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Networking Academy Support & FAQs

How do I reset my password?

Individuals have the ability to reset their password, please follow these steps:

  1. Go to www.NetAcad.com
  2. In the top right corner, click “Log In”
  3. Select “Forgot Password” in the drop-down menu
  4. Enter your email address and click “Continue”
  5. Click “Reset via Email”
  6. Locate your password reset request email and click “Reset Password”
  7. Enter new password information in required fields and click “Reset Password”

You will now be able to log into Cisco Networking Academy with your new password information.

Please note: The link to reset your password expires after 1 hour. After this time you will need to restart the process.

Why can I no longer use my screen-name/username?

In April 2021 Cisco introduced a new login experience with a continued focus on security. Due to these changes, screen-name/username is no longer accepted when logging into Cisco Networking Academy. Please use your email address to access the site.

What is a compliance hold?

Cisco.com checks all users against the export compliance lists maintained by the US government. Sometimes an account will be kept on compliance hold to ensure all users meet export compliance guidelines.

I’m unable to log in, what can I try?

If you cannot log in using your Cisco Networking Academy or Cisco.com email/password, try the following:

  • Clear your browser cache and history, close, and relaunch
  • Clear any old bookmarks you may have and use https://www.NetAcad.com to log in
  • Please try the latest version of the recommended browsers (Google Chrome or Mozilla Firefox)
  • Use email instead of screen-name/username
  • Check to see if you received a compliance hold email. The hold may get cleared in a couple of hours.
  • If you have forgotten your password, please see the FAQ entitled “How do I reset my password?”
  • If login issues persist:
    • Contact your instructor if you are unable to access your email account to complete email verification
    • If you have not logged in to NetAcad.com in the last four years, please contact an instructor to enroll you in a new course
Why am I receiving a “Token Expired” message when activating my account?

Individuals will receive an error message when they attempt to register their account with an invalid link. Typically, this occurs when the account is already registered. If you have not registered your account and you are receiving this error, please follow the steps in the FAQ titled “How can I get another activation email to register my NetAcad account?” to generate a new activation link.

Why was I prompted to log in before accessing my course when I am already logged in?

This is generally a browser-related error and can be caused from not having 3rd party cookies enabled or accessing the course from a bookmarked page or saved link. Please try the following to resolve this issue:

  • Access the course from your “I’m Learning” page each time you login
  • Clear your browser cache and history, close, and relaunch
  • Make sure all cookies, including 3rd party, are enabled in your browser settings
  • Try another web browser to see if you experience the same issue, we recommend using the latest version of Google Chrome or Mozilla Firefox
Why am I seeing log in pages in English instead of Arabic?

Our authentication partner does not currently support the Arabic language; however, Cisco Networking Academy will support Arabic once your account is set up. We have created an Arabic webpage to help assist individuals in creating their accounts. You can access this page here.

Why am I getting an error message when trying to activate my account?

Cisco recently implemented a change to their authentication partner on 16 April 2021. Individuals who had not registered their account before this change will get an error message when using the link from the email titled “Get Started with Cisco Networking Academy”. Please look for a new email with the subject line “Updated: Welcome to Networking Academy: Activate Your Account” for your valid link. Or you can follow the steps in the FAQ titled “How can I get another activation email to register my NetAcad account?” for a new link.

How do I request/view my course completion certificate/letter of merit?

Qualifying individuals will have a Star (Get Certificate) and/or Paper (Get Letter) icon for their course showing on their I’m Learning page. Individuals can click these icons to download their respective Course Completion Certificate or Letter.

Course completion certificates and letters of merit can also be requested from the Certificates and Letters page located under your profile.

  1. Go to your profile
  2. Click “Certificates and Letters”
  3. Click “Get Certificate” or “Get Letter” for a course

Note: For certificates you may need to choose an instructor before clicking “Submit”.

Why can't I request a course completion certificate?

To generate course completion certificates, you must first meet all the eligibility requirements. For details on eligibility requirements, please see the FAQ entitled “What are the eligibility requirements for a course completion certificate”.

If you believe you meet eligibility requirements, but do not have a link to request a certificate, please go to your “I’m Learning” tab and click “Refresh Status”. It will take a while for the update to complete. If you still do not see a link after waiting 10 minutes, please check to ensure you met all the requirements.

What are the eligibility requirements for a course completion certificate?

Below are the requirements to qualify for a course completion certificate in most courses within Cisco Networking Academy:

  • Complete the assignments in the course, including the end of course exam and course feedback
  • Marked complete in the gradebook/grades

Note: Individuals enrolled in a self-paced course will automatically be marked complete once all requirements have been met.

What is the difference in a course completion certificate and letter of merit?

A course completion certificate is a document verifying you completed the course requirements.

A letter of merit is a letter from Cisco CEO Chuck Robbins acknowledging your exceptional performance in the course. It is awarded to students and instructors who received a qualifying score on their first attempt of the final exam.

Which courses have course completion certificates/letters of merit?

Course completion certificates and letters of merit are available in the courses below:

Letters of Merit
  • CCNA
  • CCNA Cybersecurity Operations
  • CCNA Security
  • CCNP
  • CyberOps Associate
  • DevNet Associate
  • IT Essentials
  • Network Security
Course Completion Certificates
  • CCNA
  • Networking Essentials
  • CCNA Cybersecurity Operations
  • CCNA Security
  • Emerging Technologies
  • Get Connected
  • Intro to Cybersecurity
  • Packet Tracer
  • Partner: NDG Linux Courses
  • Community: Smart Grid Essentials
  • IoT Hackathon (Instructors Only)
  • Mobility Fundamentals (End of Life)
  • CCNP
  • Cybersecurity Essentials
  • CyberOps Associate
  • DevNet Associate
  • Entrepreneurship
  • IT Essentials
  • Intro to IoT/ Intro to IoE
  • IoT Fundamentals
  • Partner: Programming Courses
  • Academy Orientation (Instructors Only)
  • Be Your Own Boss (End of Life)
  • Network Security
Is the course completion certificate the same as a Cisco certification?

No, a Certificate of Completion is awarded to all students and instructors who satisfactorily complete a Cisco Networking Academy course. A Cisco certification is a globally-recognized validation of your skills; received by passing a certification exam at a testing center. Networking Academy courses prepare you for specific Cisco certifications.

What are the renewal policies for Cisco Certifications?

As of 24 February 2020, certified individuals, including CCNA, Cisco Certified Specialist, CCNP and CCIE, will be able to recertify by either taking exams, earning Continuing Education credits or a mix of both. Continuing education activities include things like attending Cisco Live training sessions, authoring content, completing online training courses, completing instructor-led training courses and more. For more detailed information regarding a specific certification, please use the search tool under Certifications via the Learning@Cisco Centralized Support site for assistance.

Why don’t I see my exam discount request link?

Discount links appear when an individual with a Cisco Networking Academy account meets the eligibility requirements. If you believe you received a qualifying score and have a course grade of complete/passed, please click the “Refresh Status” button on your “I’m Learning” page. It will take a while for the update to complete. If you still do not see a link after waiting 10 minutes, please contact your instructor.

Why are the fields static/grayed out on my discount request form?

The request process for discounts earned/issued through NetAcad utilizes information in the “Recovery Number” of your NetAcad profile. If you do not have a phone number listed or if the number you listed is associated with a discount request of a different NetAcad account, the fields will be static/grayed out. If you have a unique number listed that was not used in a previous request, and the fields are still grayed out, non-student users can contact the Support Desk for assistance. Students can contact their instructor to submit an inquiry on their behalf.

What do I do if the link in my verification email isn't working?

It can take 2-5 business days after validating your information to receive further discount information. On your “Discounts” page on NetAcad, you may also see that your discount is pending and your email has not yet been verified. This message will stay on your page until the status of your discount changes to “Approved.”

The link will only work once; once you click the link, you should receive your discount after waiting a few days. If you have not received your discount after waiting 5 business days, the Support Desk will need to look for a possible resolution. Non-student users can contact the Support Desk for assistance. Students can contact their instructor to submit an inquiry on their behalf.

I lost my promotion code, how can I find it?

Your discount information can be found in your Cisco Networking Academy profile. Click your name in the upper-right corner and select “Discounts”. Scroll down and click “Voucher Details” to view information regarding your discount.

How do I earn a digital badge?

Students will receive a digital badge after successfully completing a course. The following criteria must be met upon completion:

  • Complete the end of course survey
  • Complete the final exam with a minimum score of 70% on the first attempt*
  • Ensure that you are marked pass/completed by your instructor (in instructor-led courses only)

*Scores received from retakes will not count towards the eligibility.

How do I accept my digital badge?

To accept your digital badge, follow the steps below:

  1. Follow this link to the Credly website: https://www.credly.com/earner/earned
    1. Sign in to your existing account
    2. If you do not have a Credly account, click "Create Account" to sign up with the email address used in your Cisco Networking Academy account
  2. Once you are in your Credly account, click the badge and click "Accept Badge"
  3. Select your badge settings and click “Save Settings”
How do I share my digital badge?

You can share your badge directly from the Credly platform to LinkedIn, Twitter and Facebook; over email; embedded in a website or in your email signature. Please follow the steps below to share your badge:

  1. Log into your Credly account at: https://www.credly.com/
  2. Go to your Dashboard
  3. Click the badge you want to share
  4. Click "Share"
  5. Select a tab for options to share your badge
  6. Click Connect
What courses are eligible for a badge?

Digital badges are currently available for the following courses:

Start DateCourse Name
16 April 2020CCNA 7: Introduction to Networks
16 April 2020CCNA 7: Switching, Wireless, and Routing Essentials
16 April 2020CCNA 7: Enterprise Networking, Security, and Automation
16 April 2020CCNP: Enterprise: Core Networking
16 April 2020Introduction to Cybersecurity
17 July 2020CCNP: Enterprise: Advanced Routing
17 July 2020Cybersecurity Essentials
17 July 2020Introduction to IoT
17 July 2020Introduction to Packet Tracer
17 July 2020ETW: Model Driven Programmability
17 July 2020CyberOps Associate
17 July 2020DevNet Associate
10 August 2020IT Essentials
29 October 2020Networking Essentials (Instructor-led only)
4 April 2021Network Security

You can also find a current list of badges available for Cisco Networking Academy courses by going to the Credly website: https://www.credly.com/organizations/cisco/collections/netacad/badge_templates

If I change my email in Cisco Networking Academy, will it impact my badges?

Yes. If you do not update your email address in Credly another account will be created for you when you earn a new badge. Multiple email addresses can be associated in your Credly account. If you change your email in Cisco Networking Academy, we recommend you add another email to your Credly account:

  1. Log into Credly with your current account information
  2. Click "Settings" from the top navigation menu
  3. Click "Account"
  4. Under "Email Addresses" click "Add an email address"
  5. Enter the second email address and click "Add"
  6. A verification email will be sent to you by Credly
  7. Click the link in the email to verify the change
When did badge qualifications begin?

Digital badge qualifications started April 16, 2020 for select courses. As digital badges continue to become available new qualification dates will be announced. If you enrolled/completed the course before the qualification start date, you will have to re-take the course to earn a badge.

Can I manage my cookie settings on NetAcad.com?

Yes. Cookies allow us to optimize your use of NetAcad.com. The first time you visit NetAcad.com, you will see a blue banner at the bottom of NetAcad.com enabling you to manage your cookie settings on the website. Enabling cookies allows us to provide you better performance on our website and a more personalized experience. If you would like to manage your cookie settings, click the link in the blue banner. Otherwise, you can simply close the box and it will not show up for your future visits to NetAcad.com. To revisit your cookie settings in the future, clear cookies in your web browser. Then go back to NetAcad.com, and the blue banner will show up again.

Note: For European regions, performance and tracking cookies are blocked by default. For other regions, only tracking cookies are blocked by default.

Источник: https://www.netacad.com/support

Known issues

DIESER DIENST KANN ÜBERSETZUNGEN ENTHALTEN, DIE VON GOOGLE BEREITGESTELLT WERDEN. GOOGLE LEHNT JEDE AUSDRÜCKLICHE ODER STILLSCHWEIGENDE GEWÄHRLEISTUNG IN BEZUG AUF DIE ÜBERSETZUNGEN AB, EINSCHLIESSLICH JEGLICHER GEWÄHRLEISTUNG DER GENAUIGKEIT, ZUVERLÄSSIGKEIT UND JEGLICHER STILLSCHWEIGENDEN GEWÄHRLEISTUNG DER MARKTGÄNGIGKEIT, DER EIGNUNG FÜR EINEN BESTIMMTEN ZWECK UND DER NICHTVERLETZUNG VON RECHTEN DRITTER.

CE SERVICE PEUT CONTENIR DES TRADUCTIONS FOURNIES PAR GOOGLE. GOOGLE EXCLUT TOUTE GARANTIE RELATIVE AUX TRADUCTIONS, EXPRESSE OU IMPLICITE, Y COMPRIS TOUTE GARANTIE D'EXACTITUDE, DE FIABILITÉ ET TOUTE GARANTIE IMPLICITE DE QUALITÉ MARCHANDE, D'ADÉQUATION À UN USAGE PARTICULIER ET D'ABSENCE DE CONTREFAÇON.

ESTE SERVICIO PUEDE CONTENER TRADUCCIONES CON TECNOLOGÍA DE GOOGLE. GOOGLE RENUNCIA A TODAS LAS GARANTÍAS RELACIONADAS CON LAS TRADUCCIONES, TANTO IMPLÍCITAS COMO EXPLÍCITAS, INCLUIDAS LAS GARANTÍAS DE EXACTITUD, FIABILIDAD Y OTRAS GARANTÍAS IMPLÍCITAS DE COMERCIABILIDAD, IDONEIDAD PARA UN FIN EN PARTICULAR Y AUSENCIA DE INFRACCIÓN DE DERECHOS.

本服务可能包含由 Google 提供技术支持的翻译。Google 对这些翻译内容不做任何明示或暗示的保证,包括对准确性、可靠性的任何保证以及对适销性、特定用途的适用性和非侵权性的任何暗示保证。

このサービスには、Google が提供する翻訳が含まれている可能性があります。Google は翻訳について、明示的か黙示的かを問わず、精度と信頼性に関するあらゆる保証、および商品性、特定目的への適合性、第三者の権利を侵害しないことに関するあらゆる黙示的保証を含め、一切保証しません。

ESTE SERVIÇO PODE CONTER TRADUÇÕES FORNECIDAS PELO GOOGLE. O GOOGLE SE EXIME DE TODAS AS GARANTIAS RELACIONADAS COM AS TRADUÇÕES, EXPRESSAS OU IMPLÍCITAS, INCLUINDO QUALQUER GARANTIA DE PRECISÃO, CONFIABILIDADE E QUALQUER GARANTIA IMPLÍCITA DE COMERCIALIZAÇÃO, ADEQUAÇÃO A UM PROPÓSITO ESPECÍFICO E NÃO INFRAÇÃO.

Источник: https://docs.citrix.com/en-us/citrix-virtual-apps-desktops/whats-new/known-issues.html

Spyware

Malware that collects and transmits user information without their knowledge

Spyware is software with malicious behavior that aims to gather information about a person or organization and send it to another entity in a way that harms the user. For example, by violating their privacy or endangering their device's security. This behavior may be present in malware as well as in legitimate software. Websites may engage in spyware behaviors like web tracking. Hardware devices may also be affected.[1] Spyware is frequently associated with advertising and involves many of the same issues. Because these behaviors are so common, and can have non-harmful uses, providing a precise definition of spyware is a difficult task.[2]

History[edit]

The first recorded use of the term spyware occurred on October 16, 1995 in a Usenet post that poked fun at Microsoft's business model.[3]Spyware at first denoted software meant for espionage purposes. However, in early 2000 the founder of Zone Labs, Gregor Freund, used the term in a press release for the ZoneAlarm Personal Firewall.[4] Later in 2000, a parent using ZoneAlarm was alerted to the fact that "Reader Rabbit," educational software marketed to children by the Mattel toy company, was surreptitiously sending data back to Mattel.[5] Since then, "spyware" has taken on its present sense.

According to a 2005 study by AOL and the National Cyber-Security Alliance, 61 percent of surveyed users' computers were infected with form of spyware. 92 percent of surveyed users with spyware reported that they did not know of its presence, and 91 percent reported that they had not given permission for the installation of the spyware.[6] As of 2006[update], spyware has become one of the preeminent security threats to computer systems running Microsoft Windows operating systems. Computers on which Internet Explorer (IE) is the primary browser are particularly vulnerable to such attacks, not only because IE was the most widely used,[7] but because its tight integration with Windows allows spyware access to crucial parts of the operating system.[7][8]

Before Internet Explorer 6 SP2 was released as part of Windows XP Service Pack 2, the browser would automatically display an installation window for any ActiveX component that a website wanted to install. The combination of user ignorance about these changes, and the assumption by Internet Explorer that all ActiveX components are benign, helped to spread spyware significantly. Many spyware components would also make use of exploits in JavaScript, Internet Explorer and Windows to install without user knowledge or permission.

The Windows Registry contains multiple sections where modification of key values allows software to be executed automatically when the operating system boots. Spyware can exploit this design to circumvent attempts at removal. The spyware typically will link itself from each location in the registry that allows execution. Once running, the spyware will periodically check if any of these links are removed. If so, they will be automatically restored. This ensures that the spyware will execute when the operating system is booted, even if some (or most) of the registry links are removed.

Overview[edit]

Spyware is mostly classified into four types: adware, system monitors, tracking including web tracking, and trojans;[9] examples of other notorious types include digital rights management capabilities that "phone home", keyloggers, rootkits, and web beacons. These four categories are not mutually exclusive and they have similar tactics in attacking networks and devices.[10] The main goal is to install, hack into the network, avoid being detected, and safely remove themselves from the network.[10]

Spyware is mostly used for the stealing information and storing Internet users' movements on the Web and serving up pop-up ads to Internet users. Whenever spyware is used for malicious purposes, its presence is typically hidden from the user and can be difficult to detect. Some spyware, such as keyloggers, may be installed by the owner of a shared, corporate, or public computer intentionally in order to monitor users.

While the term spyware suggests software that monitors a user's computing, the functions of spyware can extend beyond simple monitoring. Spyware can collect almost any type of data, including personal information like internet surfing habits, user logins, and bank or credit account information. Spyware can also interfere with a user's control of a computer by installing additional software or redirecting web browsers.[11] Some spyware can change computer settings, which can result in slow Internet connection speeds, un-authorized changes in browser settings, or changes to software settings.

Sometimes, spyware is included along with genuine software, and may come from a malicious website or may have been added to the intentional functionality of genuine software (see the paragraph about Facebook, below). In response to the emergence of spyware, a small industry has sprung up dealing in anti-spyware software. Running anti-spyware software has become a widely recognized element of computer security practices, especially for computers running Microsoft Windows. A number of jurisdictions have passed anti-spyware laws, which usually target any software that is surreptitiously installed to control a user's computer.

In German-speaking countries, spyware used or made by the government is called govware by computer experts (in common parlance: Regierungstrojaner, literally "Government Trojan"). Govware is typically a trojan horse software used to intercept communications from the target computer. Some countries, like Switzerland and Germany, have a legal framework governing the use of such software.[12][13] In the US, the term "policeware" has been used for similar purposes.[14]

Use of the term "spyware" has eventually declined as the practice of tracking users has been pushed ever further into the mainstream by major websites and data mining companies; these generally break no known laws and compel users to be tracked, not by fraudulent practices per se, but by the default settings created for users and the language of terms-of-service agreements. In one documented example, on CBS/CNet News reported, on March 7, 2011, on a Wall Street Journal analysis revealing the practice of Facebook and other websites of tracking users' browsing activity, linked to their identity, far beyond users' visits and activity within the Facebook site itself. The report stated: "Here's how it works. You go to Facebook, you log in, you spend some time there, and then ... you move on without logging out. Let's say the next site you go to is New York Times. Those buttons, without you clicking on them, have just reported back to Facebook and Twitter that you went there and also your identity within those accounts. Let's say you moved on to something like a site about depression. This one also has a tweet button, a Google widget, and those, too, can report back who you are and that you went there." The WSJ analysis was researched by Brian Kennish, founder of Disconnect, Inc.[15]

Routes of infection[edit]

Spyware does not necessarily spread in the same way as a virus or worm because infected systems generally do not attempt to transmit or copy the software to other computers. Instead, spyware installs itself on a system by deceiving the user or by exploiting software vulnerabilities.

Most spyware is installed without knowledge, or by using deceptive tactics. Spyware may try to deceive users by bundling itself with desirable software. Other common tactics are using a Trojan horse, spy gadgets that look like normal devices but turn out to be something else, such as a USB Keylogger. These devices actually are connected to the device as memory units but are capable of recording each stroke made on the keyboard. Some spyware authors infect a system through security holes in the Web browser or in other software. When the user navigates to a Web page controlled by the spyware author, the page contains code which attacks the browser and forces the download and installation of spyware.

The installation of spyware frequently involves Internet Explorer. Its popularity and history of security issues have made it a frequent target. Its deep integration with the Windows environment make it susceptible to attack into the Windowsoperating system. Internet Explorer also serves as a point of attachment for spyware in the form of Browser Helper Objects, which modify the browser's behaviour.

Effects and behaviors[edit]

A spyware rarely operates alone on a computer; an affected machine usually has multiple infections. Users frequently notice unwanted behavior and degradation of system performance. A spyware infestation can create significant unwanted CPU activity, disk usage, and network traffic. Stability issues, such as applications freezing, failure to boot, and system-wide crashes are also common. Spyware, which interferes with networking software commonly causes difficulty connecting to the Internet.

In some infections, the spyware is not even evident. Users assume in those situations that the performance issues relate to faulty hardware, Windows installation problems, or another malware infection. Some owners of badly infected systems resort to contacting technical support experts, or even buying a new computer because the existing system "has become too slow". Badly infected systems may require a clean reinstallation of all their software in order to return to full functionality.

Moreover, some types of spyware disable software firewalls and antivirus software, and/or reduce browser security settings, which opens the system to further opportunistic infections. Some spyware disables or even removes competing spyware programs, on the grounds that more spyware-related annoyances increase the likelihood that users will take action to remove the programs.[16]

Keyloggers are sometimes part of malware packages downloaded onto computers without the owners' knowledge. Some keylogger software is freely available on the internet, while others are commercial or private applications. Most keyloggers allow not only keyboard keystrokes to be captured, they also are often capable of collecting screen captures from the computer.

A typical Windows user has administrative privileges, mostly for convenience. Because of this, any program the user runs has unrestricted access to the system. As with other operating systems, Windows users are able to follow the principle of least privilege and use non-administrator accounts. Alternatively, they can reduce the privileges of specific vulnerable Internet-facing processes, such as Internet Explorer.

Since Windows Vista is, by default, a computer administrator that runs everything under limited user privileges, when a program requires administrative privileges, a User Account Control pop-up will prompt the user to allow or deny the action. This improves on the design used by previous versions of Windows. Spyware is also known as tracking software.

Remedies and prevention[edit]

See also: Computer virus § Virus removal

As the spyware threat has evolved, a number of techniques have emerged to counteract it. These include programs designed to remove or block spyware, as well as various user practices which reduce the chance of getting spyware on a system.

Nonetheless, spyware remains a costly problem. When a large number of pieces of spyware have infected a Windows computer, the only remedy may involve backing up user data, and fully reinstalling the operating system. For instance, some spyware cannot be completely removed by Symantec, Microsoft, PC Tools.

Anti-spyware programs[edit]

See also: Category:Spyware removal

Many programmers and some commercial firms have released products dedicated to remove or block spyware. Programs such as PC Tools' Spyware Doctor, Lavasoft's Ad-Aware SE and Patrick Kolla's Spybot - Search & Destroy rapidly gained popularity as tools to remove, and in some cases intercept, spyware programs. On December, 2004, Microsoft acquired the GIANT AntiSpyware software,[17] re‑branding it as Microsoft AntiSpyware (Beta 1) and releasing it as a free download for Genuine Windows XP and Windows 2003 users. In November, 2005, it was renamed Windows Defender.[18][19]

Major anti-virus firms such as Symantec, PC Tools, McAfee and Sophos have also added anti-spyware features to their existing anti-virus products. Early on, anti-virus firms expressed reluctance to add anti-spyware functions, citing lawsuits brought by spyware authors against the authors of web sites and programs which described their products as "spyware". However, recent versions of these major firms home and business anti-virus products do include anti-spyware functions, albeit treated differently from viruses. Symantec Anti-Virus, for instance, categorizes spyware programs as "extended threats" and now offers real-time protection against these threats.

How anti-spyware software works[edit]

Anti-spyware programs can combat spyware in two ways:

  1. They can provide real-time protection in a manner similar to that of anti-virus protection: all incoming network data is scanned for spyware, and any detected threats are blocked.
  2. Anti-spyware software programs can be used solely for detection and removal of spyware software that has already been installed into the computer. This kind of anti-spyware can often be set to scan on a regular schedule.

Such programs inspect the contents of the Windows registry, operating system files, and installed programs, and remove files and entries which match a list of known spyware. Real-time protection from spyware works identically to real-time anti-virus protection: the software scans disk files at download time, and blocks the activity of components known to represent spyware. In some cases, it may also intercept attempts to install start-up items or to modify browser settings. Earlier versions of anti-spyware programs focused chiefly on detection and removal. Javacool Software's SpywareBlaster, one of the first to offer real-time protection, blocked the installation of ActiveX-based spyware.

Like most anti-virus software, many anti-spyware/adware tools require a frequently updated database of threats. As new spyware programs are released, anti-spyware developers discover and evaluate them, adding to the list of known spyware, which allows the software to detect and remove new spyware. As a result, anti-spyware software is of limited usefulness without regular updates. Updates may be installed automatically or manually.

A popular generic spyware removal tool used by those that requires a certain degree of expertise is HijackThis, which scans certain areas of the Windows OS where spyware often resides and presents a list with items to delete manually. As most of the items are legitimate windows files/registry entries it is advised for those who are less knowledgeable on this subject to post a HijackThis log on the numerous antispyware sites and let the experts decide what to delete.

If a spyware program is not blocked and manages to get itself installed, it may resist attempts to terminate or uninstall it. Some programs work in pairs: when an anti-spyware scanner (or the user) terminates one running process, the other one respawns the killed program. Likewise, some spyware will detect attempts to remove registry keys and immediately add them again. Usually, booting the infected computer in safe mode allows an anti-spyware program a better chance of removing persistent spyware. Killing the process tree may also work.

Security practices[edit]

To detect spyware, computer users have found several practices useful in addition to installing anti-spyware programs. Many users have installed a web browser other than Internet Explorer, such as Mozilla Firefox or Google Chrome. Though no browser is completely safe, Internet Explorer was once at a greater risk for spyware infection due to its large user base as well as vulnerabilities such as ActiveX but these three major browsers are now close to equivalent when it comes to security.[20][21]

Some ISPs—particularly colleges and universities—have taken a different approach to blocking spyware: they use their network firewalls and web proxies to block access to Web sites known to install spyware. On March 31, 2005, Cornell University's Information Technology department released a report detailing the behavior of one particular piece of proxy-based spyware, Marketscore, and the steps the university took to intercept it.[22] Many other educational institutions have taken similar steps.

Individual users can also install firewalls from a variety of companies. These monitor the flow of information going to and from a networked computer and provide protection against spyware and malware. Some users install a large hosts file which prevents the user's computer from connecting to known spyware-related web addresses. Spyware may get installed via certain shareware programs offered for download. Downloading programs only from reputable sources can provide some protection from this source of attack.[23]

Individual users can use cellphone / computer with physical (electric) switch, or isolated electronic switch that disconnects microphone, camera without bypass and keep it in disconnected position where not in use, that limits information that spyware can collect. (Policy recommended by NIST Guidelines for Managing the Security of Mobile Devices, 2013).

Applications[edit]

"Stealware" and affiliate fraud[edit]

A few spyware vendors, notably 180 Solutions, have written what the New York Times has dubbed "stealware", and what spyware researcher Ben Edelman terms affiliate fraud, a form of click fraud. Stealware diverts the payment of affiliate marketing revenues from the legitimate affiliate to the spyware vendor.

Spyware which attacks affiliate networks places the spyware operator's affiliate tag on the user's activity – replacing any other tag, if there is one. The spyware operator is the only party that gains from this. The user has their choices thwarted, a legitimate affiliate loses revenue, networks' reputations are injured, and vendors are harmed by having to pay out affiliate revenues to an "affiliate" who is not party to a contract.[24]Affiliate fraud is a violation of the terms of service of most affiliate marketing networks. Mobile devices can also be vulnerable to chargeware, which manipulates users into illegitimate mobile charges.

Identity theft and fraud[edit]

In one case, spyware has been closely associated with identity theft.[25] In August 2005, researchers from security software firm Sunbelt Software suspected the creators of the common CoolWebSearch spyware had used it to transmit "chat sessions, user names, passwords, bank information, etc.";[26] however it turned out that "it actually (was) its own sophisticated criminal little trojan that's independent of CWS."[27] This case is currently under investigation by the FBI.

The Federal Trade Commission estimates that 27.3 million Americans have been victims of identity theft, and that financial losses from identity theft totaled nearly $48 billion for businesses and financial institutions and at least $5 billion in out-of-pocket expenses for individuals.[28]

Digital rights management[edit]

Some copy-protection technologies have borrowed from spyware. In 2005, Sony BMG Music Entertainment was found to be usingrootkits in its XCPdigital rights management technology[29] Like spyware, not only was it difficult to detect and uninstall, it was so poorly written that most efforts to remove it could have rendered computers unable to function. Texas Attorney GeneralGreg Abbott filed suit,[30] and three separate class-action suits were filed.[31] Sony BMG later provided a workaround on its website to help users remove it.[32]

Beginning on April 25, 2006, Microsoft's Windows Genuine Advantage Notifications application[33] was installed on most Windows PCs as a "critical security update". While the main purpose of this deliberately uninstallable application is to ensure the copy of Windows on the machine was lawfully purchased and installed, it also installs software that has been accused of "phoning home" on a daily basis, like spyware.[34][35] It can be removed with the RemoveWGA tool.

Personal relationships[edit]

Stalkerware is spyware that has been used to monitor electronic activities of partners in intimate relationships. At least one software package, Loverspy, was specifically marketed for this purpose. Depending on local laws regarding communal/marital property, observing a partner's online activity without their consent may be illegal; the author of Loverspy and several users of the product were indicted in California in 2005 on charges of wiretapping and various computer crimes.[36]

Browser cookies[edit]

Anti-spyware programs often report Web advertisers' HTTP cookies, the small text files that track browsing activity, as spyware. While they are not always inherently malicious, many users object to third parties using space on their personal computers for their business purposes, and many anti-spyware programs offer to remove them.[37]

Spyware programs[edit]

Main article: List of spyware programs

These common spyware programs illustrate the diversity of behaviors found in these attacks. Note that as with computer viruses, researchers give names to spyware programs which may not be used by their creators. Programs may be grouped into "families" based not on shared program code, but on common behaviors, or by "following the money" of apparent financial or business connections. For instance, a number of the spyware programs distributed by Claria are collectively known as "Gator". Likewise, programs that are frequently installed together may be described as parts of the same spyware package, even if they function separately.

Rogue anti-spyware programs[edit]

See also: List of rogue security software, List of fake anti-spyware programs, and Rogue security software

Malicious programmers have released a large number of rogue (fake) anti-spyware programs, and widely distributed Web banner ads can warn users that their computers have been infected with spyware, directing them to purchase programs which do not actually remove spyware—or else, may add more spyware of their own.[38][39]

The recent[update] proliferation of fake or spoofed antivirus products that bill themselves as antispyware can be troublesome. Users may receive popups prompting them to install them to protect their computer, when it will in fact add spyware. It is recommended that users do not install any freeware claiming to be anti-spyware unless it is verified to be legitimate. Some known offenders include:

Fake antivirus products constitute 15 percent of all malware.[41]

On January 26, 2006, Microsoft and the Washington state attorney general filed suit against Secure Computer for its Spyware Cleaner product.[42]

Legal issues[edit]

Criminal law[edit]

Unauthorized access to a computer is illegal under computer crime laws, such as the U.S. Computer Fraud and Abuse Act, the U.K.'s Computer Misuse Act, and similar laws in other countries. Since owners of computers infected with spyware generally claim that they never authorized the installation, a prima facie reading would suggest that the promulgation of spyware would count as a criminal act. Law enforcement has often pursued the authors of other malware, particularly viruses. However, few spyware developers have been prosecuted, and many operate openly as strictly legitimate businesses, though some have faced lawsuits.[43][44]

Spyware producers argue that, contrary to the users' claims, users do in fact give consent to installations. Spyware that comes bundled with shareware applications may be described in the legalese text of an end-user license agreement (EULA). Many users habitually ignore these purported contracts, but spyware companies such as Claria say these demonstrate that users have consented.

Despite the ubiquity of EULAs agreements, under which a single click can be taken as consent to the entire text, relatively little caselaw has resulted from their use. It has been established in most common law jurisdictions that this type of agreement can be a binding contract in certain circumstances.[45] This does not, however, mean that every such agreement is a contract, or that every term in one is enforceable.

Some jurisdictions, including the U.S. states of Iowa[46] and Washington,[47] have passed laws criminalizing some forms of spyware. Such laws make it illegal for anyone other than the owner or operator of a computer to install software that alters Web-browser settings, monitors keystrokes, or disables computer-security software.

In the United States, lawmakers introduced a bill in 2005 entitled the Internet Spyware Prevention Act, which would imprison creators of spyware.[48]

Administrative sanctions[edit]

US FTC actions[edit]

The US Federal Trade Commission has sued Internet marketing organizations under the "unfairness doctrine"[49] to make them stop infecting consumers' PCs with spyware. In one case, that against Seismic Entertainment Productions, the FTC accused the defendants of developing a program that seized control of PCs nationwide, infected them with spyware and other malicious software, bombarded them with a barrage of pop-up advertising for Seismic's clients, exposed the PCs to security risks, and caused them to malfunction. Seismic then offered to sell the victims an "antispyware" program to fix the computers, and stop the popups and other problems that Seismic had caused. On November 21, 2006, a settlement was entered in federal court under which a $1.75 million judgment was imposed in one case and $1.86 million in another, but the defendants were insolvent[50]

In a second case, brought against CyberSpy Software LLC, the FTC charged that CyberSpy marketed and sold "RemoteSpy" keylogger spyware to clients who would then secretly monitor unsuspecting consumers' computers. According to the FTC, Cyberspy touted RemoteSpy as a "100% undetectable" way to "Spy on Anyone. From Anywhere." The FTC has obtained a temporary order prohibiting the defendants from selling the software and disconnecting from the Internet any of their servers that collect, store, or provide access to information that this software has gathered. The case is still in its preliminary stages. A complaint filed by the Electronic Privacy Information Center (EPIC) brought the RemoteSpy software to the FTC's attention.[51]

Netherlands OPTA[edit]

An administrative fine, the first of its kind in Europe, has been issued by the Independent Authority of Posts and Telecommunications (OPTA) from the Netherlands. It applied fines in total value of Euro 1,000,000 for infecting 22 million computers. The spyware concerned is called DollarRevenue. The law articles that have been violated are art. 4.1 of the Decision on universal service providers and on the interests of end users; the fines have been issued based on art. 15.4 taken together with art. 15.10 of the Dutch telecommunications law.[52]

Civil law[edit]

Former New York State Attorney General and former Governor of New YorkEliot Spitzer has pursued spyware companies for fraudulent installation of software.[53] In a suit brought in 2005 by Spitzer, the California firm Intermix Media, Inc. ended up settling, by agreeing to pay US$7.5 million and to stop distributing spyware.[54]

The hijacking of Web advertisements has also led to litigation. In June 2002, a number of large Web publishers sued Claria for replacing advertisements, but settled out of court.

Courts have not yet had to decide whether advertisers can be held liable for spyware that displays their ads. In many cases, the companies whose advertisements appear in spyware pop-ups do not directly do business with the spyware firm. Rather, they have contracted with an advertising agency, which in turn contracts with an online subcontractor who gets paid by the number of "impressions" or appearances of the advertisement. Some major firms such as Dell Computer and Mercedes-Benz have sacked advertising agencies that have run their ads in spyware.[55]

Libel suits by spyware developers[edit]

Litigation has gone both ways. Since "spyware" has become a common pejorative, some makers have filed libel and defamation actions when their products have been so described. In 2003, Gator (now known as Claria) filed suit against the website PC Pitstop for describing its program as "spyware".[56] PC Pitstop settled, agreeing not to use the word "spyware", but continues to describe harm caused by the Gator/Claria software.[57] As a result, other anti-spyware and anti-virus companies have also used other terms such as "potentially unwanted programs" or greyware to denote these products.

WebcamGate[edit]

Main article: Robbins v. Lower Merion School District

In the 2010 WebcamGate case, plaintiffs charged two suburban Philadelphia high schools secretly spied on students by surreptitiously and remotely activating webcams embedded in school-issued laptops the students were using at home, and therefore infringed on their privacy rights. The school loaded each student's computer with LANrev's remote activation tracking software. This included the now-discontinued "TheftTrack". While TheftTrack was not enabled by default on the software, the program allowed the school district to elect to activate it, and to choose which of the TheftTrack surveillance options the school wanted to enable.[58]

TheftTrack allowed school district employees to secretly remotely activate the webcam embedded in the student's laptop, above the laptop's screen. That allowed school officials to secretly take photos through the webcam, of whatever was in front of it and in its line of sight, and send the photos to the school's server. The LANrev software disabled the webcams for all other uses (e.g., students were unable to use Photo Booth or video chat), so most students mistakenly believed their webcams did not work at all. On top of the webcam surveillance, TheftTrack allowed school officials to take screenshots and send them to the school's server. School officials were also granted the ability to take snapshots of instant messages, web browsing, music playlists, and written compositions. The schools admitted to secretly snapping over 66,000 webshots and screenshots, including webcam shots of students in their bedrooms.[58][59][60]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^"Amazon Workers Are Listening to What You Tell Alexa". Bloomberg.com. April 10, 2019. Retrieved August 25, 2020.
  2. ^FTC Report (2005). "[1]"
  3. ^Vossen, Roland (attributed); October 21, 1995; Win 95 Source code in c!! posted to rec..programmer; retrieved from groups.google.com November 28, 2006.[dead link]
  4. ^Wienbar, Sharon. "The Spyware Inferno". News.com. August 13, 2004.
  5. ^Hawkins, Dana; "Privacy Worries Arise Over Spyware in Kids' Software". U.S. News & World Report. June 25, 2000 Archived November 3, 2013, at the Wayback Machine
  6. ^"AOL/NCSA Online Safety StudyArchived December 13, 2005, at the Wayback Machine". America Online & The National Cyber Security Alliance. 2005.
  7. ^ abSpanbauer, Scott. "Is It Time to Ditch IE?Archived December 16, 2006, at the Wayback Machine". Pcworld.com. September 1, 2004
  8. ^Keizer, Gregg. "Analyzing IE At 10: Integration With OS Smart Or Not?". TechWeb Technology News. August 25, 2005. Archived September 29, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
  9. ^SPYWARE ""Archived copy"(PDF). Archived from the original(PDF) on November 1, 2013. Retrieved February 5, 2016.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)"
  10. ^ abKim, Taejin; Yi, Jeong Hyun; Seo, Changho (January 2014). "Spyware Resistant Smartphone User Authentication Scheme". International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks. 10 (3): 237125. doi:10.1155/2014/237125. ISSN 1550-1477. S2CID 12611804.
  11. ^Ames, Wes (2004). "Understanding spyware: risk and response". IT Professional. 6 (5): 25–29. doi:10.1109/MITP.2004.71.
  12. ^Basil Cupa, Trojan Horse Resurrected: On the Legality of the Use of Government Spyware (Govware), LISS 2013, pp. 419–428
  13. ^FAQ – Häufig gestellte FragenArchived May 6, 2013, at the Wayback Machine
  14. ^Jeremy Reimer (July 20, 2007). "The tricky issue of spyware with a badge: meet 'policeware'". Ars Technica.
  15. ^Cooley, Brian (March 7, 2011). "'Like,' 'tweet' buttons divulge sites you visit: CNET News Video". CNet News. Retrieved March 7, 2011.
  16. ^Edelman, Ben; December 7, 2004 (updated February 8, 2005); Direct Revenue Deletes Competitors from Users' Disks; benedelman.com. Retrieved November 28, 2006.
  17. ^"Microsoft Acquires Anti-Spyware Leader GIANT Company". PressPass. December 16, 2004. Archived from the original on June 17, 2005. Retrieved December 21, 2020.
  18. ^Garms, Jason (November 4, 2005). "What's in a name?? A lot!! Announcing Windows Defender!". blogs.technet.com. Archived from the original on November 23, 2005. Retrieved December 21, 2020.
  19. ^Dodson, Steve (November 4, 2005). "Microsoft Windows AntiSpyware is now......"Windows Defender"". blogs.technet.com. Archived from the original on November 24, 2005. Retrieved December 21, 2020.
  20. ^Stefan Frei, Thomas Duebendofer, Gunter Ollman, and Martin May, Understanding the Web browser threat: Examination of vulnerable online Web browser populations and the insecurity icebergArchived September 11, 2016, at the Wayback Machine, Communication Systems Group, 2008
  21. ^Virvilis, Nikos; Mylonas, Alexios; Tsalis, Nikolaos; Gritzalis, Dimitris (2015). "Security Busters: Web Browser security vs. rogue sites". Computers & Security. 52: 90–105. doi:10.1016/j.cose.2015.04.009.
  22. ^Schuster, Steve. ""Blocking Marketscore: Why Cornell Did It". Archived from the original on February 14, 2007.". Cornell University, Office of Information Technologies. March 31, 2005.
  23. ^Vincentas (July 11, 2013). "Information About Spyware in SpyWareLoop.com". Spyware Loop. Archived from the original on November 3, 2013. Retrieved July 27, 2013.
  24. ^Edelman, Ben (2004). "The Effect of 180solutions on Affiliate Commissions and Merchants". Benedelman.org. Retrieved November 14, 2006.
  25. ^Ecker, Clint (2005). Massive spyware-based identity theft ring uncovered. Ars Technica, August 5, 2005.
  26. ^Eckelberry, Alex. "Massive identity theft ring", SunbeltBLOG, August 4, 2005.
  27. ^Alex, Eckelberry (August 9, 2005). "Identity Theft? What to do?". The Legacy Sunbelt Software Blog.
  28. ^FTC Releases Survey of Identity Theft in U.S. 27.3 Million Victims in Past 5 Years, Billions in Losses for Businesses and Consumers. Federal Trade Commission, September 3, 2003.
  29. ^Russinovich, Mark. "Sony, Rootkits and Digital Rights Management Gone Too Far,"Archived April 28, 2010, at the Wayback Machine, Mark's Blog, October 31, 2005. Retrieved November 22, 2006.
  30. ^Press release from the Texas Attorney General's office, November 21, 2005; Attorney General Abbott Brings First Enforcement Action In Nation Against Sony BMG For Spyware Violations. Retrieved November 28, 2006.
  31. ^"Sony sued over copy-protected CDs; Sony BMG is facing three lawsuits over its controversial anti-piracy software", BBC News, November 10, 2005. Retrieved November 22, 2006.
  32. ^Information About XCP Protected CDs. Retrieved November 29, 2006.
  33. ^Microsoft.com – Description of the Windows Genuine Advantage Notifications application. Retrieved June 13, 2006.
  34. ^Weinstein, Lauren. Windows XP update may be classified as 'spyware', Lauren Weinstein's Blog, June 5, 2006. Retrieved June 13, 2006.
  35. ^Evers, Joris. Microsoft's antipiracy tool phones home daily, CNET, June 7, 2006. Retrieved August 31, 2014.
  36. ^"Creator and Four Users of Loverspy Spyware Program Indicted". Department of Justice. August 26, 2005. Archived from the original on November 19, 2013. Retrieved November 21, 2014.
  37. ^"Tracking Cookie". Symantec. Retrieved April 28, 2013.
  38. ^Roberts, Paul F. (May 26, 2005). "Spyware-Removal Program Tagged as a Trap". eWeek. Retrieved September 4, 2008.
  39. ^Howes, Eric L. "The Spyware Warrior List of Rogue/Suspect Anti-Spyware Products & Web Sites". Retrieved July 10, 2005.
  40. ^Also known as WinAntiVirusPro, ErrorSafe, SystemDoctor, WinAntiSpyware, AVSystemCare, WinAntiSpy, Windows Police Pro, Performance Optimizer, StorageProtector, PrivacyProtector, WinReanimator, DriveCleaner, WinspywareProtect, PCTurboPro, FreePCSecure, ErrorProtector, SysProtect, WinSoftware, XPAntivirus, Personal Antivirus, Home Antivirus 20xx, VirusDoctor, and ECsecure
  41. ^Elinor Mills (April 27, 2010). "Google: Fake antivirus is 15 percent of all malware". CNET. Retrieved November 5, 2011.
  42. ^McMillan, Robert. Antispyware Company Sued Under Spyware LawArchived July 6, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. PC World, January 26, 2006.
  43. ^"Lawsuit filed against 180solutionsArchived June 22, 2008, at the Wayback Machine". zdnet.com September 13, 2005
  44. ^Hu, Jim. "180solutions sues allies over adware". news.com July 28, 2004
  45. ^Coollawyer; 2001–2006; Privacy Policies, Terms and Conditions, Website Contracts, Website Agreements; coollawyer.com. Retrieved November 28, 2006.
  46. ^"CHAPTER 715 Computer Spyware and Malware ProtectionArchived April 6, 2012, at the Wayback Machine". nxtsearch.legis.state.ia.us. Retrieved May 11, 2011.
  47. ^Chapter 19.270 RCW: Computer spyware. apps.leg.wa.gov. Retrieved November 14, 2006.
  48. ^Gross, Grant. US lawmakers introduce I-Spy billArchived January 8, 2009, at the Wayback Machine. InfoWorld, March 16, 2007. Retrieved March 24, 2007.
  49. ^See Federal Trade Commission v. Sperry & Hutchinson Trading Stamp Co.
  50. ^FTC Permanently Halts Unlawful Spyware OperationsArchived November 2, 2013, at the Wayback Machine (FTC press release with links to supporting documents); see also FTC cracks down on spyware and PC hijacking, but not true liesArchived December 26, 2010, at the Wayback Machine, Micro Law, IEEE MICRO (Jan.-Feb. 2005), also available at IEEE Xplore.
  51. ^See Court Orders Halt to Sale of Spyware (FTC press release November 17, 2008, with links to supporting documents).
  52. ^OPTA, "Besluit van het college van de Onafhankelijke Post en Telecommunicatie Autoriteit op grond van artikel 15.4 juncto artikel 15.10 van de Telecommunicatiewet tot oplegging van boetes ter zake van overtredingen van het gestelde bij of krachtens de Telecommunicatiewet" from November 5, 2007, http://opta.nl/download/202311+boete+verspreiding+ongewenste+software.pdf[permanent dead link]
  53. ^"State Sues Major "Spyware" Distributor" (Press release). Office of New York State Attorney General. April 28, 2005. Archived from the original on January 10, 2009. Retrieved September 4, 2008.
  54. ^Gormley, Michael. "Intermix Media Inc. says it is settling spyware lawsuit with N.Y. attorney general". Yahoo! News. June 15, 2005. Archived from the original on June 22, 2005.
  55. ^Gormley, Michael (June 25, 2005). "Major advertisers caught in spyware net". USA Today. Retrieved September 4, 2008.
  56. ^Festa, Paul. "See you later, anti-Gators?". News.com. October 22, 2003.
  57. ^"Gator Information CenterArchived July 1, 2005, at the Wayback Machine". pcpitstop.com November 14, 2005.
  58. ^ ab"Initial LANrev System Findings"Archived June 15, 2010, at the Wayback Machine, LMSD Redacted Forensic Analysis, L-3 Services – prepared for Ballard Spahr (LMSD's counsel), May 2010. Retrieved August 15, 2010.
  59. ^Doug Stanglin (February 18, 2010). "School district accused of spying on kids via laptop webcams". USA Today. Retrieved February 19, 2010.
  60. ^"Suit: Schools Spied on Students Via Webcam". CBS NEWS. March 8, 2010.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Spyware.
Источник: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spyware

Technical help

9.1 Computer settings

To use the online services offered by MyGuichet.lu, users must configure certain settings which depend on their browser.

       9.1.1 Software settings in Windows

Install the LuxTrust middleware if using a Smartcard, Signing Stick or eID

The user needs to download and install the LuxTrust middleware if they have a Smartcard, Signing Stick or eID.

The LuxTrust middleware can be downloaded from the LuxTrust website.

It is advisable to always install the latest version of the middleware to ensure proper operation, quality and updates.

The latest version of the middleware requires the user to allow pop-ups when signing in and signing documents electronically. The user simply needs to allow pop-ups when invited to do so by their browser.

 

Install Acrobat Reader

 Acrobat Reader is only required to fill in PDF forms – in this specific case, a tax return.

For Internet Explorer users – To install and enable Acrobat Reader:

  1. click the Tools icon;
  2. click Manage add-ons;
  3. select Toolbars and Extensions;
  4. in Show menu, select All add-ons;
  5. select Adobe PDF Reader;
  6. click on the Enable button.

For Firefox users – To install and activate Acrobat Reader:

  1. go to: https://get.adobe.com/uk/reader/;
  2. download the programme.

Chrome users – To install and activate Acrobat Reader:

  1. click the Chrome options menu;
  2. then click Moretools;
  3. then Extensions;
  4. select Adobe Acrobat;
  5. click on the Enable button.

       9.1.2 Software settings in Mac OS

Install the LuxTrust middleware if using a Smartcard, Signing Stick or eID

The user needs to download and install the LuxTrust middleware if they have a Smartcard, Signing Stick or eID.

The LuxTrust middleware can be downloaded from the LuxTrust website.

It is advisable to always install the latest version of the middleware to ensure proper operation, quality and updates.

The latest version of the middleware requires the user to allow pop-ups when signing in and signing documents electronically. The user simply needs to allow pop-ups when invited to do so by their browser.

 

Install Acrobat Reader

Acrobat Reader is only required to fill in PDF forms – in this specific case, a tax return.

Safari users – To install and activate Acrobat Reader:

  1. select a PDF in the Finder;
  2. choose "File" then Get Info;
  3. click the arrow next to Open with;
  4. select AdobeReader;
  5. click the Change all button and then Continue.

Firefox users – To install and activate Acrobat Reader:

  1. go to: https://get.adobe.com/uk/reader/;
  2. download the program.

       9.1.3 Software settings in Linux

Install the LuxTrust middleware if using a Smartcard, Signing Stick or eID

The user needs to download and install the LuxTrust middleware if they have a Smartcard, Signing Stick or eID.

The LuxTrust middleware can be downloaded from the LuxTrust website.

It is advisable to always install the latest version of the middleware to ensure proper operation, quality and updates.

The latest version of the middleware requires the user to allow pop-ups when signing in and signing documents electronically. The user simply needs to allow pop-ups when invited to do so by their browser.

 

9.2 Activate your LuxTrust product

No activation is necessary for the eID.

LuxTrust products contain the user's personal data or those linked to their business, allowing them to file certain procedures from their secure eSpace.

The LuxTrust product must only be activated once.

 

Users must have their access codes at hand to activate their product. These codes can be found in the email they receive from LuxTrust. The product can be activated by clicking this link.

activation-smartcard

 

activation-certificat

Once the product has been activated and the middleware installed, the user can register and set up their private or business eSpace.

      9.2.1 Confirm registration

A confirmation letter is sent to the user by post, with the subject "Confirmation of your registration with a government web application". The letter does not contain the user's access codes. The codes would have already been sent in another letter.  

Courrier-confirmation-enregistrement

 

Installation certificat Luxtrust Global Root

When using their electronic identity card "eID" for the first time, the user must:

  • confirm the installation of the LuxTrust Global Root certificate;
  • change their initial password (a system prompt lets them enter the "initial password" sent by post by the CTIE, and their new password);
  • change their initial PIN to one of their choice.

 The user must enter their secret code every time they are prompted to provide their authentication credentials by applications they want to access, or to electronically sign a document.

9.3 Change email address

When signing in to MyGuichet.lu for the first time, if the user’s email address is no longer the one to use, they can simply change it in the corresponding box.

9.4 Lost, forgotten or locked codes/PIN

      9.4.1 Codes

If you lose the PIN (secret code) for your eID, please contact the Guichet.lu helpdesk:

 For LuxTrust products, users who have lost or forgotten their codes must contact LuxTrust.

      9.4.2 PIN

If you lose the PIN for your eID, you can decide either to change it or unlock it.

In Windows

To change their PIN, the user must:

  1. open the Classic Client Toolbox middleware from the Start menu by going to "Programs" – Gemalto;
  2. click on Card Administration;
  3. select PIN Management;
  4. check the box marked Change PIN and click the Next button;
  5. make sure that the drop-down menu displays User rather than Admin, then enter the Current PIN;
  6. enter a new PIN in the box labelled New PIN.

changement-code-PIN-1-Windows

Changement-code-PIN-2-Windows

Changement-code-PIN-3-Windows

The same procedure applies to unlock the PIN. Instead of clicking on "Change PIN", they then click on Unblock PIN and enter the PUK code in the Admin PIN field.

Déblocage code PIN 1 Windows

Déblocage code PIN 2 Windows

The "Admin PIN" is the same as the "PUK code".

To check whether they have blocked their PIN or PUK, the user can:

  1. open Classic Client;
  2. click on Card contents;
  3. select the appropriate reader and click the Next button;
  4. look under Incorrect presentations before.

Vérification code PIN et PUK Windows

If the PUK is blocked, the product can no longer be used. 

 This procedure is not available for Mac OS.

In Mac OS

To change their PIN, the user must:

  1. launch the application Classic Client PIN Management and choose Change PIN;
  2. select User PIN;
  3. and then enter the old PIN, then the new PIN twice, and finally confirm.

 

Changement-code-PIN-Mac

Classic Client for Mac OS does not have the same features as the Windows version.

To unblock the PIN, the user must:

  1. launch the Classic Client PIN Management and choose Unblock PIN;
  2. enter the Admin PIN (also known as the PUK code);
  3. and then enter the old PIN, then the new PIN twice, and finally confirm.

Déblocage code PIN Mac

 If the user has lost or blocked the PIN for their LuxTrust product, they can go to the corresponding pageand follow the instructions.

They will need to enter the PUK code sent through the post when they ordered their product.

      9.4.3 Password (for Token only)

If the user’s password is blocked, they can go to the corresponding LuxTrust page, which explains how to retrieve it.

      9.4.4 The 13-digit national identification number

If there is an error in when attempting to register with the 13-digit national identification number, an alert pops up.

Message d'erreur matricule incorrect

This error is due to a discrepancy between the LuxTrust certificate data and the data in the National Registry of Natural Persons, or to an error while entering the ID number.

If the problem persists even when the user is certain that they have entered the correct ID number (i.e., the certificate holder's 13-digit code), they must send an email to the Helpdesk along with the following:

  • a copy of their passport or national identity card;
  • a copy of the results of the LuxTrust test;
  • their 13-digit Luxembourg national identification number;
  • where applicable, a marriage certificate with the name of their spouse.

 

Источник: https://guichet.public.lu/en/support/aide/aides-techniques.html

Window: beforeunload event

The event suffers from the same problems as the event.

Especially on mobile, the event is not reliably fired. For example, the event is not fired at all in the following scenario:

  1. A mobile user visits your page.
  2. The user then switches to a different app.
  3. Later, the user closes the browser from the app manager.

The event is not compatible with the back/forward cache (bfcache), because many pages using this event assume that the page will not continue to exist after the event is fired. To combat this, browsers will not place pages in the bfcache if they have listeners, and this is bad for performance.

However, unlike the event, there is a legitimate use case for the event: the scenario where the user has entered unsaved data that will be lost if the page is unloaded.

It is recommended that developers listen for only in this scenario, and only when they actually have unsaved changes, so as to minimize the effect on performance. See the Examples section below for an example of this.

See the Page Lifecycle API guide for more information about the problems associated with the event.

Examples

In this example a page listens for changes to a text . If the element contains a value, it adds a listener for . If the element is empty, it removes the listener:

Specifications

Browser compatibility

BCD tables only load in the browser

See WindowEventHandlers/onbeforeunload for more details on how various browsers handle this event.

See also

Источник: https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/API/Window/beforeunload_event

Similar video

How To Allow Pop Ups In Chrome

Spyware

Malware that collects and transmits user information without their knowledge

Spyware is software with malicious behavior that aims to gather information about a person or organization and send it to another entity in a way that harms the user. For example, by violating their privacy or endangering their device's security. This behavior may be present in malware as well as in legitimate software. Websites may engage in spyware behaviors like web tracking. Hardware devices may also be affected.[1] Spyware is frequently associated with advertising and involves many of the same issues. Because these behaviors are so common, speccy afl - Crack Key For U can have non-harmful uses, providing a precise definition of spyware is a difficult task.[2]

History[edit]

The first recorded use of the term spyware occurred on October 16, 1995 in a Usenet post that poked fun at Microsoft's business model.[3]Spyware at first denoted software meant for espionage purposes. However, in early 2000 the founder of Zone Labs, Gregor Freund, used the term in a press release for the ZoneAlarm Personal Firewall.[4] Later in 2000, a parent using ZoneAlarm was alerted to the fact that "Reader Rabbit," educational software marketed to children by the Mattel toy company, was surreptitiously sending data back to Mattel.[5] Since then, "spyware" has taken on its present sense.

According to a 2005 study by AOL and the National Cyber-Security Alliance, 61 percent of surveyed users' computers were infected with form of spyware. 92 percent of surveyed users with spyware reported that they did not know of its presence, and 91 percent reported that they had not given permission for the installation of the spyware.[6] As of 2006[update], spyware has become one of the preeminent security threats to computer systems running Microsoft Windows operating systems. Computers on which Internet Explorer (IE) is the primary browser are particularly vulnerable to such attacks, not only because IE was the most widely used,[7] but because its tight integration with Windows allows spyware access to crucial parts of the operating system.[7][8]

Before Internet Explorer 6 SP2 was released as part of Windows XP Service Pack 2, the browser would automatically display an installation window for any ActiveX component that a website wanted to install. The combination of user ignorance about these changes, and the assumption by Internet Explorer that all ActiveX components are benign, helped to spread spyware significantly. Many spyware components would also make use of exploits in JavaScript, Internet Explorer and Windows to install without user knowledge or permission.

The Windows Registry contains multiple sections where modification of key values allows software to be executed automatically when the operating system boots. Spyware can exploit this design to circumvent attempts Zoom Player MAX 15.6 Crack + Registration Code Free Download 2021 removal. The spyware typically will link itself from each location in the registry that allows execution. Once running, the spyware will periodically check if any of these links are removed. If so, they will be automatically restored. This ensures that the spyware will execute when the operating system is booted, even if some (or most) of the registry links are removed.

Overview[edit]

Spyware is mostly classified into four types: adware, system monitors, tracking including web tracking, and trojans;[9] examples of other notorious types include digital rights management capabilities that "phone home", keyloggers, rootkits, and web beacons. These four categories are not mutually exclusive and they have similar tactics in attacking networks and devices.[10] The main goal is to install, hack into the network, avoid being detected, and safely remove themselves from the network.[10]

Spyware is mostly used for the stealing information and storing Internet users' movements on the Web and serving up pop-up ads to Internet users. Whenever spyware is used for malicious purposes, its presence is typically hidden from the user and can be difficult to detect. Some spyware, such as keyloggers, may be installed by the owner of a shared, corporate, or public computer intentionally in order to monitor users.

While the term spyware suggests software that monitors a user's computing, the functions of spyware can extend beyond simple monitoring. Spyware can collect almost any type of data, including personal information like internet surfing habits, user logins, and bank or credit account information. Spyware can also interfere with a user's control of a computer by installing additional software or redirecting web browsers.[11] Some spyware can change computer settings, which can result in slow Internet connection speeds, un-authorized changes in browser settings, or changes to software settings.

Sometimes, spyware is included along with genuine software, and may come from a malicious website or may have been added to the intentional functionality of genuine software (see the paragraph about Facebook, below). In response to the emergence of spyware, a small industry has sprung up dealing in anti-spyware software. Running anti-spyware software has become a widely recognized element of computer security practices, especially for computers running Microsoft Windows. A number of jurisdictions have passed anti-spyware laws, which usually target any software that is surreptitiously installed to control a user's computer.

In German-speaking countries, spyware used or made by the government is called govware by computer experts (in common parlance: Regierungstrojaner, literally "Government Trojan"). Govware is typically a trojan horse software used to intercept communications from the target computer. Some countries, like Switzerland and Germany, have a legal framework governing the use of such software.[12][13] In the US, the term "policeware" has been used for similar purposes.[14]

Use of the term "spyware" has eventually declined as the practice of tracking users has been pushed ever further into the mainstream by major websites and data google chrome allow pop ups - Crack Key For U companies; these generally break no known laws and compel users to be tracked, not by fraudulent practices per se, but by the default settings created for users and the language of terms-of-service agreements. In one documented example, on CBS/CNet News reported, on March 7, 2011, on a Wall Street Journal analysis revealing the practice of Facebook and other websites of tracking users' browsing activity, linked to their identity, far beyond users' visits and activity within the Facebook site itself. The report stated: "Here's how it works. You go to Facebook, you log in, you spend some time there, and then . you move on without logging out. Let's say the next site you go to is New York Times. Those buttons, without you clicking on them, have just reported back to Facebook and Twitter that you went there and also your identity within those accounts. Let's say you moved on to something like a site about depression. This one also has a tweet button, a Google widget, and those, too, can report back who you are and that you went there." The WSJ analysis was researched by Brian Kennish, founder of Disconnect, Inc.[15]

Routes of infection[edit]

Spyware does not necessarily spread in the same way as a virus or worm because infected systems generally do not attempt to transmit or copy the software to other computers. Instead, spyware installs itself on a system by deceiving the user or by exploiting software vulnerabilities.

Most spyware is installed without knowledge, or by using deceptive tactics. Spyware may try to deceive users by bundling itself with desirable software. Other common tactics are using a Trojan horse, spy gadgets that look like normal devices but turn out to be google chrome allow pop ups - Crack Key For U else, such as a USB Keylogger. These devices actually are connected to the device as memory units but are capable of recording each stroke made on the keyboard. Some spyware authors infect a system through security holes in the Web browser or in other software. When the user navigates to a Web page controlled by the spyware author, the page contains code which attacks the browser and forces the download and installation of spyware.

The installation of spyware frequently involves Internet Explorer. Its popularity and history of security issues have made it a frequent target. Its deep integration with the Windows environment make it susceptible to attack into the Windowsoperating system. Internet Explorer also serves as a point of attachment for spyware in the form of Browser Helper Objects, which professional software - Activators Patch the browser's behaviour.

Effects and behaviors[edit]

A spyware rarely operates alone on a computer; an affected machine usually has multiple infections. Users frequently notice unwanted behavior and degradation of system performance. A spyware infestation can create significant unwanted CPU activity, disk usage, and network traffic. Stability issues, such as applications freezing, failure to boot, and system-wide crashes are also common. Spyware, which interferes with networking software commonly causes difficulty connecting to the Internet.

In some infections, the spyware is not even evident. Users assume in those situations that the performance issues relate to faulty hardware, Windows installation problems, or another malware infection. Some owners of badly infected systems resort to contacting technical support experts, or even buying a new computer because the existing system "has become too slow". Badly infected systems may require a clean reinstallation of all their software in order to return to full functionality.

Moreover, some types of spyware disable software firewalls and antivirus software, and/or reduce browser security settings, which opens the system to further opportunistic infections. Some spyware disables or even removes competing spyware programs, on the grounds that more google chrome allow pop ups - Crack Key For U annoyances increase the likelihood that users will take action to remove the programs.[16]

Keyloggers are sometimes part of malware packages downloaded onto computers without the owners' knowledge. Some keylogger ManyCam Pro 7.8.7.61 Crack Free Download [Latest] 2022 is freely available on the internet, while Massive X Serial key are commercial or private applications. Most keyloggers allow not only keyboard keystrokes to be captured, they also are often capable of collecting screen captures from the computer.

A typical Windows user has administrative privileges, mostly for convenience. Because of this, any program the user runs has unrestricted access to the system. As with other operating systems, Windows users are able to follow the principle of least privilege and use non-administrator accounts. Alternatively, they can reduce the privileges of specific vulnerable Internet-facing processes, such as Internet Explorer.

Since Windows Vista is, by default, a computer administrator that runs everything under limited user privileges, when a program requires administrative privileges, a User Account Control pop-up will prompt the user to allow or deny the action. This improves on the design used by previous versions of Windows. Spyware is also known as tracking software.

Remedies and prevention[edit]

See also: Computer virus § Virus removal

As the spyware threat has evolved, a number of techniques have emerged to counteract it. These include programs designed to remove or block spyware, as well as various user practices which reduce the chance of getting spyware on a system.

Nonetheless, spyware remains a costly problem. When a large number of pieces of spyware have infected a Windows computer, the only remedy may involve backing up user data, and fully reinstalling the operating system. For instance, some spyware cannot be completely removed by Symantec, Microsoft, PC Tools.

Anti-spyware programs[edit]

See also: Category:Spyware removal

Many programmers and some commercial firms have released products dedicated to remove or block spyware. Programs such as PC Tools' Spyware Doctor, Lavasoft's Ad-Aware SE and Patrick Kolla's Spybot - Search & Destroy rapidly gained popularity as tools to remove, and in some cases intercept, spyware programs. On December, 2004, Microsoft acquired the GIANT AntiSpyware software,[17] re‑branding it as Microsoft AntiSpyware (Beta 1) and releasing it as a free download for Genuine Windows XP and Windows 2003 users. In November, 2005, it was renamed Windows Defender.[18][19]

Major anti-virus firms such as Symantec, PC Tools, McAfee and Sophos have also added anti-spyware features to their existing anti-virus products. Early on, anti-virus firms expressed reluctance to add anti-spyware functions, citing lawsuits brought by spyware authors against the authors of web sites and programs which described their products as "spyware". However, recent versions of these major firms home and business anti-virus products do include anti-spyware functions, albeit treated differently from viruses. Symantec Anti-Virus, for instance, categorizes spyware programs as "extended threats" and now offers real-time protection against these threats.

How anti-spyware software works[edit]

Anti-spyware programs can combat spyware in two ways:

  1. They can provide real-time protection in a manner similar to that of anti-virus protection: all incoming network data is scanned for spyware, and any detected threats are blocked.
  2. Anti-spyware software programs can be used solely for detection and removal of spyware software that has already been installed into the computer. This kind of anti-spyware can often be set to scan on a regular schedule.

Such programs inspect the contents of the Windows registry, operating system files, and installed programs, and remove files and entries which match a list of known spyware. Real-time protection from spyware works identically to real-time anti-virus protection: the software scans disk files at download time, and blocks the activity of components known to represent spyware. In some cases, it may also intercept attempts to install start-up items or to modify browser settings. Earlier versions of anti-spyware programs focused chiefly on detection and removal. Javacool Software's SpywareBlaster, one of the first to offer real-time protection, blocked the installation of ActiveX-based adobe acrobat pro dc 2017 - Crack Key For U.

Like most anti-virus software, many anti-spyware/adware tools require a frequently updated database of threats. As new spyware programs are released, anti-spyware developers discover and evaluate them, adding to the list of known spyware, which allows the software to detect and remove new spyware. As a result, anti-spyware software is of limited usefulness without regular updates. Updates may be installed automatically or manually.

A popular generic spyware removal tool used by those that requires a certain degree of expertise is HijackThis, which scans certain areas of the Windows OS where spyware often resides and presents a list with items to delete manually. As most of the items are legitimate windows files/registry entries it is advised for those who are less knowledgeable on this subject to post a HijackThis log on the numerous antispyware sites and let the experts decide what to delete.

If a spyware program is not blocked and manages to get itself installed, it may resist attempts to terminate or uninstall it. Some programs work in pairs: when an anti-spyware scanner (or the user) terminates one running process, the other one respawns the killed program. Likewise, some spyware will detect attempts to remove registry keys and immediately add them again. Usually, booting the infected computer in safe mode allows an anti-spyware program a better chance of removing persistent spyware. Killing the process tree may also work.

Security practices[edit]

To detect spyware, computer users have Camtasia Studio 2021.0.4 Crack With Serial Key Free Download 2021 several practices useful in addition to installing anti-spyware programs. Many users have installed a web browser other than Internet Explorer, such as Mozilla Firefox or Google Chrome. Though no browser is completely safe, Internet Explorer was once at a greater risk for spyware infection due to its large user base as well as vulnerabilities such as ActiveX but these three major google chrome allow pop ups - Crack Key For U are now close to equivalent when it comes to security.[20][21]

Some ISPs—particularly colleges and universities—have taken a different approach to blocking spyware: they use their network firewalls and web proxies to block access to Web sites known to install spyware. On March 31, 2005, Cornell University's Information Technology department released a report detailing the behavior of one particular piece of proxy-based spyware, Marketscore, and the steps the university took to intercept it.[22] Many other educational institutions have taken similar steps.

Individual users can also install firewalls from a variety of companies. These monitor the flow of information going to and from a networked computer and provide protection against spyware and malware. Some users install a large hosts file which prevents the user's computer from connecting to known spyware-related web addresses. Spyware may get installed via certain shareware programs offered for download. Downloading programs only from reputable sources can provide some protection from this source of attack.[23]

Individual users can use cellphone / computer with physical (electric) switch, google chrome allow pop ups - Crack Key For U isolated electronic switch that disconnects microphone, camera without bypass and keep it in disconnected position where not in use, that limits information that spyware can collect. (Policy recommended by NIST Guidelines filmora 10.2.0.32 crack Managing the Security of Mobile Devices, 2013).

Applications[edit]

"Stealware" and affiliate fraud[edit]

A few spyware vendors, notably 180 Solutions, have written what the New York Times has dubbed "stealware", and what spyware researcher Ben Edelman terms affiliate fraud, a form of click fraud. Stealware diverts the payment of affiliate marketing revenues from the legitimate affiliate to the spyware vendor.

Spyware which attacks affiliate networks places the spyware operator's affiliate tag on the user's activity – replacing any other tag, if there is one. The spyware operator is the only party that gains from this. The user has their choices thwarted, a legitimate affiliate loses revenue, networks' reputations are injured, and vendors are harmed by having to pay out affiliate revenues to an "affiliate" who is not party to a contract.[24]Affiliate fraud is a violation of the terms of service of most affiliate marketing networks. Mobile devices can also be vulnerable to chargeware, which manipulates users into illegitimate mobile charges.

Identity theft and fraud[edit]

In one case, spyware has been closely associated with identity theft.[25] In August 2005, researchers from security software firm Sunbelt Software suspected the creators of the common CoolWebSearch spyware had used it to transmit "chat sessions, user names, passwords, bank information, etc.";[26] however it turned out that "it actually (was) its own sophisticated criminal little trojan that's independent of CWS."[27] This case is currently under investigation by the FBI.

The Federal Trade Commission estimates that 27.3 million Americans have been victims of identity theft, and that financial losses from identity theft totaled nearly $48 billion for businesses and financial institutions and at least $5 billion in out-of-pocket expenses for individuals.[28]

Digital rights management[edit]

Some copy-protection technologies have borrowed from spyware. In 2005, Sony BMG Music Entertainment was found to be usingrootkits in its XCPdigital rights management technology[29] Like spyware, not only was it templatetoaster keygen to detect and uninstall, it was so poorly written that most efforts to remove it could have rendered computers unable to function. Texas Attorney GeneralGreg Abbott filed suit,[30] and three separate class-action suits were filed.[31] Sony BMG later provided a workaround on its website to help users remove it.[32]

Beginning on April 25, 2006, Microsoft's Windows Genuine Advantage Notifications application[33] was installed on most Windows PCs as a "critical security update". While the main purpose of this deliberately uninstallable application is to ensure the copy of Windows on the machine was lawfully purchased and installed, it also installs software that has been accused of "phoning home" on a daily basis, like spyware.[34][35] It can be removed with the RemoveWGA tool.

Personal relationships[edit]

Stalkerware is spyware that has been used to monitor electronic activities of partners in intimate relationships. At least one software package, Loverspy, was specifically marketed for this purpose. Depending on local laws regarding communal/marital property, observing a partner's online activity without their consent may be illegal; the author of Loverspy and several users of the product were indicted in California in 2005 on charges of wiretapping and various computer crimes.[36]

Browser cookies[edit]

Anti-spyware programs often report Web advertisers' HTTP cookies, the small text files that track browsing activity, as spyware. While they are not always inherently malicious, many users object to third parties using space on their personal computers for their business purposes, and many anti-spyware programs offer to remove them.[37]

Spyware programs[edit]

Main article: List of spyware programs

These common spyware programs illustrate the diversity of behaviors found in these attacks. Note that as with computer viruses, researchers give names to spyware programs which may not be used by their creators. Programs may be grouped into "families" based not on shared program code, but on common behaviors, or by "following the money" of apparent financial or business connections. For instance, a number of the spyware programs distributed by Claria are collectively known as "Gator". Likewise, programs that are frequently installed together may be described as parts of the same spyware package, even if they function separately.

Rogue anti-spyware programs[edit]

See also: List of rogue security software, List of fake anti-spyware programs, and Rogue security software

Malicious programmers have released a large number of rogue (fake) anti-spyware programs, and widely distributed Web banner ads can warn users that their computers have been infected with spyware, directing them to purchase programs which do not actually remove spyware—or else, may add more spyware of their own.[38][39]

The recent[update] proliferation of fake or spoofed antivirus products that bill themselves as antispyware can be troublesome. Users may receive popups prompting them to install them to protect their computer, when it will in fact add spyware. It is recommended that users do not install any freeware claiming to be anti-spyware google chrome allow pop ups - Crack Key For U it is verified to be legitimate. Some known offenders include:

Fake antivirus products constitute 15 percent of all malware.[41]

On January 26, 2006, Microsoft and the Washington state attorney general filed suit against Secure Computer for its Spyware Cleaner product.[42]

Legal issues[edit]

Criminal law[edit]

Unauthorized access to a computer is illegal under computer crime laws, such as the U.S. Computer Fraud and Abuse Act, the U.K.'s Computer Misuse Act, and similar laws in other countries. Since owners of computers infected with spyware generally claim that they never authorized the installation, a prima facie reading would suggest that the promulgation of spyware would count as a criminal act. Law enforcement has often pursued the authors of other malware, particularly viruses. However, few spyware developers have been prosecuted, and many operate openly as strictly legitimate businesses, though some have faced lawsuits.[43][44]

Spyware producers argue that, contrary to the users' claims, users do in fact give consent to installations. Spyware that comes bundled with shareware applications may be described in the legalese text of an end-user license agreement (EULA). Many users habitually ignore these purported contracts, but spyware companies such as Claria say these demonstrate that users have consented.

Despite the ubiquity of EULAs agreements, under which a single click can be taken as consent to the entire text, relatively little caselaw has resulted from their use. It has been established in most common law jurisdictions that this type of agreement can be a binding contract in certain circumstances.[45] This does not, however, mean that every such agreement is a contract, or that every term in one is enforceable.

Some jurisdictions, including the U.S. states of Iowa[46] and Washington,[47] have passed laws criminalizing some forms of spyware. Such laws make it illegal for anyone other than the owner or operator of a computer to install software that alters Web-browser settings, monitors keystrokes, or disables computer-security software.

In the United States, lawmakers introduced a bill in 2005 entitled the Internet Spyware Prevention Act, which would imprison creators of spyware.[48]

Administrative sanctions[edit]

US FTC actions[edit]

The US Federal Trade Commission has sued Internet marketing organizations under the "unfairness doctrine"[49] to make them stop infecting microsoft office 2019 full - Crack Key For U PCs with spyware. In one case, that against Seismic Entertainment Productions, the FTC accused the defendants of developing a program that seized control of PCs nationwide, infected them with spyware and other malicious software, bombarded them with a barrage of pop-up advertising for Seismic's clients, exposed the PCs to security risks, and caused them to malfunction. Seismic then offered to sell the victims an "antispyware" program to fix the computers, and stop the popups and other problems that Seismic had caused. On November 21, 2006, a settlement was entered in federal court under which a $1.75 million judgment was imposed in one case and $1.86 million in another, but the defendants were insolvent[50]

In a second case, brought against CyberSpy Software LLC, the FTC charged that CyberSpy marketed and sold "RemoteSpy" keylogger spyware to clients who would then secretly monitor unsuspecting consumers' computers. According to the FTC, Cyberspy touted RemoteSpy as a "100% undetectable" way to "Spy on Anyone. From Anywhere." The FTC has obtained a temporary order prohibiting the defendants from selling the software and disconnecting from the Internet any of their servers that collect, store, or provide access to information that this software has gathered. The case is still in its preliminary stages. A complaint filed by the Electronic Privacy Information Center (EPIC) brought the RemoteSpy software to the FTC's attention.[51]

Netherlands OPTA[edit]

An administrative fine, the first of its kind in Europe, has been issued by the Independent Authority of Posts and Telecommunications (OPTA) from the Netherlands. It applied fines in total value of Euro 1,000,000 for infecting 22 million computers. The spyware concerned is called DollarRevenue. The law articles that have been violated are art. 4.1 of the Decision on universal service providers and on the interests of end users; the fines have been issued based on art. 15.4 taken together with art. 15.10 of the Dutch telecommunications law.[52]

Civil law[edit]

Former New York State Attorney General and former Governor of New YorkEliot Spitzer has pursued spyware companies for fraudulent installation of software.[53] In a suit brought in 2005 by Spitzer, the California firm Intermix Media, Inc. ended up settling, by agreeing to pay US$7.5 million and to stop distributing spyware.[54]

The hijacking of Web advertisements has also led to litigation. In June 2002, a number of large Web publishers sued Claria for replacing advertisements, but settled out of court.

Courts have not yet had to decide whether advertisers can be held liable for spyware that displays their ads. In many cases, the companies whose advertisements appear in spyware pop-ups do not directly do business with the spyware firm. Rather, they have contracted with an advertising agency, which in turn contracts with an online subcontractor who gets paid by the number of "impressions" or appearances of the advertisement. Some major firms such as Dell Computer and Mercedes-Benz have sacked advertising agencies that have run their ads in spyware.[55]

Libel suits by spyware developers[edit]

Litigation has gone both ways. Since "spyware" has become a common pejorative, some makers have filed libel and defamation actions when their products have been so described. In 2003, Gator (now known as Claria) filed suit against the website PC Pitstop for describing its program as "spyware".[56] PC Pitstop settled, agreeing not to use the word "spyware", but continues to describe harm caused by the Gator/Claria software.[57] As a result, other anti-spyware and anti-virus companies have also used other terms such as "potentially unwanted programs" or greyware to denote these products.

WebcamGate[edit]

Main article: Robbins v. Lower Merion School District

In the 2010 WebcamGate case, plaintiffs charged two suburban Philadelphia high schools secretly spied on students by surreptitiously and remotely activating webcams embedded in school-issued laptops the students were using at home, and therefore infringed on their privacy rights. The school loaded each student's computer with LANrev's remote activation tracking software. This included the now-discontinued "TheftTrack". While TheftTrack was not enabled by default on the software, the program allowed the school district to elect to activate it, and to choose which of the TheftTrack surveillance options the school wanted to enable.[58]

TheftTrack allowed school district employees to secretly remotely activate the webcam embedded in the student's laptop, above the laptop's screen. That allowed school officials to secretly take photos through the webcam, of whatever was in front of it and in its line of sight, OfficeSuite 2.40 Full Free - Crack Key For U send the photos to the school's server. The LANrev software disabled the webcams for all other uses (e.g., students were unable to use Photo Booth or video chat), so most students mistakenly believed their webcams did not work at all. On top of the webcam surveillance, TheftTrack allowed school officials to take screenshots and send them to the school's server. School officials were also granted the ability to take snapshots of instant messages, web browsing, music playlists, and written compositions. The schools admitted to secretly snapping over 66,000 webshots and screenshots, including webcam shots of students in their bedrooms.[58][59][60]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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  32. ^Information About XCP Protected CDs. Retrieved November 29, 2006.
  33. ^Microsoft.com – Description of the Windows Genuine Advantage Notifications application. Retrieved June 13, 2006.
  34. ^Weinstein, Lauren. Windows XP update may be classified as 'spyware', Lauren Weinstein's Blog, June 5, 2006. Retrieved June 13, 2006.
  35. ^Evers, Joris. Microsoft's antipiracy tool phones home daily, CNET, June 7, 2006. Retrieved August 31, 2014.
  36. ^"Creator and Four Users of Loverspy Spyware Program Indicted". Department of Justice. August 26, 2005. Archived from the original on November 19, 2013. Retrieved November 21, 2014.
  37. ^"Tracking Cookie". Symantec. Retrieved April 28, 2013.
  38. ^Roberts, Paul F. (May 26, 2005). "Spyware-Removal Program Tagged as a Trap". eWeek. Retrieved September 4, 2008.
  39. ^Howes, Eric L. "The Spyware Warrior List of Rogue/Suspect Anti-Spyware Products & Web Sites". Retrieved July 10, 2005.
  40. ^Also known as WinAntiVirusPro, ErrorSafe, SystemDoctor, WinAntiSpyware, AVSystemCare, WinAntiSpy, Windows Police Pro, Performance Optimizer, StorageProtector, PrivacyProtector, WinReanimator, DriveCleaner, WinspywareProtect, PCTurboPro, FreePCSecure, ErrorProtector, SysProtect, WinSoftware, XPAntivirus, Personal Antivirus, Home Antivirus 20xx, VirusDoctor, and ECsecure
  41. ^Elinor Mills (April 27, 2010). "Google: Fake antivirus is 15 percent of all malware". CNET. Retrieved November 5, 2011.
  42. ^McMillan, Robert. Antispyware Company Sued Under Spyware LawArchived July 6, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. PC World, January 26, 2006.
  43. ^"Lawsuit filed against 180solutionsArchived June 22, 2008, at the Wayback Machine". zdnet.com September 13, 2005
  44. ^Hu, Jim. "180solutions sues allies over adware". news.com July 28, 2004
  45. ^Coollawyer; 2001–2006; Privacy Policies, Terms and Conditions, Website Contracts, Website Agreements; coollawyer.com. Retrieved November 28, 2006.
  46. ^"CHAPTER 715 Computer Spyware and Malware ProtectionArchived April 6, 2012, at the Wayback Machine". nxtsearch.legis.state.ia.us. Retrieved May 11, 2011.
  47. ^Chapter 19.270 RCW: Computer spyware. apps.leg.wa.gov. Retrieved November 14, 2006.
  48. ^Gross, Grant. US lawmakers introduce I-Spy billArchived January 8, 2009, at the Wayback Machine. InfoWorld, March 16, 2007. Retrieved March 24, 2007.
  49. ^See Federal Trade Commission v. Sperry & Hutchinson Trading Stamp Co.
  50. ^FTC Permanently Halts Unlawful Spyware OperationsArchived Videoscribe without watermark - Free Activators 2, 2013, at the Wayback Machine (FTC press release with links to supporting documents); see also FTC cracks down on spyware and PC hijacking, but not true liesArchived December 26, 2010, at the Wayback Machine, Micro Law, IEEE MICRO (Jan.-Feb. 2005), also available at IEEE Xplore.
  51. ^See Court Orders Halt to Sale of Spyware (FTC press release November 17, 2008, with links to supporting documents).
  52. ^OPTA, "Besluit van het college van de Onafhankelijke Post en Telecommunicatie Autoriteit op grond van artikel 15.4 juncto artikel 15.10 van de Telecommunicatiewet tot oplegging van boetes ter zake van overtredingen van het gestelde bij of krachtens de Telecommunicatiewet" from November 5, 2007, http://opta.nl/download/202311+boete+verspreiding+ongewenste+software.pdf[permanent dead link]
  53. ^"State Sues Major "Spyware" Distributor" (Press release). Office of New York State Attorney General. April 28, 2005. Archived from the original on January 10, 2009. Retrieved September 4, 2008.
  54. ^Gormley, Michael. "Intermix Media Inc. says it is settling spyware lawsuit with N.Y. attorney general". Yahoo! News. June 15, 2005. Archived from the original on June 22, 2005.
  55. ^Gormley, Michael (June 25, 2005). "Major advertisers caught in spyware net". USA Today. Retrieved September 4, 2008.
  56. ^Festa, Paul. "See you later, anti-Gators?". News.com. October 22, 2003.
  57. ^"Gator Information CenterArchived July 1, 2005, at the Wayback Machine". pcpitstop.com November 14, 2005.
  58. ^ ab"Initial LANrev System Findings"Archived June 15, 2010, at the Wayback Machine, LMSD Redacted Forensic Analysis, L-3 Services – prepared for Ballard Spahr (LMSD's counsel), May 2010. Retrieved August 15, 2010.
  59. ^Doug Stanglin (February 18, 2010). "School district accused of spying on kids google chrome allow pop ups - Crack Key For U laptop webcams". USA Today. Retrieved February 19, 2010.
  60. ^"Suit: Schools Spied on Students Via Webcam". CBS NEWS. March 8, 2010.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Spyware.
Источник: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spyware

Window: beforeunload event

The event suffers from the same problems as the event.

Especially on mobile, the event is not reliably fired. For example, the event is Avid Media Composer 8.4.4 Crack Free Download fired at all in the following scenario:

  1. A mobile user visits your page.
  2. The user then switches to a different app.
  3. Later, the user closes the browser from the app manager.

The event is not compatible with the back/forward cache (bfcache), because many pages using this event assume that the page will not continue to exist after the event is fired. To combat this, browsers will not place pages in the bfcache if they have listeners, and this is bad for performance.

However, unlike the event, there is a legitimate use case for the event: the scenario where the user has entered unsaved data that will be lost if the page is unloaded.

It is recommended that developers listen for only in this scenario, and only when they actually have unsaved changes, so as to minimize the effect on performance. See the Examples section below for an example of this.

See the Page Lifecycle API guide for more information about the problems associated with the event.

Examples

In this example a page listens for changes to a text. If the element contains a value, it adds a listener for. If the element is empty, it removes the listener:

Specifications

Browser compatibility

BCD tables only load in the browser

See WindowEventHandlers/onbeforeunload for more details on how various browsers handle this event.

See also

Источник: https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/API/Window/beforeunload_event
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?><!-- Settings-specific strings (included from generated_resources.grd). --><grit-part><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_EMPTY_STRING"desc="Empty string, exist only to make code generic. No translation required."></message><!-- Shared across multiple pages --><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_CONTINUE"desc="Label for 'Continue' buttons."> Continue</message><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_MORE_ACTIONS"desc="Tooltip text (shows on hover or for screenreaders) for a button that shows a menu with more actions when clicked or tapped"> More actions</message><!-- About Page --><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_ABOUT_PAGE_BROWSER_VERSION"desc="The text label describing the version of the browser, example: Version 57.0.2937.0 (Developer Build) unknown (64-bit)"> Version <phname="PRODUCT_VERSION">$1<ex>15.0.865.0</ex></ph> (<phname="PRODUCT_CHANNEL">$2<ex>Developer Build</ex></ph>) <phname="PRODUCT_MODIFIER">$3</ph><phname="PRODUCT_VERSION_BITS">$4</ph></message><ifexpr="not chromeos"><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_ABOUT_PAGE_RELAUNCH"desc="The label for the relaunch button that relaunches the browser once update is complete"> Relaunch</message></if><ifexpr="_google_chrome"><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_ABOUT_PAGE_REPORT_AN_ISSUE"desc="Text of the button which allows the user to report an issue with Chrome."> Report an issue</message></if><ifexpr="is_macosx"><messagename="IDS_ABOUT_CHROME_AUTOUPDATE_ALL"desc="The 'Automatically update Chrome for all users.' button in the About window. Mac-only."> Automatically update Chrome for all users</message><messagename="IDS_ABOUT_CHROME_AUTOUPDATE_ALL_IS_ON"desc="The text in About Page to indicate automatic update is turned on. Mac-only."> Automatic updates are turned on</message></if><!-- Accessibility Page --><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_ACCESSIBILITY"desc="Name of the settings page which displays accessibility preferences."> Accessibility</message><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_ACCESSIBILITY_WEB_STORE"desc="Text for an external link explaining that additional accessibility features are found on the Chrome Web Store."> Open Chrome Web Store</message><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_MORE_FEATURES_LINK"desc="Link which opens page where users can install extensions which provide additional accessibility features."> Add accessibility features</message><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_MORE_FEATURES_LINK_DESCRIPTION"desc="Description for the link about additional accessibility features."> Enable accessibility features</message><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_ACCESSIBLE_IMAGE_LABELS_TITLE"desc="Description for screen reader image labels feature."> Get image descriptions from Google</message><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_ACCESSIBLE_IMAGE_LABELS_SUBTITLE"desc="Subtitle for screen reader image labels feature."> If an image doesn’t have a useful description, Chrome will try to provide one for you. To create descriptions, images are sent to Google.</message><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_CAPTIONS_ENABLE_LIVE_CAPTION_TITLE"desc="Name of the setting to enable Live Caption feature."> Live Caption</message><ifexpr="chromeos"><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_CAPTIONS_ENABLE_LIVE_CAPTION_SUBTITLE_ENGLISH_ONLY"desc="Description text for Live Caption feature. When audio or video is playing, the user will see captions on the screen. Only works in Chrome browser initially. Currently only works for English media."> Automatically foxit pdf editor activation key code - Free Activators captions for media in Chrome browser (currently available in English). Audio and captions are processed locally and never leave the device.</message><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_CAPTIONS_ENABLE_LIVE_CAPTION_SUBTITLE"desc="Description text for Live Caption feature. When audio or video is playing, the user will see captions on the screen. Only works in Chrome browser initially."> Automatically creates captions for media in Chrome browser. Audio and captions are processed locally and never leave the device.</message></if><ifexpr="not chromeos"><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_CAPTIONS_ENABLE_LIVE_CAPTION_SUBTITLE_ENGLISH_ONLY"desc="Description text for Live Caption feature. When audio or video is playing, the user will see captions on LINE: Free Calls & Messages (Premium Cracked) 10.14.3 Latest {2021} screen. Currently only works for English media."> Automatically creates captions for English audio and video. Audio and captions never leave your device.</message><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_CAPTIONS_ENABLE_LIVE_CAPTION_SUBTITLE"desc="Description text for Live Caption feature. When audio or video is playing, the user will see captions on the screen."> Automatically creates captions for audio and video. Audio and captions never leave your device.</message></if><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_CAPTIONS_LIVE_CAPTION_DOWNLOAD_PROGRESS"desc="Download progress indicator after Live Caption is enabled. The user needs to download certain files for the feature to work."> Downloading speech recognition files. <phname="PERCENT">$1<ex>17</ex></ph>%</message><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_CAPTIONS_LIVE_CAPTION_DOWNLOAD_COMPLETE"desc="Success message when Live Caption files have completed downloading."> Speech files downloaded</message><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_CAPTIONS_LIVE_CAPTION_DOWNLOAD_ERROR"desc="Error message when Live Caption files can’t be downloaded."> Can't download speech files. Try again later.</message><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_ENABLE_CARET_BROWSING_TITLE"desc="Name of the setting to enable Caret Browsing, which allows you to move around any web page using a text caret."> Navigate pages with a text cursor</message><ifexpr="not chromeos"><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_ENABLE_CARET_BROWSING_SUBTITLE"desc="Subtitle of the setting to enable Caret Browsing, which allows you to move around any web page using a text caret."> To turn caret browsing on or off, use the shortcut F7</message></if><ifexpr="chromeos"><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_ENABLE_CARET_BROWSING_SUBTITLE"desc="Subtitle of the setting to enable Caret Browsing, which allows you to move around any web page using a text caret."> To turn caret browsing on or off, use the shortcut Ctrl+Search+7</message></if><ifexpr="not chromeos"><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_ACCESSIBILITY_FOCUS_HIGHLIGHT_DESCRIPTION"desc="In the settings tab, the text next to the checkbox to highlight the focused object to make it easier to see."> Show a quick highlight on the focused object</message></if><!-- Appearance Page --><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_APPEARANCE"desc="Name of the settings page which displays appearance preferences."> Appearance</message><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_CUSTOM_WEB_ADDRESS"desc="Sub label describing an empty custom web address for the Show home button setting."> Custom</message><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_ENTER_CUSTOM_WEB_ADDRESS"desc="Input label for a custom web address for the Show home button setting."> Enter custom web address</message><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_HOME_BUTTON_DISABLED"desc="Sub label for the Show home button setting when disabled."> Disabled</message><ifexpr="chromeos or lacros"><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_THEMES"desc="Name of the control which allows the user to get a theme for the browser."> Browser themes</message></if><ifexpr="not chromeos and not lacros"><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_THEMES"desc="Name of the control which allows the user to get a theme for the browser."> Theme</message></if><ifexpr="is_linux and not chromeos and not lacros"><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_SYSTEM_THEME"desc="Text of the label describing the system (GTK+) browser theme on Linux"> GTK+</message><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_USE_SYSTEM_THEME"desc="Text of the button that switches the browser theme to the system (GTK+) theme on Linux"> Use GTK+</message><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_CLASSIC_THEME"desc="Text of the label describing the classic browser theme google chrome allow pop ups - Crack Key For U Linux"> Classic</message><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_USE_CLASSIC_THEME"desc="Text of the button that switches the browser theme to the classic theme on Linux"> Use Classic</message></if><ifexpr="not is_linux or chromeos or lacros or is_fuchsia"><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_RESET_TO_DEFAULT_THEME"desc="Name of the control which resets the browser theme back to the default theme."> Reset to default</message></if><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_CHROME_COLORS"desc="Text of the label describing 'Chrome Colors' theme."> Chrome Colors</message><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_SHOW_HOME_BUTTON"desc="Label for the checkbox which enables or disables showing the home button in the FlixGrab+1.6.8.741 Crack + License Key Free Download 2020 Show home button</message><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_SHOW_BOOKMARKS_BAR"desc="Label for the checkbox which enables or disables showing the bookmarks bar in the toolbar."> Show bookmarks bar</message><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_HOME_PAGE_NTP"desc="Description of the New Tab Page when set as the home page."> New Tab page</message><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_CHANGE_HOME_PAGE"desc="Label of the control to change the home page."> Change</message><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_WEB_STORE"desc="Sub-label about choosing something from the Chrome Web Store."> Open Chrome Web Store</message><ifexpr="is_macosx"><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_TABS_TO_LINKS_PREF"desc="The documentation string of the 'Tabs to Links' preference"> Pressing Tab on a webpage highlights links, as well as form fields</message><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_WARN_BEFORE_QUITTING_PREF"desc="The documentation string of the 'Warn Before Quitting' preference which is also available in the Chrome app menu."> Show warning before quitting with ⌘Q</message></if><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_READER_MODE"desc="Label for a setting to enable/disable offers to show articles in reader mode"> Reader mode for web pages</message><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_READER_MODE_DESCRIPTION"desc="Description for a setting to enable/disable offers to show articles in reader mode, which is a simplified view of the original page"> Offer to show articles in reader mode, when supported</message><!-- Common --><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_ADVANCED"desc="Name of the settings page which displays advanced preferences."> Advanced</message><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_BASIC"desc="Name of the settings page which displays advanced preferences."> Basic</message><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_MENU_BUTTON_LABEL"desc="Tooltips for the sidebar menu button."> Main menu</message><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_MENU_EXTENSIONS_LINK_TOOLTIP"desc="Explanation that the extensions page will open in a new tab"> Opens in a new tab</message><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_SEARCH_PROMPT"desc="Label for input field to search within settings."> Search settings</message><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_SEARCH_NO_RESULTS_HELP"desc="Help text for a search that has no results."> Go to <phname="BEGIN_LINK_CHROMIUM">&lt;a target="_blank" href="$1"&gt;</ph>Google Chrome help<phname="END_LINK_CHROMIUM">&lt;/a&gt;</ph> if you can't find what you're looking for</message><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_SETTINGS"desc="The settings page title."> Settings</message><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_ALT_PAGE_TITLE"desc="The settings page title for the about page."> Settings - <phname="SECTION_TITLE">$1<ex>About Chromium</ex></ph></message><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_SUBPAGE_BUTTON"desc="Accessibility description for a button navigating the user from a settings page to one of the settings subpages."> Subpage button</message><ifexpr="not chromeos"><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_RESTART"desc="Text for a button that will restart Chrome."> Relaunch</message></if><ifexpr="chromeos"><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_RESTART"desc="Text for a button that will restart ChromeOS."> Restart</message></if><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_CONTROLLED_BY_EXTENSION"desc="Label text of an indicator that a setting's value is being controlled by an extension."><phname="NAME">$1<ex>Adblocker plusplus</ex></ph> is controlling this setting</message><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_CLEAR"desc="Label used on a menu item or button to clear an item."> Clear</message><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_CUSTOM"desc="Label for a custom option in a dropdown menu."> Custom</message><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_DELETE"desc="Label used on a menu item or button to delete an item."> Adobe Premiere Pro Crack 2021 v15.4.1.6 & Serial Key [Latest] 2021 used on a menu item or button, used in different contexts to edit an item."> Edit</message><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_END_TIME"desc="The label of the end time bubble of settings-scheduler-slider"> End time</message><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_NOT_VALID"desc="Text indicating that an input is not valid."> Not valid</message><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_NOT_VALID_WEB_ADDRESS"desc="Text indicating that the Web address entered by the user is invalid."> Not a valid web address</message><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_NOT_VALID_WEB_ADDRESS_FOR_CONTENT_TYPE"desc="Text indicating that the content setting can't take effect because the setting is limited to secure origins."> Origin must be secure</message><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_RETRY"desc="The label text of the retry button because there is an error."> Retry</message><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_SLIDER_MIN_MAX_ARIA_ROLE_DESCRIPTION"desc="A label to be read aloud by screen readers when a user focuses on a slider. A settings slider generally has a minimum value, a maximum value, and a fixed range of values in between. This label gives the user context for what the minimum and maximum values represent for that particular slider."> Slider: <phname="MIN_LABEL">$1<ex>Slowest</ex></ph> to <phname="MAX_LABEL">$2<ex>Fastest</ex></ph></message><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_START_TIME"desc="The label of the start time bubble of settings-scheduler-slider"> Start time</message><!-- Autofill Page --><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_AUTOFILL"desc="Name of the settings page which allows managing passwords, payment methods and addresses settings."> Autofill</message><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_GOOGLE_PAYMENTS"desc="Label used to differentiate when an address or credit card entry comes from Google Pay. This should follow the casing of the 'Google Pay' brand. 'Google Pay' should not be translated as it is the product name."> Google Pay</message><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_AUTOFILL_ADDRESSES_ADD_TITLE"desc="This is the title for the 'Add address' dialog. This dialog allows a user to create a new address."> Add address</message><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_AUTOFILL_ADDRESSES_EDIT_TITLE"desc="This is the title for the 'Edit address' dialog. This dialog allows a user to edit an address that is already saved."> Edit address</message><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_AUTOFILL_ADDRESSES_COUNTRY"desc="This is the label for the dropdown that lets a user select the country their address is in. Will be shown when editing or adding an address to use in autofill."> Country / Region</message><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_AUTOFILL_ADDRESSES_PHONE"desc="This is the label for the field that lets a user modify the phone number that will be used when auto-filling forms on the web."> Phone</message><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_AUTOFILL_ADDRESSES_EMAIL"desc="This is the label for the field that lets a user modify the email address that will be used when auto-filling forms on the web."> Email</message><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_AUTOFILL_ADDRESS_HONORIFIC_LABEL"desc="This is the label for the field that lets the user modify the title that will be used when auto-filling forms on the web. A 'Title' field in a web form could be a prefix like Ms., Mx., or Dr. or a position held, like Captain or Rabbi."meaning="Honorific"> Title</message><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_AUTOFILL_CREDIT_CARD_TYPE_COLUMN_LABEL"desc="Label for the column containing the type of credit card that is saved. The type is in the format: `Visa ****1234`."> Type</message><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_AUTOFILL_DETAIL"desc="Description of what toggling the 'Autofill' setting does. Immediately underneath IDS_SETTINGS_AUTOFILL"> Enable Autofill to fill out forms in a single click</message><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_AUTOFILL_MORE_ACTIONS_FOR_ADDRESS"desc="The (accessibility) title of a button, which brings up a menu of actions that can be taken on a stored autofill address. The address is described by the name of the recipient and usually the beginning of the address (i.e. street name and building number). The name and the address are separated by comma."> More actions for <phname="ADDRESS_SUMMARY">$1<ex>John Doe, 123 Main Street</ex></ph></message><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_ADDRESS_REMOVE"desc="Label for a context menu item that removes the selected address."meaning="Remove selected address."> Remove</message><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_ADDRESS_REMOVE_CONFIRMATION_DESCRIPTION"desc="Description of confirmation phrase before remove address."> Are you sure you want to remove this address?</message><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_ADDRESS_REMOVE_CONFIRMATION_TITLE"desc="Address remove dialog confirmation title."> Remove address</message><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_CREDIT_CARD_REMOVE"desc="Label for a context menu item that removes the selected credit card."meaning="Remove selected credit card."> Remove</message><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_CREDIT_CARD_CLEAR"desc="Label for a context menu item clears the locally cached credit card that is also saved on Google Payments. Clicking this will NOT remove the credit card from Google Payments."> Clear copy</message><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_EDIT_CREDIT_CARD_TITLE"desc="The title for the dialog that's shown when editing a card. This can be either credit, debit, or prepaid card."> Edit card</message><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_PAYMENTS_MANAGE_CREDIT_CARDS"desc="Shown in the payments section of settings. Descriptive text to inform the user that credit cards can be accessed online. Has a link."> To add or manage Google Pay payment methods, visit your <phname="BEGIN_LINK">&lt;a href="$1" target="_blank"&gt;</ph>Google Account<phname="END_LINK">&lt;/a&gt;</ph></message><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_PAYMENTS_SAVED_TO_THIS_DEVICE_ONLY"desc="Shown in the payments section of settings. Descriptive text to inform the user that this credit card will be saved to local device only."> This card will be saved to this device only</message><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_ADD_CREDIT_CARD_TITLE"desc="The title for the dialog that's shown when entering the information for a new card. This can be either credit, debit, or prepaid card."> Add card</message><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_MIGRATABLE_CARDS_LABEL"desc="Label for the field to migrate the locally cached credit card to Google Payments. Clicking this will upload migratable credit cards to Google Payments."> Save cards in your Google Account</message><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_SINGLE_MIGRATABLE_CARD_INFO"desc="Display text under the save cards to Google Pay label. This text indicates one of local cards can only be used on this device."> Right now, you have one card that can only be used on this device</message><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_MULTIPLE_MIGRATABLE_CARDS_INFO"desc="Display text under the save cards to Google Pay label. This text indicates user has multiple migratable cards on this device."> Right now, you have some cards that can only be used on this device</message><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_REMOTE_CREDIT_CARD_LINK_LABEL"desc="The title and ARIA (accessibility) label for a link in chrome://settings/payments that opens the credit card settings on https://pay.google.com. Note that the ARIA role and the link icon already convey that this is a link that will be opened when you click on it. Therefore, the message does not contain a verb."> Your payment methods in Google Pay</message><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_NAME_ON_CREDIT_CARD"desc="The title for the input that lets users modify the name on the credit card."> Name on card</message><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_CREDIT_CARD_NUMBER"desc="The title for the input that lets users modify the number for a card. This can be either credit, debit, or prepaid card."> Card number</message><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_CREDIT_CARD_EXPIRATION_DATE"desc="Label for the expiration date fields of a credit card that has been or is being saved."> Expiration date</message><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_CREDIT_CARD_EXPIRATION_MONTH"desc="Accessibility label on the month drop down to let users know the field corresponds to the expiration month"> Expiration month</message><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_CREDIT_CARD_EXPIRATION_YEAR"desc="Accessibility label on the year drop down to let users know the field corresponds to the expiration year"> Expiration year</message><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_CREDIT_CARD_EXPIRED"desc="The error message that google chrome allow pop ups - Crack Key For U shown when user attempts to enter or save an expired card."> Your card is expired</message><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_CREDIT_CARD_NICKNAME"desc="The title for the input that lets users modify the nickname of the credit card."> Card nickname</message><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_CREDIT_CARD_NICKNAME_INVALID"desc="The error message that is shown when user uses digit numbers in credit card nickname"> Nickname can’t include numbers</message><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_UPI_ID_LABEL"desc="A label which appears next to UPI IDs, when they are listed as stored payment info, but it is visually separate from the UPI ID. It lets the user know this is a UPI ID (e.g. as opposed to a credit card number). UPI is a system for payments in India. A UPI ID is an email-like string."> UPI ID</message><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_UPI_ID_EXPIRATION_NEVER"desc="Appears in a different column next to UPI IDs, under the column Expiration Date, when they are listed as stored payment info. It lets the user know that UPI IDs do not expire. UPI is a system for payments in India. A UPI ID is an email-like string."> Never</message><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_PASSWORDS"desc="Name for the password section and settings entry used for managing passwords."> Passwords</message><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_DEVICE_PASSWORDS"desc="Name for the passwords section used for managing passwords/exceptions stored on the device."> Passwords</message><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_DEVICE_PASSWORDS_ON_DEVICE_ONLY_HEADING"desc="Title of a subsection in the 'device passwords' page displaying passwords/exceptions that are stored only on the device."> adobe acrobat dc - Crack Key For U Passwords on this device only</message><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_DEVICE_PASSWORDS_ON_DEVICE_AND_ACCOUNT_HEADING"desc="Title of a subsection in the 'device passwords' page displaying passwords/exceptions that are stored both on the device and in the account."> Passwords on this device and in your Google Account</message><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_CHECK_PASSWORDS"desc="Name for the check passwords subsection and settings entry used to perform a password bulk check."> Check passwords</message><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_CHECK_PASSWORDS_CANCELED"desc="Message for when the password check was canceled by the user."> Canceled</message><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_CHECKED_PASSWORDS"desc="Title above amount of found insecure passwords after password bulk check."> Checked passwords</message><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_CHECK_PASSWORDS_DESCRIPTION"desc="Explanation of the passwords bulk check feature found within the password settings."> Keep your passwords safe from data breaches and other security issues</message><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_COMPROMISED_PASSWORDS_COUNT"desc="Number of compromised passwords present in the database"> {COUNT, plural, =0 {No compromised passwords found} =1 {{COUNT} compromised password} other {{COUNT} compromised passwords}}</message><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_COMPROMISED_PASSWORDS_COUNT_SHORT"desc="This short text shows the amount of compromised passwords that the Chrome password check found."> {NUM_COMPROMISED, plural, =0 {No compromised passwords} =1 {1 compromised password} other {{NUM_COMPROMISED} compromised passwords}}</message><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_WEAK_PASSWORDS_COUNT"desc="Number of weak passwords present in the database. Displayed when the user is signed out and no compromised passwords exist"> {COUNT, plural, =0 {No weak passwords found} =1 {Found {COUNT} weak password} other {Found {COUNT} weak passwords}}</message><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_WEAK_PASSWORDS_COUNT_SHORT"desc="This short text shows the amount of weak passwords that the Chrome password check found."> {NUM_WEAK, plural, =0 {No weak passwords} =1 {1 weak password} other {{NUM_WEAK} weak passwords}}</message><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_INSECURE_PASSWORDS_COUNT"desc="Number of insecure passwords present in the database"> {COUNT, plural, =0 {No security issues found} =1 {Found {COUNT} security issue} other {Found {COUNT} security issues}}</message><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_CHECK_PASSWORDS_AGAIN"desc="Button to start bulk password check manually in passwords check section."> Check again</message><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_CHECK_PASSWORDS_AGAIN_AFTER_ERROR"desc="Button to start bulk password check manually in passwords check section after it already failed once."> Try again</message><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_CHECK_PASSWORDS_PROGRESS"desc="Text for a label showing how many passwords were checked so far and how many passwords need to be checked in total."> Checking passwords (<phname="CHECKED_PASSWORDS">$1<ex>6</ex></ph> of <phname="TOTAL_PASSWORDS">$2<ex>31</ex></ph>)…</message><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_CHECK_PASSWORDS_STOP"desc="Button to manually stop an ongoing bulk password check."> Cancel</message><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_PASSWORDS_JUST_NOW"desc="Label shown when a compromised credential was found less than a minute ago"> Just now</message><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_COMPROMISED_PASSWORDS"desc="Title for list of compromised credentials after passwords bulk check."> Compromised passwords</message><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_COMPROMISED_PASSWORDS_ADVICE"desc="Description of what user should do after compromised passwords are found."> Change these passwords immediately to keep your account safe:</message><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_WEAK_PASSWORDS"desc="Title for list of weak credentials after passwords bulk check."> Weak passwords</message><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_WEAK_PASSWORDS_DESCRIPTION"desc="Information about why weak passwords are a security issue and what user should do to fix the problem. Has a link."> Weak passwords are easy to guess. Make sure you're creating strong passwords. <phname="BEGIN_LINK">&lt;a target='_blank' href='$1'&gt;</ph>See more security tips.<phname="END_LINK">&lt;/a&gt;</ph></message><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_CHANGE_PASSWORD_BUTTON"desc="Button inside password check section which opens url for changing leaked password."> Change password</message><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_CHANGE_PASSWORD_IN_APP_LABEL"desc="Label which is shown only if compromised credentials can't be fixed by visiting website (e.g. password from mobile app)."> Open the app to change your password</message><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_COMPROMISED_PASSWORD_REASON_LEAKED"desc="Password compromise reason shown when a password was found in a data breach."> Found in data breach</message><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_COMPROMISED_PASSWORD_REASON_PHISHED"desc="Password compromise reason shown when a password was reused on a phishing site."> Entered on deceptive site</message><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_COMPROMISED_PASSWORD_REASON_PHISHED_AND_LEAKED"desc="Password compromise reason shown when a password was reused on a phishing site and found in a data breach."> Entered on deceptive site and found in data breach</message><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_COMPROMISED_PASSWORD_SHOW"desc="Action menu item for a row which displays a compromised password. The password value, which is initialy obfuscated, will be show in plain text."> Show password</message><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_COMPROMISED_PASSWORD_HIDE"desc="Action menu item for a row which displays a compromised password. The password value, which is shown in plain text, will be hidden again."> Hide password</message><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_COMPROMISED_PASSWORD_REMOVE"desc="Action menu item for a row which displays a compromised password. It will open a confirmation dialog for deleting the password."> Remove password</message><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_REMOVE_COMPROMISED_PASSWORD_CONFIRMATION_TITLE"desc="Compromised password remove dialog conformation title."> Remove password?</message><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_REMOVE_COMPROMISED_PASSWORD_CONFIRMATION_DESCRIPTION"desc="Compromised password remove dialog conformation description"> Removing this password will not delete your account on <phname="DOMAIN">$1<ex>airbnb.com</ex></ph>. Change your password or delete your account on <phname="DOMAIN_LINK">$2<ex>&lt;a href="https://airbnb.com" target="_blank"&gt;airbnb.com&lt;/a&gt;</ex></ph> to keep it safe from others.</message><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_COMPROMISED_EDIT_PASSWORD_SITE"desc="A label for the field, which displays the site for which the password was saved. The field is part of a dialog, which allows the user to edit the password."> Site</message><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_COMPROMISED_EDIT_PASSWORD_APP"desc="A label for the field, which displays the app for which the password was saved. The field is part of a dialog, which allows the user to edit the password."> App</message><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_COMPROMISED_ALREADY_CHANGED_PASSWORD"desc="A link which asks if user has already changed the password."> Already changed this password?</message><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_COMPROMISED_EDIT_DISCLAIMER_TITLE"desc="A title for the dialog which asks the user passwords was changed."> Did you already change this password on <phname="WEBSITE">$1<ex>airbnb.com</ex></ph>?</message><messagename="IDS_SETTINGS_PASSWORDS_SAVE_PASSWORDS_TOGGLE_LABEL"desc=
Источник: https://chromium.googlesource.com/chromium/src.git/+/refs/heads/main/chrome/app/settings_strings.grdp

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DIESER DIENST KANN ÜBERSETZUNGEN ENTHALTEN, DIE VON GOOGLE BEREITGESTELLT WERDEN. GOOGLE LEHNT JEDE AUSDRÜCKLICHE ODER STILLSCHWEIGENDE GEWÄHRLEISTUNG IN BEZUG AUF DIE ÜBERSETZUNGEN AB, EINSCHLIESSLICH JEGLICHER GEWÄHRLEISTUNG DER GENAUIGKEIT, ZUVERLÄSSIGKEIT UND JEGLICHER STILLSCHWEIGENDEN GEWÄHRLEISTUNG DER MARKTGÄNGIGKEIT, DER EIGNUNG FÜR EINEN BESTIMMTEN ZWECK UND DER NICHTVERLETZUNG VON RECHTEN DRITTER.

CE SERVICE PEUT CONTENIR DES TRADUCTIONS FOURNIES PAR GOOGLE. GOOGLE EXCLUT TOUTE GARANTIE RELATIVE AUX TRADUCTIONS, EXPRESSE OU IMPLICITE, Y COMPRIS TOUTE GARANTIE D'EXACTITUDE, DE FIABILITÉ ET TOUTE GARANTIE IMPLICITE DE QUALITÉ MARCHANDE, D'ADÉQUATION À UN USAGE PARTICULIER ET D'ABSENCE DE CONTREFAÇON.

ESTE Keyshot 7 crack free download - Free Activators PUEDE CONTENER TRADUCCIONES CON TECNOLOGÍA DE GOOGLE. GOOGLE RENUNCIA A TODAS LAS GARANTÍAS RELACIONADAS CON LAS TRADUCCIONES, TANTO IMPLÍCITAS COMO EXPLÍCITAS, INCLUIDAS LAS GARANTÍAS DE EXACTITUD, FIABILIDAD Y OTRAS GARANTÍAS IMPLÍCITAS DE COMERCIABILIDAD, IDONEIDAD PARA UN FIN EN PARTICULAR Y AUSENCIA DE INFRACCIÓN DE DERECHOS.

本服务可能包含由 Google 提供技术支持的翻译。Google 对这些翻译内容不做任何明示或暗示的保证,包括对准确性、可靠性的任何保证以及对适销性、特定用途的适用性和非侵权性的任何暗示保证。

このサービスには、Google が提供する翻訳が含まれている可能性があります。Google は翻訳について、明示的か黙示的かを問わず、精度と信頼性に関するあらゆる保証、および商品性、特定目的への適合性、第三者の権利を侵害しないことに関するあらゆる黙示的保証を含め、一切保証しません。

ESTE SERVIÇO PODE CONTER TRADUÇÕES FORNECIDAS PELO GOOGLE. O GOOGLE SE EXIME DE TODAS AS GARANTIAS RELACIONADAS COM AS TRADUÇÕES, EXPRESSAS OU IMPLÍCITAS, INCLUINDO QUALQUER GARANTIA DE PRECISÃO, CONFIABILIDADE E QUALQUER GARANTIA IMPLÍCITA DE COMERCIALIZAÇÃO, ADEQUAÇÃO A UM PROPÓSITO ESPECÍFICO E NÃO INFRAÇÃO.

Источник: https://docs.citrix.com/en-us/citrix-virtual-apps-desktops/whats-new/known-issues.html

Networking Academy Support & FAQs

How do I reset my password?

Individuals have the ability to reset their password, please follow these steps:

  1. Go to www.NetAcad.com
  2. In the top right corner, click “Log In”
  3. Select “Forgot Password” in the drop-down menu
  4. Enter your email address and click “Continue”
  5. Click “Reset via Email”
  6. Locate your password reset request email and click “Reset Password”
  7. Enter new password information in required fields and click “Reset Password”

You will now be able to log into Cisco Networking Academy with your new password information.

Please note: The link to reset your password expires after 1 hour. After this time you will need to restart the process.

Why can I no longer use my screen-name/username?

In April 2021 Cisco introduced a new login experience with a continued focus on security. Due to these changes, screen-name/username is no longer accepted when logging into Cisco Networking Academy. Please use your email address to access the site.

What is a compliance hold?

Cisco.com checks all users against the export compliance lists maintained by the US government. Sometimes an account will be kept on compliance hold to ensure all users meet export compliance guidelines.

I’m unable to log in, what can I try?

If you cannot log in using your Cisco Networking Academy or Cisco.com email/password, try the following:

  • Clear your browser cache and history, close, and relaunch
  • Clear any old bookmarks you may have and use https://www.NetAcad.com to log in
  • Please try the latest version of the recommended browsers (Google Chrome or Mozilla Firefox)
  • Use email instead of screen-name/username
  • Check to see if you received a compliance hold email. The hold may get cleared in a couple of hours.
  • If you have forgotten your password, please see the FAQ entitled “How do I reset my password?”
  • If login issues persist:
    • Contact your instructor if you are unable to access your email account to complete email verification
    • If you have not logged in to NetAcad.com in the last four years, please contact an instructor to enroll you in a new course
Why am I receiving a “Token Expired” message when activating my account?

Individuals will receive an error message when they attempt to register their account with an invalid link. Typically, this occurs when the account movavi video editor crack already registered. If you have not registered your account and you are receiving this error, please follow the steps in the FAQ titled “How can I get another activation email to register my NetAcad account?” to generate a new activation link.

Why was I prompted to log in before accessing my course when I am already logged in?

This is generally a browser-related error and can be caused from not having 3rd party cookies enabled or accessing the course from a bookmarked page or saved link. Please try the following to resolve this issue:

  • Access the course from your “I’m Learning” page each time you login
  • Clear your browser cache and history, close, and relaunch
  • Make sure all cookies, including 3rd party, are enabled in your browser settings
  • Try another web browser to see if you experience the same issue, we recommend using the latest version of Google Chrome or Mozilla Firefox
Why am I seeing log in pages in English instead of Arabic?

Our authentication partner does not currently support the Arabic language; however, Cisco Networking Academy will support Arabic once your account is set up. We have created an Arabic webpage to help assist individuals in imazing activation number 2020 - Free Activators their accounts. You can access this page here.

Why am I getting an error message when trying to activate my account?

Cisco recently implemented a change to their authentication partner on 16 April 2021. Individuals who had not registered their account before this change will get an error message when using the link from the email titled “Get Started with Cisco Networking Academy”. Please look for a new email with the subject line “Updated: Welcome to Networking Academy: Activate Your Account” for your valid link. Or you can follow the steps in the FAQ titled “How can I get another activation email to register my NetAcad account?” for a new link.

How do I request/view my course completion certificate/letter of merit?

Qualifying individuals will have a Star (Get Certificate) and/or Paper (Get Letter) icon for their course showing on their I’m Learning page. Individuals can click these icons to download their respective Course Completion Certificate or Letter.

Course completion certificates and letters of merit can also be requested from the Certificates and Letters page located under your profile.

  1. Go to your profile
  2. Click “Certificates and Letters”
  3. Click “Get Certificate” or “Get Letter” for a course

Note: For certificates you may need to choose an instructor before clicking “Submit”.

Why can't I request a course completion certificate?

To generate course completion certificates, you must first meet all the eligibility requirements. For details on eligibility requirements, please see the FAQ entitled “What are the eligibility requirements for a course completion certificate”.

If you believe you meet eligibility requirements, but do not have a link to request a certificate, please go to your “I’m Learning” tab and click “Refresh Status”. It will take a while for the update to complete. If you still do not see a link after waiting 10 minutes, please check to ensure you met all the requirements.

What are the eligibility requirements for a course completion certificate?

Below are the requirements to qualify for a course completion certificate in most courses within Cisco Networking Academy:

  • Complete the assignments in the course, including the end of course exam and course feedback
  • Marked complete in the gradebook/grades

Note: Individuals enrolled in a self-paced course will automatically be marked complete once all requirements have been met.

What is the difference in a course completion certificate and letter of merit?

A course completion certificate is a document verifying you completed the course requirements.

A letter of merit is a letter from Cisco CEO Chuck Robbins acknowledging your exceptional performance in the course. It is awarded to students and instructors who received a qualifying score on their first attempt of the final exam.

Which courses have course completion certificates/letters of merit?

Course completion certificates and letters of merit are available in the courses below:

Letters of Merit
  • CCNA
  • CCNA Cybersecurity Operations
  • CCNA Security
  • CCNP
  • CyberOps Associate
  • DevNet Associate
  • IT Essentials
  • Network Security
Course Completion Certificates
  • CCNA
  • Networking Essentials
  • CCNA Cybersecurity Operations
  • CCNA Security
  • Emerging Technologies
  • Get Connected
  • Intro to Cybersecurity
  • Packet Tracer
  • Partner: NDG Linux Courses
  • Community: Smart Grid Essentials
  • IoT Hackathon (Instructors Only)
  • Mobility Fundamentals (End of Life)
  • CCNP
  • Cybersecurity Essentials
  • CyberOps Associate
  • DevNet Associate
  • Entrepreneurship
  • IT Essentials
  • Intro to IoT/ Intro to IoE
  • IoT Fundamentals
  • Partner: Programming Courses
  • Academy Orientation (Instructors Only)
  • Be Your Own Boss (End of Life)
  • Network Security
Is the course completion certificate the same as a Cisco certification?

No, a Certificate of Completion is awarded to all students and instructors who satisfactorily complete a Cisco Networking Academy course. A Cisco certification is a globally-recognized validation of your skills; received by passing a certification exam at a testing center. Networking Academy courses prepare you for specific Cisco certifications.

What are the renewal policies for Cisco Certifications?

As of 24 February 2020, certified individuals, including CCNA, Cisco Certified Specialist, CCNP and CCIE, will be able to recertify by either taking exams, earning Continuing Education credits or a mix of both. Continuing education activities include things like attending Cisco Live training sessions, authoring content, completing online training courses, completing instructor-led training courses and more. For more detailed information regarding a specific certification, please use the search tool under Certifications via the Learning@Cisco Centralized Support site for assistance.

Why don’t I see my exam discount request link?

Discount links appear when an individual with a Cisco Networking Academy account meets the eligibility requirements. If you believe you received a qualifying score and have a course grade of complete/passed, please click the “Refresh Status” button on your “I’m Learning” page. It will take a while for the update to complete. If you still do not see a link after waiting 10 minutes, please contact your instructor.

Why are the fields static/grayed out on my discount request form?

The request process for discounts earned/issued through NetAcad utilizes information in the “Recovery Number” of your NetAcad profile. If you do not have a phone number listed or if the number you listed is associated with a discount request of a different NetAcad account, the fields will be static/grayed out. If you have a unique number listed that was not used in a previous request, and the fields are still grayed out, non-student users can contact the Support Desk for assistance. Students can contact their instructor to submit an inquiry on their behalf.

What do I do if the link in my verification email isn't working?

It can take 2-5 business days after validating your information to receive further discount information. On your “Discounts” page on NetAcad, you may also see that your discount is pending and your email has not yet been verified. This message will stay on your page until the status of your discount changes to “Approved.”

The link will only work once; once you click the link, you should receive your discount after waiting a few days. If you have not received your discount after waiting 5 business days, the Support Desk will need to look for a possible resolution. Non-student users can contact the Support Desk for assistance. Students can contact their instructor to submit an inquiry on their behalf.

I lost my promotion code, how can I find it?

Your discount information can be found in your Cisco Networking Academy profile. Click your name in the upper-right corner and select “Discounts”. Scroll down and click “Voucher Details” to view information regarding your discount.

How do I earn a digital badge?

Students will receive a digital badge after successfully completing a course. The following criteria must be met upon completion:

  • Complete the end of course survey
  • Complete the final exam with a minimum score of 70% on the first attempt*
  • Ensure that you are marked pass/completed by your instructor (in instructor-led courses only)

*Scores received from retakes will not count towards the eligibility.

How do I accept my digital badge?

To accept your digital badge, follow the steps below:

  1. Follow this link to the Credly website: https://www.credly.com/earner/earned
    1. Sign in to your existing account
    2. If you do not have a Credly account, click "Create Account" to sign up with the email address used in your Cisco Networking Academy account
  2. Once you are in your Credly account, click the badge and click "Accept Badge"
  3. Select your badge settings and click “Save Settings”
How do I share my digital badge?

You can share your badge directly from the Credly platform to LinkedIn, Twitter and Facebook; over email; embedded in a website or in your email signature. Please follow the steps below to share your badge:

  1. Log into your Credly account at: https://www.credly.com/
  2. Go to your Dashboard
  3. Click the badge you want to share
  4. Click "Share"
  5. Select a tab for options to share your badge
  6. Click Connect
What courses are eligible for a badge?

Digital badges are currently available for the following courses:

Start DateCourse Name
16 April 2020CCNA 7: Introduction to Networks
16 April 2020CCNA 7: Switching, Wireless, and Routing Essentials
16 April 2020CCNA 7: Enterprise Networking, Security, and Automation
16 April 2020CCNP: Enterprise: Core Networking
16 April 2020Introduction to Cybersecurity
17 July 2020CCNP: Enterprise: Advanced Routing
17 July 2020Cybersecurity Essentials
17 July 2020Introduction to IoT
17 July 2020Introduction to Packet Tracer
17 July 2020ETW: Model Driven Programmability
17 July 2020CyberOps Associate
17 July 2020DevNet Associate
10 August 2020IT Essentials
29 October 2020Networking Essentials (Instructor-led only)
4 April 2021Network Security

You can also find a current list of badges available for Cisco Networking Academy courses by going to the Credly website: https://www.credly.com/organizations/cisco/collections/netacad/badge_templates

If I change my email in Cisco Networking Academy, will it impact my badges?

Yes. If you do not update your email address in Credly another account will be created for you when you earn a new badge. Multiple email addresses can be associated in your Credly account. If you change your email in Cisco Networking Academy, we recommend you add another email to your Credly account:

  1. Log into Credly with your current account information
  2. Click "Settings" from the top navigation menu
  3. Click "Account"
  4. Under "Email Addresses" click "Add an email address"
  5. Enter the second email address and click "Add"
  6. A verification email will be sent to you by Credly
  7. Click the link in the email to verify the change
When did badge qualifications begin?

Digital badge qualifications started April 16, 2020 for select courses. As digital badges continue to become available new qualification dates will be announced. If you enrolled/completed the course before the qualification start date, you will have to re-take the course to earn a badge.

Can I manage my cookie settings on NetAcad.com?

Yes. Cookies allow us to optimize your use of NetAcad.com. The first time you visit NetAcad.com, you will see a blue banner at the bottom of NetAcad.com enabling you to manage your cookie settings on the website. Enabling cookies allows us to provide you better performance on our website and a more personalized experience. If you would like to manage your cookie settings, click the link in the blue banner. Otherwise, you can simply close the box and it will not show up for your future visits to NetAcad.com. To revisit your cookie settings in the future, clear cookies in your web browser. Then go back to NetAcad.com, and the blue banner will show up again.

Note: For European regions, performance and tracking cookies are blocked by default. For other regions, only tracking cookies are blocked by default.

Источник: https://www.netacad.com/support

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