawal, persistent or increasing use, and failure to meet major responsibilities at work, school, or home. NSDUH respondents who used methamphetamine in the past 12 months were categorized as having a methamphetamine use disorder if they met the DSM-IV criteria for either dependence or abuse for methamphetamine. Dependence and abuse criteria for illicit drugs (including methamphetamine) were described previously.

    In 2016, an estimated 684,000 people aged 12 or older had a methamphetamine use disorder. This number represents about 0.3 percent of people aged 12 or older (Table A.15B in Appendix A). Less than 0.1 percent of adolescents aged 12 to 17 in 2016 had a methamphetamine use disorder in the past year (Table A.16B), which represents about 10,000 adolescents. Approximately 135,000 young adults aged 18 to 25 and 539,000 adults aged 26 or older in 2016 had a methamphetamine use disorder in the past year. Adults with a methamphetamine use disorder correspond to 0.4 percent of young adults aged 18 to 25 (Table A.17B) and 0.3 percent of adults aged 26 or older revo uninstaller pro portable Reliever Use Disorder

    Pain reliever use disorder occurs when someone experiences clinically significant impairment caused by the recurrent use of pain relievers, including health problems, physical withdrawal, persistent or increasing use, and failure to meet major responsibilities at work, school, or home. NSDUH respondents who misused pain relievers in the past 12 months were categorized as having a pain reliever use disorder if they met the DSM-IV criteria for either dependence or abuse for pain relievers. Dependence and abuse criteria for illicit drugs (including pain relievers) were described previously.

    In 2016, an estimated 1.8 million people aged 12 or older had a pain reliever use disorder, which represents 0.7 percent of people aged 12 or older (Figure 40). An estimated 0.6 percent of adolescents aged 12 to 17 had a pain reliever use disorder in the past year, which represents about 152,000 adolescents. Approximately 291,000 young adults aged 18 to 25 and 1.3 million adults aged 26 or older had a pain reliever use disorder in the past year. These numbers of adults with a pain reliever use disorder correspond to 0.8 percent of young adults and 0.6 percent of adults aged 26 or older.

    Figure 40. Pain Reliever Use Disorder in the Past Year among People Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: 2016

    Figure 40     D

    Tranquilizer Use Disorder

    Tranquilizer use disorder occurs when someone experiences clinically significant impairment caused by the recurrent use of tranquilizers, including health problems, persistent or increasing use, and failure to meet major responsibilities at work, school, or home. NSDUH respondents who misused tranquilizers in the past 12 months were categorized as having a tranquilizer use disorder if they met the DSM-IV criteria for either dependence or abuse for tranquilizers. Dependence and abuse criteria for illicit drugs (including tranquilizers) were described previously.

    In 2016, an estimated 618,000 people aged 12 or older had a tranquilizer use disorder. This number represents 0.2 percent of people aged 12 or older (Table A.15B in Appendix A). An estimated 0.3 percent of adolescents aged 12 to 17 had a tranquilizer use disorder in the past year (Table A.16B), which represents about 86,000 adolescents. Approximately 188,000 young adults aged 18 to 25 and 343,000 adults aged 26 or older had a tranquilizer use disorder in the past year. These numbers correspond to 0.5 percent of young adults (Table A.17B) and 0.2 percent of adults aged 26 or older (Table A.18B).

    Stimulant Use Disorder

    Stimulant use disorder occurs when someone experiences clinically significant impairment caused by the recurrent use of prescription stimulants, including health problems, persistent or increasing use, and failure to meet major responsibilities at work, school, or home. NSDUH respondents who misused stimulants in the past 12 months were categorized as having a stimulant use disorder if they met the DSM-IV criteria for either dependence or abuse for stimulants. Dependence and abuse criteria for illicit drugs (including stimulants) were described previously. (As noted in the section on methamphetamine use disorder, respondents who met criteria for methamphetamine use disorder do not necessarily have a stimulant use disorder.)

    In 2016, an estimated 540,000 people aged 12 or older had a stimulant use disorder in the past year. This number of people with a stimulant use disorder represents 0.2 percent of people aged 12 or older (Table A.15B in Appendix A). An estimated 0.2 percent of adolescents aged 12 to 17 had a stimulant use disorder in the past year (Table A.16B), which represents about 56,000 adolescents. Approximately 170,000 young adults aged 18 to 25 and 315,000 adults aged 26 or older had a stimulant use disorder in the past year. These numbers correspond to 0.5 percent of young adults (Table A.17B) and 0.1 percent of adults aged 26 or older (Table A.18B).

    Opioid Use Disorder

    Opioids include two categories of drugs: heroin and opioid prescription pain relievers. NSDUH collects dependence and abuse information for these two categories of drugs. A respondent was classified as having an opioid use disorder if he or she met DSM-IV criteria for heroin use disorder or pain reliever use disorder, as described previously.

    In 2016, an estimated 2.1 million people aged 12 or older had an opioid use disorder, or 0.8 percent of people aged 12 or older (Figure 41). An estimated 0.6 percent of adolescents aged 12 to 17 in 2016 had an opioid use disorder in the past year, which represents about 153,000 adolescents. About 392,000 young adults aged 18 to 25 had an opioid use disorder in the past year. This number corresponds to 1.1 percent of young adults. An estimated 1.6 million adults aged 26 or older had an opioid use disorder, which corresponds to 0.8 percent of adults in this age group.

    Figure 41. Opioid Use Disorder in the Past Year among People Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: 2016

    Figure 41     D

    Note: Opioid use disorder is defined as meeting DSM-IV criteria for heroin use disorder or pain reliever use disorder in the past 12 months.

    Substance Use Disorder (Alcohol or Illicit Drugs)

    NSDUH's overall wonderfox dvd video converter 14.6 license key - Free Activators of SUD include people who met the DSM-IV criteria for either dependence or abuse for alcohol or illicit drugs. In 2016, approximately 20.1 million people aged 12 or older had an SUD in the past year, including 15.1 million people who had an alcohol use disorder and 7.4 million people who had an illicit drug use disorder (Figure 42). Among the 7.4 million people aged 12 or older who had an illicit drug use disorder, the most common disorders were for marijuana (4.0 million people) and prescription pain relievers (1.8 million people). Smaller numbers of people in 2016 had disorders related to their use of cocaine, methamphetamine, or heroin or related to their misuse of prescription stimulants.

    Figure 42. Numbers of People Aged 12 or Older with a Past Year Substance Use Disorder: 2016

    Figure 42     D

    Note: Estimated numbers of people refer to people aged 12 or older in the civilian, noninstitutionalized population in the United States. The numbers do not sum to the total population of the United States because the population for NSDUH does not include people aged 11 years old or younger, people with no fixed household address (e.g., homeless or transient people not in shelters), active-duty military personnel, and residents of institutional group quarters, such as correctional facilities, nursing homes, mental institutions, and long-term care hospitals.
    Note: The estimated numbers of people with substance use disorders are not mutually exclusive because people could have use disorders for more than one substance.

    An estimated 2.3 million people aged 12 or older had both an alcohol use disorder and an illicit drug use disorder in the past year (Figure 43). Thus, among people aged 12 or older in 2016 who had an SUD in the past year, nearly 3 out of 4 had an alcohol use disorder, and about 1 out of 3 had an illicit drug use disorder. About 1 in 9 people aged 12 or older who had SUDs in the past year had both an CDex 2.24 Free Download with Crack use disorder and an illicit drug use disorder.

    Figure 43. Alcohol Use Disorder and Illicit Drug Use Disorder in the Past Year among People Aged 12 or Older with a Past Year Substance Use Disorder (SUD): 2016

    Figure 43     D

    The 20.1 million people who had SUDs in 2016 (Figure 42) represent 7.5 percent of people aged 12 or older (Figure 44). This percentage of people in 2016 who had SUDs corresponds to about 1 in 13 people aged 12 or older. An estimated 1.1 million adolescents aged 12 to 17 had SUDs in 2016, which represents 4.3 percent of adolescents. In 2016, 5.2 million young adults aged 18 to 25 had SUDs. This number represents 15.1 percent of young adults. An estimated 13.8 million adults aged 26 or older in 2016 had SUDs, which represents 6.6 percent of adults in this age group. Stated another way, about 1 in 23 adolescents, 1 in 7 young adults, and 1 in 15 adults aged 26 or older had an SUD in the past year.

    Figure 44. Substance Use Disorder in the Past Year among People Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: 2016

    Figure 44     D

    Go to Top of PageGo to the Table of Contents

    Substance Use Treatment in the Past Year

    Substance use treatment services are intended to help people address problems associated with their substance use. NSDUH provides two measures related to substance use treatment: (a) the need for substance use treatment and (b) the receipt of substance use treatment. The substance use treatment estimates in this section are presented for 2016 but are not considered to be comparable with estimates prior to 2015 because changes in the measurement of substance use may have affected the group of respondents who were asked the substance use treatment questions. Also, estimates of the need for substance use treatment in 2016 are not comparable with estimates prior to 2015 because of the noncomparability of several SUD estimates in 2016 with those prior to 2015.

    Need for Substance Use Treatment

    NSDUH includes questions that are used to identify people who needed substance use treatment (i.e., treatment for problems related to the use of alcohol or illicit drugs) in the past year. For NSDUH, people are defined as needing substance use treatment if they had an SUD in the past year or if they received substance use treatment at a specialty facility32 in the past year.33,34

    In 2016, an estimated 21.0 million people aged 12 or older needed substance use treatment. Stated another way, about 1 in 13 people aged 12 or older (7.8 percent) needed substance use treatment (Figure 45).34 About 1.1 million adolescents aged 12 to 17 needed treatment for a substance use problem in the past year, representing 4.4 percent of adolescents. About 5.3 million young adults aged 18 to 25 needed treatment for a substance use problem in the past year, representing 15.5 percent of young adults. Stated another way, about 1 in 7 young adults needed substance use treatment. About 14.5 million adults aged 26 or older needed substance use treatment in the past year, which represents 6.9 percent of adults in this age group.

    Figure 45. Need for Substance Use Treatment in the Past Year among People Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: 2016

    Figure 45     D

    Receipt of Substance Use Treatment

    NSDUH respondents who used alcohol or illicit drugs in their lifetime are asked whether they ever received substance use treatment, and those who received substance use treatment in their lifetime are asked whether they received treatment in the 12 months prior to the survey interview (i.e., the past year). Substance use treatment refers to treatment or counseling received for alcohol or illicit drug use or for medical problems associated with the use of alcohol or illicit drugs. NSDUH collects information on the receipt of any substance use treatment and the receipt of substance use treatment at a specialty facility. The categories of any substance use treatment and treatment at a specialty facility are not mutually exclusive categories of use; substance use treatment at a specialty facility is included in estimates of any substance use treatment. Receipt of any substance use treatment includes treatment that was received in the past year at any location, such as a hospital (inpatient), rehabilitation facility (outpatient or inpatient), mental health center, emergency room, private doctor's office, prison or jail, or a self-help group (e.g., such as Alcoholics Anonymous or Narcotics Anonymous). Receipt of substance use treatment at a specialty facility is defined as substance use treatment that a respondent received at a hospital (only as an inpatient), a drug or alcohol rehabilitation facility (as an inpatient or outpatient), or a mental health center. People could report receiving treatment at more than one location. This section presents estimates of the receipt of any substance use treatment among all people aged 12 or older, receipt of specialty substance use treatment among people aged 12 or older, and receipt of specialty substance use treatment among people aged 12 or older who needed substance use treatment in the past year.

    In 2016, approximately 3.8 million people aged 12 or older received any substance use treatment in the past year, or 1.4 percent of people aged 12 or older (Figure 46). Among adolescents aged 12 to 17, 180,000 received any substance use treatment in the past year, or 0.7 percent of adolescents. An estimated 624,000 young adults aged 18 to 25 received any substance use treatment in the past year; this number represents 1.8 percent of young adults receiving any substance use treatment. About 3.0 million adults aged 26 or older received any substance use treatment in the past year, or 1.4 percent of adults in this age group.

    Figure 46. Received Any Substance Use Treatment in the Past Year among People Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: 2016

    Figure 46     D

    Approximately 2.2 million people aged 12 or older in 2016 received substance use treatment at a specialty facility, or 0.8 percent of the population aged 12 or older (Figure 47). Among adolescents aged 12 to 17, 89,000 (0.4 percent) received substance use treatment at a specialty facility. An estimated 383,000 young adults aged 18 to 25 received substance use treatment at a specialty facility; this number represents 1.1 percent of young adults receiving substance use treatment at a specialty facility. About 1.8 million adults aged 26 or older received substance use treatment at a specialty facility in the past year, or 0.8 percent of adults in this age group.

    Figure 47. Received Specialty Substance Use Treatment in the Past Year among People Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: 2016

    Figure 47     D

    The estimated 2.2 million people aged 12 or older in 2016 who received substance use treatment at a specialty facility in the past year also represents 10.6 percent of the people who needed treatment (Figure 48). Among people in specific age groups who needed substance use treatment, 8.2 percent of adolescents aged 12 to 17, 7.2 percent of young adults aged 18 to 25, and 12.1 percent of adults aged 26 or older received substance use treatment at a specialty facility in the past year. These percentages represent 89,000 adolescents, 383,000 young adults, and 1.8 million adults aged 26 or older who needed substance use treatment and received treatment at a specialty facility in the past year.

    Figure 48. Received Specialty Substance Use Treatment in the Past Year among People Aged 12 or Older Who Needed Substance Use Treatment in the Past Year, by Age Group: 2016

    Figure 48     D

    Go to Top of PageGo to the Table of Contents

    Major Depressive Episode in the Past Year

    Mental disorders, such as major depressive episode (MDE), are generally characterized by changes in mood, thought, or behavior. They can make carrying out daily activities difficult and can impair an individual's ability to work or function in school, interact with family, and fulfill other major life functions. Adults and adolescents were defined as having an MDE if they had a period of 2 weeks or longer in the past 12 months when they experienced a depressed mood or loss of interest or pleasure in daily activities, and they had at least some additional symptoms, such as problems with sleep, eating, energy, concentration, and self-worth. NSDUH uses different age-adapted questions based on using the diagnostic criteria from DSM-IV to ask adults and adolescents about their experiences with MDE.30 Stated another way, some wordings of depression questions for adolescents were designed to make them more developmentally appropriate for youths.35

    NSDUH also collects data on impairment in four major life activities or role domains because of an MDE in the past year. These four domains are defined separately for adults aged 18 or older and youths aged 12 to 17 to reflect the different roles associated with the two age groups. Adults were defined as having an MDE with severe impairment if their depression caused severe problems with their ability to manage at home, manage well at work, have relationships with others, or have a social life.36 Adolescents were defined as having an MDE with severe impairment if their depression caused severe problems with their ability to do chores at home, do well at work or school, get along with their family, or have a social life.37 Given the differences in item wording, estimates of MDE and MDE with severe impairment are provided separately for adults and adolescents. NSDUH has measured adolescent MDE since 2004 and adolescent MDE with severe impairment since 2006. NSDUH has measured adult MDE since 2005 and adult MDE with severe impairment since 2009.

    MDE and MDE with Severe Impairment among Adolescents

    In 2016, 12.8 percent of adolescents aged 12 to 17 (3.1 million adolescents) had an MDE during the past year, and 9.0 percent of adolescents (2.2 million adolescents) had a past year MDE with severe impairment (Figure 49). Thus, adolescents in 2016 who had an MDE with severe impairment represented more than two thirds (70.5 percent) of adolescents who had a past year MDE.38

    Figure 49. Major Depressive Episode (MDE) and MDE with Severe Impairment in the Past Year among Youths Aged 12 to 17: 2016

    Figure 49     D

    Note: Youth respondents with unknown past year MDE data or unknown impairment data were excluded.
    Note: The percentages do not add to 100 percent due to rounding.

    The percentage of adolescents aged 12 to 17 in 2016 who had a past year MDE was higher than the percentages in 2004 to 2014, but it was similar to the estimate in 2015 (Figure 50). The percentage of adolescents in 2016 who had a past year MDE with severe impairment was higher than the percentages in 2006 to 2013, which ranged from 5.5 to 7.7 percent. However, the 2016 estimate for MDE with severe impairment among adolescents was similar to the estimates in 2014 and 2015.

    Figure 50. Major Depressive Episode (MDE) and MDE with Severe Impairment in the Past Year among Youths Aged 12 to 17: Percentages, 2004-2016

    Figure 50     D

    + Difference between this estimate and the 2016 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.

    MDE Status0405060708091011121314
    Источник: https://www.samhsa.gov/data/sites/default/files/NSDUH-FFR1-2016/NSDUH-FFR1-2016.htm

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    • Moreover, you can zoom any design to the pixel level and can save pixel detail. As well as it can edit at a pixel level. This allows the best output for each pixel.
    • This software is compatible with different types of devices. You can preview your designs on any of these devices. Output formats of this tool are also compatible with many other art formats.
    • This application allows you to export and arrange various image files with just one click. As well as it allows you to edit bitmaps.
    • It includes a large collection of functions in a built-in library. You can blur any unnecessary detail as well as change the background of the pictures.
    • GUI contains a lot of menus and bars. It helps the user to select a specific item efficiently. You can change the interface style according to your requirements.
    • Moreover, it contains a Raster effect. This effect initially only part of bitmap editors are now included in this application too. Sketch for Windows allows more precise designing and editing.
    • Additionally, grid techniques are also present. This makes the whole designing and editing more advance and efficient

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    • Resolved all the symbol issues in the previous version.
    • The file crashing error is solved as well.
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    Operating System Compatibility

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    System Requirements:

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    Sketch 78.1 Crack 2022

    Sketch 78.1 Crack With License Key Full Free Download

    Sketch 70.6 Crack 2021 is one of the most popular applications for designers and helps them out to turn their raw ideas into real designs. It comes with the support for many useful plugins and comes with powerful features to present your best work.

    This program has the ability to work with other tools like blurring, gradients, shadows, and blending. It offers a strong and powerful text rendering engine that allows you to make complex shapes by grouping various objects. You can export and import in different documents formats including .png. jpg. gif. eps. pdf, and .svg.

    The Sketch Crack is equipped with vector editing with which you can create more advanced and editable pictorial projects. Moreover, it also has special layering structure with many features. These layer features enable the user to add much more texture and details to artworks.

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    You can create much more detailed and brilliant designs. You can modify all these layers according to your requirements. It has many customization options for changing the size and transparency of each layer. You can different objects such as fonts. As well remove these objects. It has a very simple, compact and easy to use interface with which user can create amazing artwork.

    The interface is easy to use, and the application even has a dark mode option which takes the stress off of your eyes and lets you direct your full focus to your design. Sketch Torrent can work with complex documents and can run on Metal to provide you with improved performance. Working with this software, you get pixel precision which can let you control every aspect of your design. You can also export presets which can save you a lot of time and gives you a good start.

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    Furthermore, Sketch 2022 Full Keygen Mac gives a better result ever. By utilizing the vector-based graphics editing tools & functions you can create eye-catching projects in your MacBook. The interface of the software is simple everything is accessible from the toolbar. There is a wide range of shapes accessible to provide the whole thing that you need. Such as rectangles, ovals, stars and a lot more. Some additional features are here to modify the size of the shapes or added the round corners.

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    Additionally, you can use it to create fluid layouts to make the margins and paddings of your elements more manageable. You can also group the layers in your Advanced SystemCare Ultimate 13.7.0.308 to make resizing more convenient. Sketch Crack 2021 contains professional-grade templates for different projects such as iOS UI Design, iOS App Icon, and some others. In Short, this is a handy graphical software that helps you to work with many projects by utilizing efficient tools.

    By using Sketch 2022 Crack Full Version, you can import your stuff to Photoshop as split PSD files with complete editing feature utilization of this software with maximum graphics quality. The SKetch Keygen provides you with full access to the premium features of the software for free usage. More, Sketch 78.1 Keygen comes with fast and attractive tools that work together evidently among the canvas and a lot of other tools such as a spectacular graphite pencil, various markers for mixing the colors, as well as printer ink pen.

    Key Features:

    Vast Amount of Resources for Design:

    • With the InVision Craft plugin, you will never have to rely on dummy text or avatars and can choose from an extensive library of photos to add more life to your design. You also get to insert dummy text on any subject or names residing in your workflow.

    Multiply Your Content:

    • You can group your content with a few clicks and create lists, mockup messages, and a series of rows. To accomplish this task, you will have to add on Craft plugin.

    Create Prototypes:

    • You can export your design to a plugin called Marvel to quickly create responsive prototypes. You can also share the updated version of your project with anyone you want via an SMS. The SMS will contain the link that will enable the download of the prototype on any device.

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    What’s New in?

    • Fix crash which occurs when localized font names did not find or missing from an installed font.
    • Also, resolved the problem when some documents would not be able to open or render as the user expected
    • Snapping has many enhancements in working as well as add a brand new attractive look for customizable guide color.
    • This version helps you to easily toggle in between Ligh Mode and Dark Mode as you wish without worrying about your system setting
    • The Smart Guides will appear when you insert new symbol instances
    • Also, Snap lines display more consistently compare to the previous version when moving layers with a keyboard.
    • Improved the working of snapping when dragging a layer in or out of an artboard
    • Included a new Artboard preset size for Galaxy S10 as well as updated iPad models
    • Toggle the visibility for multiple overrides on a specific symbol master
    • Improved the alignment of icons ToolBars button for better results
    • Now, you have the ability to show the system Color Panel
    • Fix the issue which occurs when you try to rotate multiple layers with the help of the Touch Bar
    • Also, fix the size of the Pixel 3 Artboard preset
    • A new look give to Measurements for more readable capability
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    Sketch 78.1 Crack 2022

    Sketch 78.1 Crack with Product Key & Torrent Free Download 2022

    Sketch 78.1 Crack is a digital developer toolkit that is designed to help you create your best work with initial ideas, through final assets. It is a vector design tool that focuses on the user interface design completely.

    It is easy to upload and spend a part of the Photoshop cost. Because of its simplicity, anyone can learn a little to train. It is best to design for multiple devices and supply an asset. Sketch uses according to design-only styles, a built-in iPhone preview is the single most effective unit of designing multiple screens, Sketch a UI device with mirrors and artboards.

    A sketch Torrent is a simple machine. In this software, you only work with pixels. It is completely reliable designed software so you do not need to worry about other units (cm, mm, passes), color mode, pixel per inch, and all the extra weight which only relates to specific platforms. The purpose of half- options for editing the image, digital painting, and 3D where you are not reimbursed by a toolbar. Nothing is wrong with them, but focusing on the user interface design will allow you to be more efficient and less disturbing. The design is compatible with language, a toolbar is a custom when you click on it right. You can set your favorite tools by dragging them into what you want.

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    Furthermore, Upload your skills to Behance to get feedback on the app. Send sketches to Adobe Illustrator to increase the project up to 4x for high-resolution printing. The sends these as split PSD documents to Photoshop, where the pull, paper history, and images are layered, which means you can easily isolate your work.

    The app includes a vector drawing tool that can use multiple layers, allowing you to sketch out individual symbols and more. Finding your way in the Sketch license key is very straightforward, but the builder also provides in-depth online documentation: here you will be able to learn to use layers, add and edit shapes, insert text content objects, export specific layers, and more. Even without the documentation, thanks to the intuitive user interface, you will start working very quickly on your tasks.

    Features

    It also records the work of an artist. It develops your ideas to work for future uses.

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    It is a fast way to graphically explain something. You can explain your images, idea, or rules.

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    It can also make sketches from a live model whose styles change in each minute.

    The sketch gallery is like a book of blank pages. Artists can use it to draw different kinds of sketches.

    Record scenes and individuals in law courts.

    It also helps to identify and search wanted people for authorities.

    You can copy and paste your desired sketchings. You can paste in place and paste over the location.

    Sketch License Key boosts up the display of all layers in the artboard.

    If you want the artboard to display the layer list all time click on it.

    It is the masking analyzer of a sketch.

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    Dutch company Bohemian coding introduced sketch software.

    The requirements of a sketch are Mac OS.

    What Is New?

    • Now you’ll interface layers to statistics assets for your mac, or utilize custom modules to form and convey literary substance, previews, and alternative facts in your facts.
    • Sketches correct currently area unit further distinguished responsive while altering advanced facts, rendering canvases, and choosing pix with varied revises.
    • UI Redesign: Sketches currently have an improbably upgraded interface that complements utility easy use and understandability.
    • Text examples and layer styles within pictures could now be able to be outdated like settled images, revealed substance, and images.
    • We sent a dark instance to the Sketch macOS Mojave.
    Serial Key 2022: DVEFHS-RUFYGB-RFGCVR-RUYGUW WIUWR-FBVRVR-RUVBNC-EUHFRBR ESFGCV-EADGSXC-SFHC-ASFHXB SFHX-WRYSFG-WRYFGVB-RETDHG License Key 2022: DSBSDR-YRGBC-RUYGFNE-RYFUNC DBBBDR-RUHBET-UGYHNC-RFYRHU QEWRF-ESFG-QETRSG-RWYSHFXGBV WRYSFG-RWYSFH-WRSHFD-5WUTEDGH Latest Key 2022: HBEJGR-RYGFN-TYUVBE-YRGFHJ VBNEYE-YGNUTT-HGJRIV-RGHIRR WERYF-RSYFH-SRYHFV-SRHDVB ARSGFV-SRYFHV-SRYHF-SRYHFD

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    Sketch 78.1 Crack with Serial Key Free Download 2022

    Sketch 78.1 Crack is a digital developer toolkit that is designed to help you create your best work with initial ideas, through final assets. It is a vector design tool that focuses on the user interface design completely.

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    This feature of Sketch Crack Mac software gives you an unbelievable variety of technology. Don’t worry, the Autosave feature of this software give you a tension-free environment during your activities by autosaving your data. Also, version control of this feature gives you an exclusive offer to get back on the last version of your will. In this software, you customize your toolbar consistent with OS X’s design language, you have to click right to open the toolbar. Which tools you want you can put them of your own will.

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    Sketch Crack is a great and powerful digital product design software. It does work and creates models, but it also provides a lot of UX deliverables. Sketch Mirror can be an iPhone app for iOS that allows you to preview your design in real-time using your iPhone or iPad keeping it simple is a regular theme of Sketch and an important difference between other design tools and Sketch. Since the dark theme is not the native feature of macOS (so far), we must carefully craft and shape all aspects of the UI. By encouraging midnight repayments, you can help us invest the time and effort to carefully update the plugin for each new version of Sketch.

    Sketch Crack gives you the tools to interact with the canvas, including graphite pens, printer ink pens, and hybrid markers built-in brushes can launch more creative options. Use the exploded view to place your drawings and toolbox on one screen. Advances in connection design, the pressure of rapid delivery, unsuccessful security, and the desire to reuse components have prompted people to want to do more with fewer resources or use a tool for the most important purposes. We have added unofficial support for InVision Build Sections, Marvel, and Anima AutoLayout.

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    Key Features:

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    • Artboards allow you to create connected frames on Sketch For windows limitless Canvas, however, they’re entirely optional.
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    • Improved the selection behavior as before long as deciding on matter content fields at intervals the Inspector.
    • Exportable layers presently moreover show confederate diploma export preview within the Inspector.
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    • Clicking at the layer may as an alternative select the layer on high and pass that one.
    • Improved the alignment of the form of property controls at intervals with the Inspector.
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    • Refined the knowledge of sharing documents with Sketch Crack Cloud.
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    • We sent a dark instance to the Sketch macOS Mojave.

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