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There are dozens of password managers out there, but no two are created alike. We’ve rounded up the most popular options and broken down their features so you can pick the right one for you.

What Is a Password Manager and Why Should I Care?

If you’re the tech-savvy sort, there’s a good chance that you already know why you’d want a password manager, and you can skip to the good stuff. But if you’re on the fence (or don’t even know why you should be on the fence in the first place) let us start by saying: installing a password manager is one of the most important things you can do to keep your data safe and secure. It’s not just for security exports and the paranoid: it’s for everyone.

RELATED:Your Passwords Are Terrible, and It's Time to Do Something About It

There’s a good chance your passwords aren’t very strong, password depot 12 - Crack Key For U an even better chance that you use the same one for download avs video editor full version free - Crack Key For U different sites. This is bad, and makes it easier for hackers, phishers, and scammy-types to get at your data. A strong password is long, complex, and different for every site you visit. But in an age when we’re all dealing with dozens (if not hundreds) of passwords, it becomes impossible to remember all those unique passwords.

A good password manager takes the strain off you by helping to generate, manage, and store all those long, complex, and unique passwords better than your brain ever could. Further, unlike just writing everything down in a notebook, a good password manager includes extra features like security assessments, random-character generation, and other tools.

The Many Features of a Good Password Manager

At their most basic, every password manager worth its disk space will generate secure passwords in just a few clicks, and save them all in a database encrypted behind a “master password”. And, if it’s any good, it’ll automatically enter them for you on all your favorite websites so you don’t have to.

Beyond that, though, many passwords add extra features to try and go the extra mile and make your life easier. These features can include, but are not necessarily limited to:

Online and Offline access. There are two primary flavors of password manager: online managers that sync between your computers and other devices, and offline managers that store your password database on your computer (or, in some cases, a USB flash drive). While there is an inherent increased risk any time you store your password online, cloud-based password managers typically store the data as a securely encrypted file that can only be opened on your computer.

Two-Factor Authentication. As we mentioned in our guide to strong passwords, two-factor authentication is crucial for keeping your data safe–which goes double for a service that’s storing all your sensitive passwords! Two-factor authentication uses two factors to verify your identify. One of those is your master password. The other could be a code texted to your phone or a physical USB “key” you plug into the computer to verify that you’re you, and not just someone who learned your master password.

Browser Integration. Ideally, a password manager interfaces with your web browser, the most common place you use passwords, and automatically enters them for you. This is critical. The more seamless and friction-less your password manager experience is, the more likely you are to use it.

Automatic Password Capture. This is a very handy feature tied into browser integration: if you type in a password on a new site, the password manager will prompt you with something like “We see you’ve entered a password on [insert site name], would you like to save it in your database?”. Often, it’ll detect when you change your password, too, and update it in your database accordingly.

Automatic Password Changes. Ever have trouble finding where to change your password on a certain site? Some password managers actually include mechanisms for immediately directing you to the password change page of a given service (or even streamlining the password change right in-app for you). While not a necessary feature, it’s definitely a welcome one.

Automatic Security Alerts. More and more sites are getting breached every year, releasing tons of user passwords to the public. This has prompted many password management companies to include automatic notification (by email, in-app, or both) when a breach occurs on a service you use. These are very helpful for staying on top of necessary password changes.

Portable/Mobile Support. Ideally, your password manager is portable (if it’s a standalone app) and/or has a smartphone and tablet app for managing your passwords on the go (if it is cloud based). Secure smartphone-based password access is beyond handy.

Security Audits. Some password managers have a fantastic feature wherein you can perform an audit on your own password database. It will scan your database and point out when you’re using weak passwords, the same passwords across services, and other password no-nos.

Import/Export. Importing and exporting functions are important password manager components. You want to be able to easily get your existing passwords in (either from another password manager or from the saved passwords in password depot 12 - Crack Key For U web browser) and you want a mechanism for easily exporting the password data if need be.

One-Time-Use/Throwaway Passwords. Every password manager has a secure master password that grants you total access to the password management system. Sometimes you may not wish to use that password, however, if you’re not certain of the security of the computer you’re entering it on. Let’s say some pressing emergency compels you to access your password manager on a family member’s computer or a work terminal. A throwaway password system allows you to predesignate one or more passwords to be one-time-use passwords. This way you can log into your password manager once and even if the system on which you AVG Secure VPN License key so is compromised that password cannot be used again in the future.

Password Sharing. Some passwords managers include a secure way for you to share passwords with a friend, either inside or outside the framework of that particular password manager.

The Most Popular Password Managers Compared

Now that you have a frame of reference for the important features, let’s take a look at some of the most popular password managers. We’ll discuss them in detail below, but first, here’s a table with an at-a-glance look of each app’s features. In some cases, the answer is more complicated than a simple yes or no and we encourage you to read our more detailed descriptions below where we comment on the nuances of the chart. LastPass, as an example, has a red X for “Offline” because even though it has a backup offline system for access when the Internet is not accessible it is not actually intended to be used that way.

Compare Features

The Best Password Managers






Two Factor
Browser Integration
Password Capture
Password Changes
Security Alerts
Portable Application
Mobile Application
Security Audits
Throwaway Passwords
Password Sharing

Have a few questions about the yes, no, and asterisked entries in the table above? Let’s look at each individual service now.


LastPass is one of the most widely known and widely used password managers on the planet. While many of LastPass’ features can be found in other password managers, the service was either at the forefront of pioneering certain features (or significantly improved them). The LastPass security audit, for example, is a top notch experience that really makes it easy to both test the quality of your passwords as well as make changes to improve them.

LastPass is primarily a browser extension, though it has standalone apps for Windows and Mac OS X as well. In the above chart LastPass is flagged in the Offline category with an asterisk because while it’s technically an online password management system, it does work offline in certain instances. The actual password database is securely transferred to your device and decrypted there (and not in the cloud) so you can access the database without an active internet connection through your web browser, via the Mac app, or on your mobile device as long as you’ve logged into the cloud once in order to grab the database.

LastPass is free to use on desktop and mobile, though they also have a password depot 12 - Crack Key For U reasonable premium model at a mere $12 a year. A buck a month for advanced features is a bargain, even though you can get by without it. You can compare the free and premium features here. (Update: LastPass now costs $36 per year.)

LastPass’ popularity hinges on how easy it is to use, how many features it has for free users, and the fact that it supports iOS, Android, Windows Phones, and even BlackBerry devices. Between the excellent browser integration and the great mobile apps, LastPass really lowers the friction between the end user and good password management.


If you bring up popular cloud-based password managers in conversation (especially among tech types) there is bound to be at least one (or several) people who chime in with “There is no way I’d put my passwords in the cloud.” Those people use KeePass.

KeePass is, rightfully so, a long-standing favorite among people who want a password depot 12 - Crack Key For U password manager but don’t want to take on the risks (however well-managed and small they might be) of putting their password data in the cloud. Furthermore, KeePass is fully open source, portable, and extensible. (Seriously, the extensions page shows how easy it is for people to make extensions that do everything from improve the KeePass interface to sync the password database to Dropbox.)

Speaking of which, KeePass is technically an offline password manager, but its database can be synced between computers with a service like Dropbox. Of course, at that point, you’re putting your passwords back in the cloud, which invalidates KeePass’ biggest advantage, but it’s there if you want it.

KeePass is the best password manager for the DIYer who is willing to trade the convenience of cloud-based systems like LastPass for total control over (and customization of) their password system. Like an early Linux enthusiast, though, it also means you’re left patching together the system you want on your own terms (there are no official mobile apps, for example, but developers have taken the open source code and adopted it for various platforms). There’s no click, setup, and done with the KeePass system.


Like LastPass, Dashlane has a slick Web 2.0-type interface with a host of similar features–like syncing, password auditing, assisted automatic password changes, and alerts in case of security breaches. Dashlane, however, definitely led the pack in the good interface department–for years, LastPass had a functional but very dated looking interface. Dashlane was the far more polished app, until late 2015 when LastPass finally updated its interface.

The big difference between the two is the cost of the premium access. Veteran Dashlane users got grandfathered in years ago, but newer users are in for a bit of a sticker shock. To get the same premium upgrades that come with LastPass you’ll have to shell out $50 a year (instead of $36). One of those make-or-break features is online syncing, available only to Dashlane premium members.

On the upside Dashlane has something LastPass doesn’t: a hybridization of online/offline functionality. Dashlane is, first and foremost, a local app, and you even get the option when you first set it up to use (or ignore) the online functionality altogether.

If you want the LastPass experience password depot 12 - Crack Key For U you like the whole offline aspect of KeePass, Dashlane is a very polished compromise that allows you to start off with local passwords and very easily upgrade to a fully synced and online experience if you desire.


1Password was originally a premium app for Macs only. However, despite its origins, it now has a Windows app as well as iOS and Android companions. One thing that throws first time shoppers off is the price: Desktop versions of the app are trial only (albeit after the first 30 days the trial is indefinite with limited features) and the mobile versions are free (again with limited functionality). The desktop apps will set you back $49.99 each or you can bundle them for $69.99. The iOS app is $9.99 premium upgrade and the Android app is a $7.99 premium upgrade. (Update: 1Password is now primarily a subscription service, costing $36 per year for one person or $60 per year for a family of up to five people.)

All that said, there is no subscription model for 1Password. So while a desktop and mobile license will set you back around $60 out of the gate, it will be cheaper than a LastPass or Dashlane over time. If you have multiple users in your house, it comes out to be a lot cheaper, since licenses can be shared with up to 6 people living in the same household). The 1Password developers even have a really handy wizard in their store that will guide you through a few simple questions to help you pick out exactly which products you should buy based on your needs.

Like KeePass, 1Password is primarily an offline desktop password manager, but you can manually sync your passwords to your smartphones over USB or Wi-Fi like you would music, or over the internet with a service like Dropbox or iCloud.

In addition to easy syncing and (if you want it) cloud storage via Dropbox or iCloud, 1Password also features very polished browser integration. If you want the offline passwords with a more polished user experience than you’ll get from most other offline managers, 1Password is a solid choice with deceptively competitive pricing.


We’ll smartftp enterprise 9.0 the first to admit that RoboForm is a bit of an enigma to us. It isn’t the most feature packed app, and it isn’t the cheapest. But despite more-or-less failing to keep up with the major trends in password management over the last five years, it still has a very large and loyal fan base. Part of this is due to the fact that RoboForm is one of the oldest still-operating password managers out there: it debuted in 1999 and some people have been using it ever since.

RoboForm’s greatest strength is that it is extremely simple to use. There are no advanced features, no password sharing, no packed-to-the-gills context menus, etc. It comes in two distinct flavors: you can buy a single standalone version for Windows or Mac for $30 (or a portable version for $40) or you can buy RoboForm Everywhere, the new cross-platform RoboForm subscription model that starts at $24 a year. (Update: The standalone versions are now free, and RoboForm is focusing on its subscription product.)

If it password depot 12 - Crack Key For U more advanced, it would be easier to swallow RoboForm’s high price tag but given that it more or less functions as a simple unextensible version of KeePass (which is free) but bills you like LastPass or Dashlane, it’s a tough sell. But we’ve included it here for the sake of completeness, since it’s still one of the more popular options around.

After some careful comparison shopping, the final step is to pick out a password manager. In the end, it doesn’t matter as much which password manager you use as much password depot 12 - Crack Key For U it matters that you just use one at all. It’s the best way to ensure that you are always selecting long, strong, and unique passwords to keep all your data safe.

Источник: https://www.howtogeek.com/240255/password-managers-compared-lastpass-vs-keepass-vs-dashlane-vs-1password/
ecosia sudo tee -a /etc/initramfs-tools/modules sudo update-initramfs -u

5. Reboot and convert the header.

Now assuming the bootloader is GRUB:

  • Reboot.
  • Press <E> to obtain an emacs-like screen.
  • Append “ break=premount” to the line starting with “linux”.
  • Press + to boot - the edit is transient and will not survive the next reboot (users should land into an initramfs debug shell).

Convert the header to LUKS2:

cryptsetup convert /dev/sda5 --type luks2 --debug

Then convert to Argon2id. Parameters used in this example:

  • 1 GiB RAM.
  • 50 iterations.
  • 4 threads.
cryptsetup luksConvertKey --key-slot 0 --pbkdf argon2id --pbkdf-force-iterations 50 --pbkdf-memory 1048576 --pbkdf-parallel 4 /dev/sda5

Argon2id Entropy Estimates[edit]

InfoTip: post-quantum era words are 6.46 bits each.

For LUKS FDE where memorization is a burden (assuming EFF list and 26 bit Argon2id lower bound):

  • [post-quantum] 10 words + Argon2id = ~90 bits
  • [post-quantum] 11 words + Argon2id = ~97 bits
  • [post-quantum] 12 words + Argon2id = ~103 bits

For LUKS FDE where memorization is a burden (assuming EFF list and 24 bit Argon2id lower bound for faster logins [configured by 4 GiB, 3 iterations, 4 threads]):

  • [post-quantum] 10 words + Argon2id = ~88 bits
  • [post-quantum] 11 words + Argon2id = ~95 bits
  • [post-quantum] 12 words + Argon2id = ~102 bits

In summary, 12 words is the safest compromise, giving a comfortable security margin at mild cognitive expense.

For any other encrypted media/container that does not implement Argon2id or where memory is not a problem because you can safely store the password on your encrypted computer:

  • [post-quantum] 20 words = 128 bits

Alternatively if memorization is not a problem in the case of non-system media, a shorter alphanumeric string consisting of 43 characters will achieve 128-bit post-quantum strength: [20][21]

head /dev/random

After a major data breach, do criminals actually have your password even if it has been encrypted?

tldr: It depends but always assume the worst say experts.

Companies have various ways of encrypting passwords. There are also Hotspot Shield Elite 9.1.8 Crack With Keygen Key Free Download 2020 called salting and hashing. The upshot is, the average user will not take the time to find out how the affected company does their encrypting — or hashing or salting for that matter. So the average user doesn’t know how vulnerable their password is.

So, do criminals actually have your password in hand after a breach? Here’s password depot 12 - Crack Key For U a few security experts I queried said:

Chris Morales, head of security analytics at San Jose, Calif.-based Vectra:

For the average person, they should just assume the answer is yes.

More often than not, the passwords are fully accessible, which are then sold on the black market for some value depending on who the user is and what level of access they have.

For example, we learned a couple of weeks ago there [are bad guys] selling passwords for the email accounts of hundreds of C-level executives at companies across the world. The data is being sold for $100 to $1500 per account depending on company size and user role. This is occurring on a closed-access underground forum for Russian-speaking hackers named “Exploit.in.”

Morales added this about password strength:

Password strength is only useful when someone is trying to guess your password. If it is taken in a database that is not encrypted, then the password is fully exposed regardless of how strong it is. That is one of the fallacies of password strength in a database leak and why organizations require users to change their password on a frequent basis.


Joseph Carson, chief security scientist and advisory chief information security officer at Washington D.C.-based Thycotic:

In most password data breaches, attackers get their hands on your encrypted password (typically known as a hashed password).

If the victim uses weak passwords, then an attacker can crack that encrypted password, typically within a few minutes.

Once an attacker has access to several users’ password formulas, they can easily use cracking rules. This is an attack to create wordlists that will attempt to guess a user’s password based on previously used passwords. To prevent such types of attacks, a user should use a strong password which is unique for each account or use a password manager combined with Multi-Factor Authentication (MFA).

My advice is to never reuse passwords and never use similar password formulas that only change by a single number, such as year.”


Craig Lurey, Co-founder and CTO at password management provider Keeper Security

If the password has appeared in a dark web data breach, that password must never be used again, by that affected person or any other person. Common passwords or even not-so-common passwords that show up in data breaches can be used as attack vectors by the bad guys and they know that people typically use the same password across all of their websites and applications, including banking.

This is why the first thing you should do is change your passwords and utilize a password manager that generates high-strength random passwords for all your sites and apps and stores them for you in a personal, encrypted digital vault. You should also utilize a dark web monitoring system to see if your credentials have been leaked.

Lurey added this about password strength:

If a password (even a random or complex one) was exposed in a data breach, it can be used by attackers to try the same password on any other website that you use. It can also be used in password depot 12 - Crack Key For U "dictionary" attack with other users.

By using a strong and unique password for each and every site (via a password manager), reduces the overall risk dramatically."

Check if your password has been exposed:

Today there are many sites and services that check to see if your password has been exposed in a data breach and is circulating on the dark web including “Google Password Checkup” and haveibeenpwned.


Comments or suggestions can be sent to me via a direct twitter message at twitter.com/mbrookec or mbcrothers@gmail.com

Follow me on Twitter. 

Источник: https://www.forbes.com/sites/brookecrothers/2020/12/12/how-worried-should-i-be-about-my-password-being-compromised-stolen-in-a-data-breach-experts-say-this/



Ambox warning pn.svg.pngWarning: In 2013, nation-state adversaries were supposedly capable of one trillion guesses per second when attempting to brute-force passwords. [1] Considering Moore's Law it could have only improved since.[2]

If weak passwords (passphrases) are used, they will be easily discovered by trying every possible character combination in reasonable time through brute-force attacks[archive]. This method is very fast for short and/or non-random passwords.

This chapter discusses:

  • How to calculate entropy for both pre-quantum and post-quantum strength;
  • Estimating the brute force time for passwords of different length;
  • Key-stretching measures which help to make password length manageable in a post-quantum world; and
  • Principles for stronger passwords.


To generate strong passwords that are both easy to remember and have an easily calculatable large entropy, it is advised to use the Diceware package. Instead of generating a random sequence containing alphanumerical and special characters, Diceware selects a sequence of words equiprobably from a winzip 23 serial key generator - Crack Key For U containing several thousand that have been curated for their memorability, length and profanity.

Passwords that are long enough should be safe for millions or billions of years, even if the list chosen is known to the attacker. This relies on the fact that the time taken to try all possible combinations would be infeasibly large, even for a well-equipped adversary. [3][4]

Diceware Password Strength[edit]

When determining appropriate password length, ideally it should have at least as much entropy as the bit length of the symmetric key that is derived from it. [5] As will be explained later, one can deviate from this rule to have a shorter password while still having a realistically strong protection level. The entropy type referred to throughout this page is Shannon Entropy. The concept of Min-entropy[6] measures the worst case lower bound of passphrase entropy in password depot 12 - Crack Key For U of diceware generating words that have semantic meaning as a sentence or short passphrases whose character length can be easily brute-forced. This in practice is extremely unlikely and is detectable by the user and in the latter case a recommended number of words is advised to mitigate this risk.[7]

Entropy[archive] per prism video converter 6.91 registration code is calculated by dividing log of number of words in list by log 2. List lengths vary.

EFF list:

log (7776) / log (2) = 12.92 bits

SecureDrop list:

log (6800) / log (2) = 12.73 bits

Total password entropy is:

number of words * entropy per word

There are 32 special characters on a standard U.S. keyboard:

log (32) / log (2) = 5 bits per character

Alternatively, an alphanumeric string using lower/uppercase will have 62 characters in the set:

log (62) / log (2) = 5.95 bits per character

The relationship between entropy and the length of the diceware password is outlined below.

Table:Diceware Password Strength[8]

Word TotalBits of EntropyEstimated Brute-force Time (Classical Computing)[9]Future-proof Safety[10]Post-quantum Secure[11]
Five ~64 ~165 days No No
Six ~78 ~3,505 years Maybe No
Seven ~90 ~27,256 millennia Yes No
Eight ~103 ~15 x age Universe Yes No
Nine ~116 ~119,441 x age Universe Yes No
Ten ~129 ~928,773,415 x age Universe Yes No
Fifteen ~194 ~26,405,295,715,806,668,059,525,829,264 x age Universe Yes Yes
Twenty ~259 ~750,710,162,715,852,378,145,230,792,130,183,941,981,164,925,924 x age Universe Yes Yes

Calculating Brute-force Time[edit]

Moore's Law[archive] predicts the doubling of number of on-die transistors every 24 months (two years). Other estimates by the industry put that at 18 months. IObit Driver Booster Product Key - Crack Key For U is expected noteburner m4v converter plus crack Moore's Law ends by 2025 because of physical constraints of silicon.

1 trillion guesses in 2013 = 240 operations.

Lower bound - Doubling every 24 months 2013-2025:


Upper bound - Every 18 months 2013-2025:


To gauge strength against adversary capabilities, an example 80-bit password versus an adversary capable of 1 trillion or (240 guesses per second):

2(80-40) = 240 seconds

Which is then divided by 31536000 seconds / year to get the number of years. [12][13]

Classical vs Quantum Computing[edit]

Classical Computing Attack[edit]

  • 7-word diceware passphrases are recommended, yielding ~90 bits of entropy against classical computing attacks. [14]
  • 10-word diceware passphrases provide 128 bits of entropy.

Quantum Computing Attack[edit]

  • Grover’s quantum search algorithm halves the key search space, so all entropy values in the table above are halved on quantum computers. For example, the cost of searching for the right 2128 passphrase drops to (very) roughly ~264. [15]
  • A 20-word passphrase with 2256 bit entropy today, yields 128-bit post-quantum protection.
  • Quantum computers do not impact the entropy provided by key-stretching algorithms. See below. [16]

Depending on how it is implemented, key-stretching introduces a major speed-bump for brute-forcing as it forces an adversary to undergo extra steps compared to processing vanilla, symmetric, master encryption keys. They allow passwords to be shorter while adding a certain entropy security margin. Note this does not help if bad passwords are chosen.

Passwords for LUKS FDE are secured using a key-stretching implementation known as a Password-Based Key Derivation Function (PBKDF). The older HMAC-SHA* algorithm is less effective against parallelization by GPUs and ASICs -- the same weaknesses suffered by Bitcoin against dedicated mining hardware.

Argon2id is the winner of the Password Hashing Competition[archive] and the state-of-the-art hashing algorithm of choice when protecting encryption keys. Its memory-hard properties introduce a large penalty for brute-search on general computers and even more so on GPUs and ASICs.

Choosing Parameters[edit]

This is how to calculate entropy for Argon2id. An example [17] using arbitrary parameters is below:

  • 1 GiB RAM, 50 iterations and 4 threads
  • m=1GiB, t=50, p=4

The "20" comes from the exponent of 2 that gives the number of kibibytes that is used in 1 GiB RAM (220 = 1,048,576 kibibytes in this case). The number of 1 KiB block operations is most important. For 4 GiB, the exponent becomes "22" (222 = 4,194,304 kibibytes).

General Computers "Lower Bound"

20 + (log (50) / log(2)) = ~26 bits

GPUs and ASICs "Upper Bound"

20 + (20 - (log (8*4) / log (2))) + (log (50) / log (2)) = ~41 bits

Subtracting the parallelism (8x within a block and 4x thread-level p=4), because for this sort of attack the parallelism reduces the duration for which the memory has to be occupied.


Then, I think t=50 is excessive. It isn't even the equivalent of a one word longer passphrase, but it takes more time than typing a word password depot 12 - Crack Key For U. Perhaps you should consider t=3. That will be only "4 bits" less, giving you something like 22 to 40 bits (depending on attack hardware) of stretching relative to BLAKE2b. --SolarDesigner (OpenWall lead and cryptographer who participated in the Password Hashing Competition)

Migrating LUKS FDE to Argon2id[edit]

These steps migrate systems which are currently encrypted with LUKS first from a LUKS1 to LUKS2 header, then shift to Argon2id. Removable media migration should be straightforward, however the main running system will require extra pre-boot steps because an open encrypted volume cannot be modified. [18] Take precautions such as backing up your data and make a copy of the required steps since they will be inaccessible during part of the process.

1. Enumerate all devices to determine partition name.

2. Verify the partition in question is an encrypted one (typically on default, non-customized installs).

3. Inspect LUKS header details and confirm it was converted in the end.

# cryptsetup luksDump --debug /dev/sda5

4. Check kernel module availability.

Before rebooting, it is advisable to check the ‘algif_skcipher’ kernel module is included in the initramfs image, otherwise it might not be possible to open LUKS2 volumes. [19] To do so, run the following two commands:

# echo algif_skcipher

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2 thoughts on “Password depot 12 - Crack Key For U”

  • Dulshan kavinda 😑😑 says:

    В @Pr1vateLimeВ  Its a mod with so many things, Hydrocraft was my first mod I played. I loved it

  • Tech With Martin says:

    В @Time4SurvivalВ  yeah you had some deep sessions then. I am no stranger to strange dreams visions and meditations. Bless рџ™Њ

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