Oct 02 2012

airflow wiki  - Crack Key For U

Some people have had pipes crack after this treatment, article for The Pipe Collector called Airflow: The Key to Smoking Pleasure. Important note: Due to the way Airflow manages DAGs, the callables passed to the Lithops operators can not be declared in the DAG definition script. supersonic jet speed in km.

Airflow wiki - Crack Key For U -

./hashcat.bin -m 2500 -w 3 test.hccapx

In case you want to crack fast hashes you need to add an amplifier to archieve full speed:

$ ./pp64.bin rockyou.txt sponge rockyou.txt.iso

When using Brute Force, if you're fine to stick to ISO/codepage encodings there are special hashcat charsets that can be found in the charset/ folder:

. ./special ./special/Slovak ./special/Slovak/sk_cp1250-special.hcchr ./special/Slovak/sk_ISO-8859-2-special.hcchr ... etc

Note: hashcat charset files (.hcchr) can be used like any other custom charsets (--custom-charset1, --custom-charset2, --custom-charset3, --custom-charset4).

But note, nowadays a lot of sources use utf-8. This makes things a bit more complicated.

Here's a nice blog-post of how to deal with utf-8 and utf-16 with hashcat legacy and hashcat: http://blog.bitcrack.net/2013/09/cracking-hashes-with-other-language.html

Most of this is about using --hex-charset or --hex-salt were you can define everything in hex. In the end, all character encodings will fall to this.

Unfortunately there is no bullet-proofed way to know if a specific hash (or hash list) uses a specific encoding. The most straight-forward way would be to just try and crack some hashes with the encoding you think is most likely. But this could fail of course when you try with a very “different” encoding. To see if hashcat does indeed run the correct password candidates you want it to run, you can just create some example hashes and try to crack them with for instance a Dictionary-Attack or with a mask attack by using .hcchr files or --hex-charset.

Why should I use a mask attack? I just want to "brute" these hashes!

Read Mask attack. A mask attack is a modern and more advanced form of “brute force”.

It can fully replace brute force, and at the same time mask attacks are more flexible and more capable than traditional brute force attacks.

The general options you should consider/need are:

  1. --increment (optional): specifies that the length of the password candidates shouldn't be fixed, but increase in length

  2. --increment-min (optional): the minimum length for --increment (if --increment is used but --increment-min was not set, it defaults to 1)

  3. --increment-max (optional): the maximum length for --increment (if --increment is used but --increment-max was not set, it defaults to the length specified by the mask, see #4)

  4. --custom-charset1 (-1), --custom-charset2 (-2), --custom-charset3 (-3), --custom-charset4 (-4) (all optional): you can define custom charsets e.g. all lower letters together with all upper letters, plus all digits: --custom-charset1 ?u?l?d (Attention: this is just the definition of a custom charset, you need to use these custom charset definitions within the mask)

  5. mask (required): specifies the charsets (could be built-in or custom ones) and implicitly also the maximum length of the password candidates. If --increment option is not used, it specifies the fixed length (because min and max length would be set to the length implied directly from the mask length itself)

An example command would therefore look something like this:

$ ./hashcat.bin -m 0 -a 3 --increment --increment-min 4 --increment-max 6 hash.txt ?a?a?a?a?a?a?a?a


  • -m 0: we set the hash type to MD5 (see Example hashes)

  • -a 3: set the attack mode to mask attack (see Mask attack)

  • --increment: enable incremental mode (see #1 above)

  • --increment-min 4: set the minimum length of the password candidates to 4 (in this case)

  • --increment-max 6: set the maximum length of the password candidates to 6 (in this case)

  • ?a?a?a?a?a?a?a?a: the mask is a 8 character long string of the built-in charset ?a (“all”, which includes lower and upper case characters, digits and special characters)

Note that even if the mask is of length 8 in this particular example the passwords candidates are limited by --increment-min and --increment-max and hence are of length 4 to 6.

If --increment-max 6 was not specified, the maximum length would be implicitly set to 8 since the mask itself is of length 8.

I do not know the password length, how can I increment the length of the password candidates?

You can use --increment (or short -i), --increment-min and --increment-max.

Make sure that the mask (which should always be set, is required) is at least the same length of the --increment-max value or the maximum password candidate length you want to try (if --increment-max was not specified).
By the way, the value for --increment-max should also not be greater than the length of the mask, i.e. the main limiting factor is the mask length, after that --increment-max, if specified, will further limit the length of the password candidates.

  • Examples of correct commands:

./hashcat.bin -m 0 -a 3 -1 ?d?l --increment --increment-min 5 md5_hash.txt ?1?1?1?1?1?1?1?1

Note: the limiting length is set by the mask (?1?1?1?1?1?1?1?1). Therefore you can think of this command as if there was an automatically added --increment-max 8. This means you do not need to specify --increment-max 8 if it can be automatically determinate by the mask length.

./hashcat.bin -m 0 -a 3 -i --increment-min 2 --increment-max 6 md5_hash.txt ?a?a?a?a?a?a?a?a

Note: here --increment-max was indeed set to a value less than the mask length. This makes sense in some cases were you do not want to change the mask itself, i.e. leave the 8 position long mask as it was (?a?a?a?a?a?a?a?a).

./hashcat.bin -m 0 -a 3 -i --increment-min 6 --increment-max 8 md5_hash.txt ?a?a?a?a?a?a?a?a

Note: it is even possible to set the --increment-max value to the same length of the mask even if the --increment-max value would be implied anyway by the mask length.

./hashcat.bin -m 0 -a 3 -i --increment-max 6 md5_hash.txt ?l?l?l?l?l?l?l?l?l?l

Note: also --increment-min must not necessarily be set, if skipped it will start with length 1 (and if --weak-hash-threshold 0 was not set it will even start with length 0).

  • Examples of incorrect commands and reasons why they are incorrect:

Attention: these are commands that should not be used, they do not work (there only purpose is to show you what is not accepted)

./hashcat.bin -m 0 -a 3 --increment --increment-max 8 md5_hash.txt ?a

Note: this is the most common user error, i.e. the user did not understand that the winning limiting factor is always the mask length (here length 1). Even if --increment-max 8 was specified, the mask is too short and therefore hashcat can't increment that mask. The reason why is simple: mask attack is a per-position attack, each position can have its own charset. There is a strict requirement that the user specifies the charset for each position. If the custom or built-in charset was not specified for the (next) position, hashcat can not know what should be use as a charset and hence stops at the position where it was still clear what charset should be used (in this example it is length 1). The decision to stop and to refrain to imply charsets is made by the developers on purpose because otherwise (if hashcat would silently and magically determine a “next implied charset”) there could be strange errors and unexpected behavior.

./hashcat.bin -m 0 -a 3 --increment --increment-min 2 --increment-max 3 md5_hash.txt ?a

Note: also here the value of --increment-max is not within the length of the mask. In addition, also --increment-min is incorrect here because its value is outside of the bounds too.

./hashcat.bin -m 0 -a 3 --increment --increment-min 6 --increment-max 10 md5_hash.txt ?a?a?a?a?a?a?a?a

Note: always make sure that the length of the mask (in this case ?a?a?a?a?a?a?a?a) is long enough, in this case it must be at least of length 10 (it is ?a?a?a?a?a?a?a?a?a?a).

./hashcat.bin -m 0 -a 3 --increment --increment-min 4 --increment-max 3 md5_hash.txt ?a?a?a?a?a?a?a?a

Note: the value of --increment-min must always be less or equal to the value of --increment-max. This is not satisfied here since 4 > 3.

For more details about mask attack see Why should I use a mask attack? I just want to "brute" these hashes!

I want to optimize my Brute-Force attack by ordering letters by frequency in a custom charset. How to do it? Does it make sense?

That's clever, however note that hashcat uses markov-chain like optimizations which are (in theory) more efficient. You need to disable this feature to force hashcat to accept your special ordering. This can be done using --markov-disable parameter.

I want to use rules, but there are three different parameters. When do I use -r, -j and -k?

For the majority of times using “-r rulefile” is the one you want. It is used in a straight attack -a0 to manipulate a dictionary and will load one or more rule files containing multiple rulesets.

If you are using combinator or hybrid attacks you can use -j and -k to manipulate either the left or the right side of the input.

For example a combinator attack that toggles the first character of every input from the leftside.txt:

$ ./hashcat.bin -a 1 example0.hash leftside.txt rigthside.txt -j T0

How does one use several rules at once?

Firstly, we need to distinguish 2 different cases:

  1. the rules you want to use should be applied: independently from each other, not chained/concatenated, but applied one after the other

  2. the rules you want to use should be applied: together as if they were (previously) combined with combinator.bin, e.g. all rules from the first .rule file are combined with all rules from the second .rule file

For case number 1 you can just “cat” the individual files

Note: it would be better to use some kind of duplicate removal instead, e.g. sort -u, but note also that sort -u does not necessarily remove all duplicates since the rule syntax allows for extra spaces and furthermore a set of 2 different rules may lead to similar or identical plains in some or all situations because it is possible that combination of different rules could be considered as identical even if they are not identical when comparing the rule “text”/strings.

The following description will deal only with case number 2 (the rules should be chained, applied at the same time).

hashcat allows for rule stacking. This can easily be achieved just by appending more rule files to your attack.

Note: hashcat legacy does not support stacking. Only a single -r parameter is permitted.

$ ./hashcat.bin -a 0 -m 0 -r rules/best64.rule -r rules/toggles2.rule hashlist.txt dict.txt

Note: depending on the rules themselves, the order of the different -r arguments might be very important. You may need to double-check which -r parameter is the first one on the command line (this will be applied first), which should be the second one (this will be applied next), etc …

OK, there is a hybrid attack for append mask and prepend mask, but what if I want to use both at the same time?

To do this, you can use the rule-stacking feature of hashcat: How does one use several rules at once?

For example, if you want to do something like ?d?dword?d?d, that is two digits both appended and prepended you can do the following:

$ ./hashcat.bin hash.txt wordlist.txt -r rules/hybrid/append_d.rule -r rules/hybrid/append_d.rule -r rules/hybrid/prepend_d.rule -r rules/hybrid/prepend_d.rule

Such rules exist for all the common charsets.

You can easily create your own hybrid rules using maskproessor: rules_with_maskprocessor

When I use --increment in hybrid attack how does that work?

Given an attack

$ ./hashcat.bin -a 6 example0.hash example.dict ?a?a?a?a?a --increment

Hashcat iterates through the given mask until the full length is reached.

Input.Left.....: File (example.dict) Input.Right....: Mask (?a) [1] Hash.Target....: File (example0.hash)Input.Left.....: File (example.dict) Input.Right....: Mask (?a?a) [2] Hash.Target....: File (example0.hash)Input.Left.....: File (example.dict) Input.Right....: Mask (?a?a?a) [3] Hash.Target....: File (example0.hash)Input.Left.....: File (example.dict) Input.Right....: Mask (?a?a?a?a) [4] Hash.Target....: File (example0.hash)Input.Left.....: File (example.dict) Input.Right....: Mask (?a?a?a?a?a) [5] Hash.Target....: File (example0.hash)

For more details about mask attack see Why should I use a mask attack? I just want to "brute" these hashes!

How to use multiple dictionaries?

If you use hashcat with a Dictionary attack (-a 0) you can specify several dictionaries on the command line like this:

$ ./hashcat.bin -m 0 -a 0 hash.txt dict1.txt dict2.txt dict3.txt

This list of wordlist is currently only allowed with -a 0 parameter. Note that this also works with so-called globbing (of shell parameters and in this case paths/file names), since your operating system/the shell expands the command lines to (among others) full file paths:

$ ./hashcat.bin -m 0 -a 0 hash.txt ../my_files/*.dict

Furthermore, if you want to specify a directory directly instead, you could simply specify the path to the directory on the command line:

$ ./hashcat.bin -m 0 -a 0 hash.txt wordlists

Note: sometimes it makes sense to do some preparation of the input you want to use for hashcat (outside of hashcat). For instance, it sometimes makes sense to sort and unique the words across several dictionaries if you think there might be several “duplicates”:

$ sort -u -o dict_sorted_uniqued.txt wordlists/*

hashcat utils might also come handy to do some preparation of your wordlists (for instance the splitlen utility etc)

Why are there 5 different toggle rules in the rules/ folder?

You often hear the following: A great and simple way to make your password harder to crack is to use upper-case characters. This means you flip at least two characters of your password to upper-case. But note: don't flip them all. Try to find some balance between password length and number of upper-case characters.

We can exploit this behavior leading to an extreme optimized version of the original Toggle-case attack by generating only all these password candidates that have two to five characters flipped to upper-case. The real strong passwords have this balance, they will not exceed this rule. So we don't need to check them.

This can be done by specialized rules and since hashcat and hashcat legacy support rule-files, they can do toggle-attacks that way too.

See rules/toggle[12345].rule

Depending on the rule-name they include all possible toggle-case switches of the plaintext positions 1 to 15 of either 1, 2, 3, 4 or five 5 characters at once.

When I run an attack with -a 3 and I do not specifying a mask, I see it working but what is it doing?

The reason why there is no (syntax) error shown when you didn't specify any mask, is that hashcat/hashcat legacy have some default values for masks, custom charsets etc. This sometimes comes in very handy since the default values were chosen very wisely and do help some new users to get started very quickly.

On the other hand, sometimes this “feature” of having some default values might confuse some users. For instance, the default mask, for good reasons, isn't set to a mask consisting of the built-in charsets ?a or even ?b which some users might expect, but instead it is an optimized mask which should (in general) crack many hashes without covering a way too large keyspace (see the default values page for the current default mask).

This also implies that when you don't specify a mask explicitly, it could happen (and is very likely) that you do not crack some hashes which you might expect to be cracked immediately/easily (because of the reduced keyspace of the default mask). Therefore, we encourage you that you always should specify a mask explicitly to avoid confusion.

If you still do not know how to do so, please read Why should I use a mask attack? I just want to "brute" these hashes!

How does one use the new prince attack mode with hashcat legacy?

Luckily, with latest version of hashcat legacy the attack-mode is built-in. You can simply use it using the -a 8 selection. Do not forget to name a wordlist, like rockyou.txt or so.

For hashcat you need to use a pipe and the princeprocessor (standalone binary) from here:


Then your simply pipe like this for slow hashes:

$ ./pp64.bin rockyou.txt

Anisotropic ice rheology - AIFlow Solver

General Informations

  • Solver Fortran File: and

  • Solver Name: and

  • Required Output Variable(s):

  • Required Input Variable(s):,

  • Optional Output Variable(s):, and

  • Optional Input Variable(s): None

General Description

Solves the Stokes equation for the General Orthotropic Flow Law (GOLF) as a function of the fabric. The fabric is described using the second-order orientation tensor and its evolution can be computed using the Fabric Solver. There are two different versions of the AIFlow solver depending on the non-linear extension of the flow law applied (see SIF section comments).

The anisotropic rheology as a function of the fabric is stored in a file of the type . This file contains the dimensionless viscosity tabulated on a regular grid in the space spanned by the two largest eigenvectors of the second-order orientation tensor. This file is the output of a separate run of a micro-macro model (some viscosity input files can be downloaded here). The name file () contains the information about the micro-scale and type of micro-macro model used. Its nomenclature is:

  • grain anisotropy parameter beta=0.

  • grain anisotropy parameter gamma=

  • stress exponent n=

  • model used for tabulation = ( holds for VPSC model)

2.5D model – AIFlow solver accounting for flow width

Any real ensemble of flow lines may widen or get narrow, so the width of this flow tube can be accounted for in a two dimensional (x,z) model in the AIFlow solver (2.5D model). In the Material section, add the FlowWidth key word, that contains the width of the flow tube. For mass conservation, the accumulation area that should be considered correspond to the upper surface area that depends on the flow width.

SIF contents

! Solve the equation for the orthotropic flow law ! AIFlow Solvers Solver 1 Equation = AIFlow Variable = AIFlow Variable DOFs = 4 !3 for 2D (u,v,p) -- 4 for 3D (u,v,w,p) Exported Variable 1 = Temperature !Define Temperature Mandatory!! Exported Variable 1 DOFS = Integer 1 Exported Variable 2 = Fabric !Define Fabric Variable !!Mandatory if Isotropic=False Exported Variable 2 DOFS = Integer 5 Exported Variable 3 = StrainRate ! Compute SR Exported Variable 3 DOFS = Integer 6 !4 in 2D 6 in 3D (11,22,33,12,23,31) Exported Variable 4 = DeviatoricStress ! Compute Stresses Exported Variable 4 DOFS = Integer 6 !4 in 2D 6 in 3D (11,22,33,12,23,31) Exported Variable 4 = Spin ! Compute Spin Exported Variable 4 DOFS = Integer 3 !1 in 2D 3 in 3D (12,23,31) ! If non-linearity introduced using deviatoric stress second invariant Procedure = "ElmerIceSolvers" "AIFlowSolver_nlS2" ! If non-linearity introduced using strain-rate second invariant ! Procedure = "ElmerIceSolvers" "AIFlowSolver_nlD2" End! Body Force Body Force 1 AIFlow Force 1 = Real 0.0 AIFlow Force 1 = Real 0.0 AIFlow Force 3 = Real -0.00899 ! body force, i.e. gravity * density End ! Material Material 1 !!!!! For AIFlows... Powerlaw Exponent = Real 3.0 ! sqrt(tr(S^2/2))^n if AIFlow_nlS2 sqrt(tr(2D^2))^(1/n-1) if AIFlow_nlD2 Min Second Invariant = Real 1.0e-10 ! Min value for the second invariant of strain-rates Reference Temperature = Real -10.0 ! T0 (Celsius)! Fluidity Parameter = Real 20. ! Bn(T0) Limit Temperature = Real -5.0 ! TL (Celsius)! Activation Energy 1 = Real 7.8e04 ! Joule/mol for T<TL Activation Energy 2 = Real 7.8e04 ! Joule/mol for T>TL Viscosity File = FILE "040010010.Va" Isotropic = Logical False !If set to true Glen flow law (no need to define Fabric) End !Initial Conditions Initial Condition 1 ! Define an isotropic fabric Fabric 1 = Real 0.33333333333333 !a2_11 Fabric 2 = Real 0.33333333333333 !a2_22 Fabric 3 = Real 0. !a2_12 Fabric 4 = Real 0. !a2_23 Fabric 5 = Real 0. !a2_13 AIFlow 1 = Real 0.0 ! u AIFlow 2 = Real 0.0 ! v AIFlow 3 = Real 0.0 ! w AIFlow 4 = Real 0.0 ! p End ! Boundary Conditions Boundary Condition 1 Target Boundaries = 1 !dirichlet condition for velocity AIFlow 1 = Real 0.0 AIFlow 2 = Real 0.0 End Boundary Condition 2 Target Boundaries = 2 ! Neuman condition for AIFlow Normal force = Real 0.0 ! force along normal Force 1 = Real 0.0 ! force along x Force 2 = Real 0.0 ! force along y Force 3 = Real 0.0 ! force along z AIFlow Slip Coeff 1 = Real 0.0 ! Slip coeff. End




  • Extension of the linear version of the GOLF law to its non-linear form is presented in this publication:

Ma Y., O. Gagliardini, C. Ritz, F. Gillet-Chaulet, G. Durand and M. Montagnat, 2010. Enhancement factors for grounded ice and ice shelves inferred from an anisotropic ice-flow model. J. Glaciol., 56(199), p. 805-812.

  • Fabric evolution and numerical implementation within Elmer/Ice are presented in this publication:

Gillet-Chaulet F., O. Gagliardini , J. Meyssonnier, T. Zwinger and J. Ruokolainen, 2006. Flow-induced anisotropy in polar ice and related ice-sheet flow modelling. J. Non-Newtonian Fluid Mech., 134, p. 33-43.

  • The GOLF law is presented in detail in this publication:

Gillet-Chaulet F., O. Gagliardini , J. Meyssonnier, M. Montagnat and O. Castelnau, 2005. A user-friendly anisotropic flow law for ice-sheet modelling. J. of Glaciol., 51(172), p. 3-14.

  • 2.5D model – AIFlow solver accounting for flow width:

Passalacqua O., Gagliardini O., Parrenin F., Todd J., Gillet-Chaulet F. and Ritz C. Performance and applicability of a 2.5D ice flow model in the vicinity of a dome, Geoscientific Model Development, 2016 (submitted).

Источник: http://elmerfem.org/elmerice/wiki/doku.php?id=solvers:aiflow


Why does a window pop up and close immediately?

I am a complete noob, what can I do for getting started?

The best way to get started with software from hashcat.net is to use the wiki. Furthermore, you can use the forum to search for your specific questions (forum search function).

Please do not immediately start a new forum thread, first use the built-in search function and/or a web search engine to see if the question was already posted/answered

There are also some tutorials listed under Howtos, videos, papers, articles etc in the wild to learn the very basics. Note these resources can be outdated

I know an online username. How can I use hashcat to crack it?

You can't. That's not the way hashcat works.

hashcat cannot help you if you only have a username for some online service. hashcat can only attack back-end password hashes.

Hashes are a special way that passwords are stored on the server side. it's like cracking open a shell to get the nut inside - hence hash “cracking”. If you don't have the password hash, there's nothing for hashcat to attack.

Why are there different versions of *hashcat?

  • hashcat: A cracker for your GPU(s) and CPU(s) using OpenCL. It supports Nvidia, AMD and other OpenCL compatible devices

  • hashcat legacy: A cracker for your CPU(s), it does not need, nor use your GPUs

Why are there so many binaries, which one should I use?

First, you need to know the details about your operating system:

  • 32-bit operating system or 64-bit?

  • Windows, Linux, or macOS?

Starting from this information, the selection of the correct binary goes like this:

  • .bin are for Linux operating systems

  • .exe are for Windows operating systems

For hashcat, the CPU usage should be very low for these binaries (if you do not utilize a OpenCL compatible CPU).

How do I verify the PGP signatures?


Start by downloading the signing key:

gpg --keyserver keys.gnupg.net --recv 8A16544F

Download the latest version of hashcat and its corresponding signature. For our example, we're going to use wget to download version 6.1.1:

wget https://hashcat.net/files/hashcat- wget https://hashcat.net/files/hashcat-

Verify the signature by running:

gpg --verify hashcat- hashcat-

Your output will look like this:

gpg: Signature made Wed 29 Jul 2020 12:25:34 PM CEST gpg: using RSA key A70833229D040B4199CC00523C17DA8B8A16544F gpg: Good signature from "Hashcat signing key <signing@hashcat.net>" [unknown] gpg: WARNING: This key is not certified with a trusted signature! gpg: There is no indication that the signature belongs to the owner. Primary key fingerprint: A708 3322 9D04 0B41 99CC 0052 3C17 DA8B 8A16 544F

Manually inspect the key fingerprint to assure that it matches what's on the website.


  1. Download GPG4Win. You want the top download, which will give you a graphical front-end named Kleopatra.

  2. Click on Settings, then Configure Kleopatra. You want to add a keyserver. If Kleopatra doesn't automatically fill everything in for you, use the following settings:

    • Scheme: hkp

    • Server Name: keys.gnupg.net

    • Server Port 11371

    • Check the box labeled “OpenPGP”

  3. Click Apply and close that window.

  4. Click “Lookup Certificates on Server” and in the new window search for “signing@hashcat.net”

  5. Look to the Key-ID field and make sure it says “8A16544F.” Click on that entry once and then click “Import.”

  6. Back at the main Kleopatra window, right-click on the new key entry and select “Change Owner Trust…”

  7. Download hashcat and the corresponding signature.

  8. Open up Windows Explorer and navigate to your downloads directory. Right-click on the hashcat archive and mouse over “More GgpEX options,” then click “Verify.” A new window will pop up. Verify that the input file is the .asc signature you downloaded and that “Input file is a detached signature” is checked. If it all looks good, click on “Decrypt/verify.” Once the scare warning and focus on the Key ID. If it says “0x8A16544F” then congratulations, you just verified the signature correctly.

Is there a hashcat GUI?

There are third-party graphical and web-based user interfaces available. The most up-to-date one is this: http://www.hashkiller.co.uk/hashcat-gui.aspx and https://github.com/s77rt/hashcat.launcher

We neither develop nor maintain these tools, so we can not offer support for them. Please ask the authors of the software for support or post questions on the forums you got the software from.

The main reason why there is no GUI developed by hashcat.net is because we believe in the power and flexibility of command line tools and well… *hashcat is an advanced password recovery tool (and being able to use the command line should be a bare minimum requirement to use this software).

How do I install hashcat?

There is no need to really install hashcat or hashcat legacy (CPU only version). You only need to extract the archive you have downloaded.

Please note, your GPU must be supported and the driver must be correctly installed to use this software.

If your operating system or linux distribution does have some pre-build installation package for hashcat, you may be able to install it using those facilities. For example, you can use the following under Kali Linux:

$ sudo apt-get update && sudo apt-get install hashcat

and update it with:

$ sudo apt-get update && sudo apt-get upgrade

Even if this is supported by some distributions, we do not directly support this here since it depends on the package maintainers to update the packages, install the correct dependencies (some packages may add wrappers, etc), and use reasonable paths.

In case something isn't working with the packages you download via your package manager, we encourage you to just download the hashcat archive directly, enter the folder, and run hashcat. This is the preferred and only supported method to “install” hashcat.

How does one install the correct driver for the GPU(s)?

Always make sure you have downloaded and extracted the newest version of hashcat first.

If you have already a different driver installed than the recommended from the before mentioned download page, make sure to uninstall it cleanly (see I may have the wrong driver installed. What should I do?).

At this time you need to install the proprietary drivers for hashcat from nvidia.com and amd.com respectively. Do not use the version from your package manager or the pre-installed one on your system.

There is a detailed installation guide for linux servers. You should prefer to use this specific operating system and driver version because it is always thoroughly tested and proven to work.

If you prefer to use a different operating system or distribution, you may encounter some problems with driver installation, etc. In these instances, you may not be able to receive support. Please, always double-check if AMD or NVidia do officially support the specific operating system you want to use. You may be surprised to learn that your favorite Linux distribution is not officially supported by the driver, and often for good reasons.

GPU device not found, why?

  • Ensure you have the precise driver version recommended on https://hashcat.net/hashcat/

  • Only hashcat supports cracking with GPU(s) (and OpenCL compatible CPU). hashcat legacy uses CPU but does not use your GPU, so there is no driver requirement for hashcat legacy

  • Install the drivers directly from nvidia.com or amd.com for hashcat. Never use drivers provided by an OEM, Windows Update, or your distribution's package manager

  • Make sure you download the correct driver: double check that version number and architecture (32 vs 64bit) match with your setup

  • Make sure to stick exactly to the version noted on the hashcat page. It is ok to use a newer driver only if the hashcat page explicitly says “or higher.”

  • Development tools like CUDA-SDK or AMD-APP-SDK conflict with the drivers. Do not install them unless you know what you are doing!

  • If you already have a conflicting driver installed, see I may have the wrong driver installed. What should I do?

  • On AMD + Linux you have to configure xorg.conf and add all the GPU devices by hand. Alternatively, just run: amdconfig --adapter=all --initial -f

    and reboot. It is recommended to generate an xorg.conf for Nvidia GPUs on a linux based system as well, in order to apply the kernel timeout patch and enable fan control

I may have the wrong driver installed, what should I do?

(short URL: https://hashcat.net/faq/wrongdriver)

  1. Completely uninstall the current driver

    • Windows: use software center

    • Linux:

      • NVIDIA: nvidia-uninstall

      • AMD: amdconfig --uninstall=force

      • If you installed the driver via a package manager (Linux), then you need to remove these packages too

      • Make sure to purge those package, not to just uninstall them

  2. Reboot

  3. For Windows only: download and start Driver Fusion (free version is enough; select “Display”, AMD/NVidia/Intel, ignore the warning about Premium version), then Reboot

  4. Make sure that no Intel OpenCL SDK, AMD-APP-SDK or CUDA-SDK framework is installed – if it is installed, uninstall it!

  5. For Windows only: manually delete remaining OpenCL.dll, OpenCL32.dll, OpenCL64.dll files on all folders. You should find at least 2. They usually reside in “c:\windows\syswow64” and “c:\windows\system32”. This step is very important!

  6. For Linux only:

    • dpkg -S libOpenCL to find all packages installed that provide a libOpenCL, then purge them

    • find / -name libOpenCL\* -print0 ./hashcat.bin -m 0 -w 3 test.md5 -r rules/rockyou-30000.rule

I have a half-known password. I know the first 4 letters, can hashcat get the rest of the password?

Yeah that actually works, thanks to the mask attack! To understand how to make use of this information you really need to read and understand the mask-attack basics. So please read this article first: Mask Attack

Now that you've read the Mask Attack article it's easy to explain. For example consider that you know that the first 4 chars of the password are “Pass” and you know that there's like 3 or 4 or 5 more letters following from which you do not know if they are letters, digits or symbols you can do the following mask:

Pass?a?a?a?a?a -i

To understand how this works with the incremental, please also read this article:

I do not know the password length, how can I increment the length of the password candidates?

Why are there two different hash-modes for Vbulletin?

There are actually two different hash-modes for Vbulletin. Somewhere between version v3 and v4 they've changed the default salt-length from 3 characters to 30 characters. From a high-level programming language view this has no impact but from our low-level view this is really a difference. That's because of the block-modes used in many hashes, even in that case.

Vbulletin uses a scheme that is simply written like this: md5(md5(pass).salt)

So it first computes the md5 hash of the password itself and then it concatinates it with the salt. Since the software rely on PHP and the md5 function in PHP returns by default a ascii hex repesentation we have a total length in the final md5() transformation of length 32 + 30 = 62.

The problem here is that 62 > 55 and 55 is the maximum buffer for a single md5 transformation call. What we actually need to do now, from low-level perspective, is to compute the hash using the buffer of 62 and then compute another md5 with a buffer nearly empty. That's RFC. That means for Vbulletin v3 we have to compute 2x md5 calls and for v4 we need 3x md5 calls while the scheme itself stayed untouched. In other words, from GPU kernel view this is a completely different algorithm and that's why they are two different hash-modes.

How much faster is cracking on Linux compared to a Windows operating system?

Not at all and that's true for both hashcat and hashcat legacy. Even the GPU drivers are equally good or bad (depends on how you see it).

IOW, if you feel comfortable with Windows and all you want to do is to crack hashes you can stick to Windows.

How can I perform a benchmark?

If you want to find out the maximum performance of your setup under ideal conditions (single hash brute force), you can use the built-in benchmark mode.

$ ./hashcat.bin -m 0 -b hashcat (v6.1.1) starting in benchmark-mode... ... Speed.#*.........: 15904.5 MH/s ...

This mode is simply a brute force attack with a big-enough mask to create enough workload for your GPUs against a single hash of a single hash-type. It just generates a random, uncrackable hash for you on-the-fly of a specific hash-type. So this is basically the same as running:

$ ./hashcat.bin -m 0 00000000000000000000000000000000 -w 3 -a 3 ?b?b?b?b?b?b?b ... Speed.#*.........: 15907.4 MH/s ...

Please note the actual cracking performance will vary depending on attack type, number of hashes, number of salts, keyspace, and how frequently hashes are being cracked.

The parameters you should consider when starting a benchmark are:

  • --benchmark (short -b, required): tell hashcat that it should perform a benchmark

  • --hash-type (short -m, default is to benchmark several important algorithms, optional): tell hashcat which hash types should be benchmarked

  • --benchmark-mode (default value is 1, value 0 means that you can tune with -u -n, optional): set the benchmark mode

This means, that for instance a command as simple as this:

$ ./hashcat.bin -b

will give you a list of benchmark results for the most common hash types available in hashcat (with performance tuning, --benchmark-mode 1).

My desktop lags too much, anything I can do to avoid it?

In order to give the GPU more breathing room to handle the desktop you can set a lower (“-w 1”) workload profile:

-w, --workload-profile=NUM Enable a specific workload profile, see references below * Workload Profile: 1 = Reduced performance profile (low latency desktop) 2 = Default performance profile 3 = Tuned performance profile (high latency desktop)$ ./hashcat.bin -m 0 -a 3 -w 1 example0.hash ?a?a?a?a?a?a?a?a?a?a

However, be aware that this also will decrease your speed.

Is the 64 bit version faster than the 32 bit version?

  • For hashcat legacy, yes. That is because the hashes are computed on CPU (and your CPU has most likely a 64 bit architecture).

  • For hashcat (by only using your GPUs), no. You can however allocate more memory and that might help with other problems.

Generally you should use the 64 bit versions as these are the ones the developer use, too.

What is it that you call "GPU power"?

The GPU power is simply the amount of base-words (per GPU) which are computed in parallel per kernel invocation. Basically, it's just a number: S * T * N * V

  • S = Shader. You can see the number of shaders of your GPU on startup. For example, 32 on hd7970

  • T = 64 for AMD, 256 for NV

  • N = -n value, typically 256 if you use -w 3

  • V = vector-size, depends on hash-type. Typically 1, 2 or 4

How to create more work for full speed?

(short URL: https://hashcat.net/faq/morework)

This is a really important topic when working with Hashcat. Let me explain how Hashcat works internally, and why this is so important to understand.

GPUs are not magic superfast compute devices that are thousands of times faster than CPUs – actually, GPUs are quite slow and dumb compared to CPUs. If they weren't, we wouldn't even use CPUs anymore; CPUs would simply be replaced with GPU architectures. What makes GPUs fast is the fact that there are thousands of slow, dumb cores (shaders.) This means that in order to make full use of a GPU, we have to parallelize the workload so that each of those slow, dumb cores have enough work to do. Password cracking is what is known as an “embarrassingly parallel problem” so it is easy to parallelize, but we still have to structure the attack (both internally and externally) to make it amenable to acceleration.

For most hash algorithms (with the exception of very slow hash algorithms), it is not sufficient to simply send the GPU a list of password candidates to hash. Generating candidates on the host computer and transferring them to the GPU for hashing is an order of magnitude slower than just hashing on the host directly, due to PCI-e bandwidth and host-device transfer latency (the PCI-e copy process takes longer than the actual hashing process.) To solve this problem, we need some sort of workload amplifier to ensure there's enough work available for our GPUs. In the case of password cracking, generating password candidates on the GPU provides precisely the sort of amplification we need. In Hashcat, we accomplish this by splitting attacks up into two loops: a “base loop”, and a “mod(ifier) loop.” The base loop is executed on the host computer and contains the initial password candidates (the “base words.”) The mod loop is executed on the GPU, and generates the final password candidates from the base words on the GPU directly. The mod loop is our amplifier – this is the source of our GPU acceleration.

What happens in the mod loop depends on the attack mode. For brute force, a portion of the mask is calculated in the base loop, while the remaining portion of the mask is calculated in the mod loop. For straight mode, words from the wordlist comprise the base loop, while rules are applied in the mod loop (the on-GPU rule engine that executes in the mod loop is our amplifier.) For hybrid modes, words from the wordlist comprise the base loop, while the brute force mask is processed in the mod loop (generating each mask and appending it to base words is our amplifier.)

Without the amplifier, there is no GPU acceleration for fast hashes. If the base or mod loop keyspace is too small, you will not get full GPU acceleration. So the trick is providing enough work for full GPU acceleration, while not providing too much work that the job will never complete.

More work for fast hashes

As should be clear from the above, supplying more work for fast hashes is about *executing more of what you're doing on the GPUs*. There are a few ways to do this:

* Use wordlist+rules. A few rules can help, but a few thousand can be the sweet spot. Test on your setup to find the combination that is more efficient for your attack. For straight mode against fast hashes, your wordlist should have at least 10 million words and you should supply at least 1000 rules.

* Use masks. Masks execute on GPU, so mask-based attacks (including hybrid attacks) are useful here - but note that, much like rules, using too few can slow down your attack.

More work for slow hashes

Now, we mentioned above that this advice is for most hash algorithms, with the exception of very slow hash algorithms. Slow hash algorithms use some variety of compute-hardening techniques to make the hash computation more resource-intensive and more time-consuming. For slow hash algorithms, we do not need (nor oftentimes do we want) an amplifier to keep the GPU busy, as the GPU will be busy enough with computing the hashes. Using attacks without amplifiers often provide the best efficiency.

Because we are very limited in the number of guesses we can make with slow hashes, you're often working with very small, highly targeted wordlists. However, sometimes this can have an inverse effect and result in a wordlist being too small to create enough parallelism for the GPU. There are two solutions for this:

  • Use rules, but not as an amplifier. Basically this means you feed Hashcat base words through a pipe:

$ ./hashcat.bin --stdout wordlist.txt -r rules/best64.rule

Darth Wiki / Idiot Design

So you wanna know where I learned about dovetail joints? My high school beginner's woodworking class. It must have been brainstorming amateur hour at Huawei when they suggested joining aluminum and plastic with a woodworking joint.
Zack Nelson, onone of the reasons the Nexus 6P failed the bend test so catastrophically.

Every once in a while, we encounter an item with a design flaw so blatant that one can only wonder how no one thought to fix that before releasing it to the public. Whether it be the result of unforeseen consequences of a certain design choice, favoring style over functionality, cost-cutting measures gone too far, rushing a product to meet a certain release date at the cost of skipping important testing, or simply pure laziness on the creators' parts, these design flaws can result in consequences ranging from unintentional hilarity, to mild annoyance, to rendering the product unusable, to potentially even putting the users' lives in danger.

See also Idiot Programming for when the flaw comes from poor coding practices. See the real life section of The Alleged Car for automotive examples.

    open/close all folders 

Specific companies:


This videohighlights Apple's many, manyhardware design failures in 2008 onwards, some of which are listed below:
  • The original Apple II was one of the first home computers to have color graphics, but it had its share of problems:
    • Steve Wozniak studied the design of the electronics in Al Shugart's floppy disk drive and came up with a much simpler circuit that did the same thing. But his implementation had a fatal flaw: the connector on the interface cable that connected the drive to the controller card in the computer was not polarized or keyed - it could easily be connected backwards or misaligned, which would fry the drive's electronics when the equipment was powered up (Shugart used a different connector which could not be inserted misaligned, and if it were connected backward it wouldn't damage anything; it just wouldn't work). Apple "solved" this problem by adding a buffer chip between the cable and the rest of the circuit, whose purpose was to act as a multi-circuit fuse which would blow if the cable were misconnected, protecting the rest of the chips in the drive.
    • The power switch on the Apple II power supply was under-rated and had a tendency to burn out after repeated use. Unlike the "fuse" chip in the disk drives (which was socketed), the power switch was not user-replaceable. The recommended "fix": leave the power switch "on" all the time and use an external power switch to turn the computer off. Fine if annoying in the UK, Ireland, Australia, New Zealand, and other countries where most, if not all, wall sockets are switched; not so fine in mainland Europe or North America, where switched wall sockets were rare at the time. At least one vendor offered an external power switch module shaped to fit nicely behind the Apple II, but most users simply plugged their computer into a standard power strip and used its on/off switch to turn their equipment off.
  • The old Apple III was three parts stupid and one part hubris; the case was completely unventilated and the CPU didn't even have a heat sink. Apple reckoned that the entire case was aluminum, which would work just fine as a heat sink, no need to put holes in our lovely machine! This led to the overheating chips actually becoming unseated from their sockets; tech support would advise customers to lift the machine a few inches off the desktop and drop it, the idea being that the shock would re-seat the chips. It subsequently turned out that the case wasn't the only problem, since a lot of the early Apple IIIs shipped with defective power circuity that ran hotter than it was supposed to, but it helped turn what would have otherwise been an issue that affected a tiny fraction of Apple IIIs into a widespread problem. Well, at least it gave Cracked something to joke about.
    • A lesser, but still serious design problem existed with the Power Mac G4 Cube. Like the iMacs of that era, it had no cooling fan and relied on a top-mounted cooling vent to let heat out of the chassis. The problem was that the Cube had more powerful hardware crammed into a smaller space than the classic iMacs, meaning that the entirely passive cooling setup was barely enough to keep the system cool. If the vent was even slightly blocked, however, then the system would rapidly overheat. Add to that the problem of the Cube's design being perfect for putting sheets of paper (or worse still, books) on top of the cooling vent, and it gets worse. Granted, this situation relied on foolishness by the user for it to occur, but it was still a silly decision to leave out a cooling fan (and one that thankfully wasn't repeated when Apple tried the same concept again with the Mac Mini).
    • Another issue related to heat is that Apple has a serious track record of not applying thermal grease appropriately in their systems. Most DIY computer builders know that a rice grain-sized glob of thermal grease is enough. Apple consistently cakes chips that needed it with thermal grease.
    • Heat issues are also bad for MacBook Pros. Not so much for casual users, but very much so for heavy processor load applications. Since the MBP is pretty much de rigeur for musicians (and almost as much for airflow wiki - Crack Key For U designers and moviemakers), this is a rather annoying problem since Photoshop with a lot of images or layers or any music software with a large number of tracks will drive your temperature through the roof. Those who choose to game with a MBP have it even worse - World of Warcraft will start to cook your MBP within 30 minutes of playing, especially if you have a high room temperature. The solution? Get the free software programs Temperature Monitor and SMCFanControl, then keep an eye on your temps and be very liberal with upping the fans. The only downsides to doing so are more noise, a drop in battery time, and possible fan wear, but that's far better than your main system components being fried or worn down early.
  • The very first iPhone had its headphone jack in a recession on the top of the phone. While this worked fine with the stock Apple earbuds, headphones with larger plugs wouldn't fit without an adapter.
  • Apple made a big mistake with one of their generations of the iPhone. Depending on how you held it, it could not receive signals. The iPhone 4's antenna is integrated into its outside design and is a bare, unpainted aluminum strip around its edge, with a small gap somewhere along the way. To get a good signal strength it relies on this gap being open, but if you hold the phone in a certain way (which "accidentally" happens to be the most comfortable way to do so, especially if you're left-handed), your palm covers that gap and, if it's the least bit damp, shorts it, rendering the antenna completely useless. Lacquering the outside of antenna, or simply moving the air gap a bit so it doesn't get shorted by the user's hand, would've solved the problem in a breeze, but apparently Apple's much more concerned about its "product identity" than about its users. Apple suggested that users were "holding it wrong". As it turns out, Apple would soon be selling modification kits for $25 a pop, for an issue that, by all standards, should have been fixed for free, if not discovered and eliminated before it even hit the market. Apple got sued from at least three major sources for scam due to this.
  • MacBook disc drives are often finicky to use, sometimes not reading the disc at all and getting it stuck in the drive. The presented solutions? Restarting your computer and holding down the mouse button until it ejects. And even that isn't guaranteed - sometimes the disc will jut out just enough that the solution won't register at all and pushing it in with a pair of tweezers finishes the job. To put this in perspective, technologically inferior video game consoles like the Wii and PlayStation 3 can do a slot-loading disc drive far better than Apple apparently can.
  • Say what you will about the iPhone 7's merging of the headphone and charger jacks, but there's no denying that upon closer inspection, this combined with the lack of wireless charging creates a whole new problem. As explained in this video, the charger jack is only capable of withstanding a certain amount of wear and tear (between 5,000 and 10,000 plugs, although only Apple themselves know the exact number). Because you're now using the same jack for two different things, chances are you'll wear it out twice as fast as any other iPhone. Because the phone doesn't have a wireless charging function like most other phones, this means that if this happens Pitrinec Perfect Keyboard Professional 9.5 Crack + Activation Key [2021] phone is pretty much toast.
  • The Apple Magic Mouse 2 tried to improve upon the original Magic Mouse by making its battery rechargeable. Unfortunately, this choice was widely ridiculed as for some reason the charging port was located on the underside of the mouse, rendering it inoperable while plugged in. One wonders why they couldn't just put the port on the front, like pretty much every other chargeable mouse. Apparently, it's to preserve the mouse's aesthetics, in yet another case of Apple favoring aesthetics over usability.
  • Several users have reported that plugging a charger into their Thunderbolt 3 MacBook Pro makes the left topmost port output 20V instead of the standard 5V, effectively frying whatever is plugged in. Four ports you could plug a charger in, and they didn't test what happens if you plug the charger in anywhere else?
  • The iMac G3 was a hugely successful computer that pulled Apple right out of its Dork Age that started and ended with Steve Jobs' absence and return. It won consumers over with its elegant design, simplistic usability, and several big innovations like prioritizing USB in an era where it was still seen as mostly a footnote. It also came supplied with what is considered one of the absolute worst mouse designs of all time, if not the worst. Nicknamed the hockey puck mouse due to its small, flat circular shape, the mouse was heavily criticized not only for being extremely uncomfortable to use, but also for being very easy to accidentally rotate while using it and requiring the user to reorient it all the time, with nothing about its design able to keep it oriented in the right direction. The mouse is also very light with little to no weightiness to speak of, making it easy to also accidentally lift up. It's a great example of a product attempting to look different simply for the sake of looking different, with little regard to why we use the tried-and-true methods to begin with. Unsurprisingly, their next mouse would revert back to the far more common oval shape that more nicely fits in a typical palm, whose worst problem was still having only a single button well after many other computers had all but standardized around three-button mice.


  • The DigiDNA iMazing Serial Key - Crack Key For U core Pentium 4 has a reputation for being the worst CPU design in history. It had some design trade-offs which lessened the processor's performance-per-clock over the original Pentium 4 design, but theoretically allowed the Prescott to run at much higher clockspeeds. Unfortunately, these changes also made the Prescott vastly hotter than the original design — something that was admittedly exacerbated than their 90nm manufacturing process actually being worse for power consumption than the previous 130nm process when it came to anything clocked higher than around 3GHz — making it impossible for Intel to actually achieve the clockspeeds they wanted. Moreover, they totally bottlenecked the processor's performance, Origin Pro patch - Crack Key For U that Intel's usual performance-increasing tricks (more cache and faster system buses) did nothing to help. By the time Intel came up with a new processor that put them back in the lead, the once hugely valuable Pentium brand had been rendered utterly worthless by the whole Prescott fiasco, and the new processor (based on the Pentium III microarchitecture) was instead called the Core 2. The Pentium name is still in use, but is applied to the mid-end processors that Intel puts out for cheap-ish computers, somewhere in between the low-end Celerons and the high-end Core line.
    • While the Prescott iteration of the design had some very special problems of its own, the Pentium 4 architecture in general had a rather unenviable reputation for underperforming. The design was heavily optimised in favor of being able to clock to high speeds in an attempt to win the "megahertz war" on the grounds that consumers at the time believed that higher clock speed equaled higher performance. The sacrifices made in the P4 architecture in order to achieve those high clock speeds, however, resulted in very poor performance per tick of the processor clock. For example, the processor had a very long instruction decode pipeline note (a pipeline is a device that breaks the fetch/decode/execute cycle into subtasks that can be executed in an assembly line style so that while one instruction is being sent to the ALU for execution, the next in the sequence is being decoded and the one after that is being fetched, allowing 1 instruction per clock cycle instead of 1 instruction taking several cycles) which was fine if the program being executed didn't do anything unexpected like jump to a new instruction, but if it did it would cause all instructions in the pipeline to be discarded, stalling the processor until the new program execution flow was loaded into the pipeline - and because the pipeline was a lot deeper than the previous Pentium III, the processor would stall for several clock cycles while the pipeline was purged and refreshed. The science of branch prediction was in its infancy at that point, so pipeline stalls were a common occurrence on Pentium 4 processors. This combined with other boneheaded design decisions like the omission of a barrel shifter note (a device that can do shift operations to an arbitrary number of places in a single clock cycle, as opposed to shifting a single step per clock cycle until the desired result is achieved) and providing multiple execution units but only having one be able to execute per clock cycle under most circumstances meant that the contemporary Athlon processor from AMD could eat the P4 alive at the same clock speed due to a far more efficient design (the last problem was partially solved with the concept of "hyperthreading", presenting a single core processor to the OS as a 2-core processor, and using some clever trickery in the chip itself to allow the execution units that would otherwise sit idle to execute a second instruction in parallel provided it meets certain criteria).
  • The Prescott probably deserves the title of worst x86 CPU design ever (although there might be a case for the 80286), but allow us to introduce you to Intel's other CPU project in the same era: the Itanium. Designed for servers, using a bunch of incredibly-cutting-edge hardware design ideas. Promised to be incredibly fast. The catch? It could only hit that theoretical speed promise if the compiler generated perfectly optimized machine code for it. It turned out you couldn't optimize most of the code that runs on servers that hard, because programming languages suck,note every instruction typed in requires the computer to "think" about it, taking processor speed; optimization simply means the computer needs to think less overall to get the same result and even if you could, the compilers of the time weren't up to it. It also turned out if you didn't give the thing perfectly optimized code, it ran about half as fast as the Pentium 4 and sucked down twice as much electricity doing it. Did we mention this was right about the time server farm operators started getting serious about cutting their electricity and HVAC bills?
    • Making things worse, this was actually Intel's third attempt at implementing such a design. The failure of their first effort, the iAPX-432, was somewhat forgivable given that it wasn't really possible to achieve what Intel wanted on the manufacturing processes available in the early 1980s. What really should have taught them the folly of their ways came later in the decade with the i860, a much better implementation of what they had tried to achieve with the iAPX-432. which still happened to be both slower and vastly more expensive than not only the 80386 (bear in mind Intel released the 80486 a few months before the i860) but also the i960, a much simpler and cheaper design which subsequently became the Ensemble Dark Horse of Intel and is still used today in certain roles.
    • In the relatively few situations where it gets the chance to shine, the Itanium 2 and its successors can achieve some truly awesome performance figures. The first Itanium, on the other hand, was an absolute joke. Even if you managed to get all your codepaths and data flows absolutely optimal, the chip would only perform as well as a similarly clocked Pentium III. Even Intel actually went so far as to recommend that only software developers should even think about buying systems based on the first Itanium, and that everyone else should wait for the Itanium 2, which probably ranks as one of the most humiliating moments in the company's history.
      • The failure of the first Itanium was largely down to the horrible cache system that Intel designed for it. While the L1 and L2 caches were both reasonably fast (though the L2 cache was a little on the small side), the L3 cache used the same off-chip cache system designed three years previously for the original Pentium II Xeon. By the time the Itanium had hit the streets however, running external cache chips at CPU speeds just wasn't possible anymore without some compromise, so Intel decided to give them extremely high latency. This proved to be an absolutely disastrous design choice, and basically negated the effects of the cache. Moreover, Itanium instructions are four times larger than x86 ones, leaving the chip strangled between its useless L3 cache, and L1 and L2 caches that weren't big or fast enough to compensate. Most of the improvement in Itanium 2 came from Intel simply making the L1 and L2 caches similar sizes but much faster, and incorporating the L3 cache into the CPU die.
  • Intel Atom was not that far. The first generation (Silverthorne and Diamondville) were even slower than a Pentium III. Yeah, despite having low power consumption, the CPU performance was awful. To make it worse it only had support for Windows XP and it was still lagging. Following generations prior to Bay Trail were mere attempts to be competitive, but sadly they were even slower than a VIA processor (and that was considered a slow chip in their time).
    • While the Diamondville (N270 and N280) was just barely fast enough to power a light-duty laptop, the Silverthorne (Z530 and Z540) was meant for mobile devices and had even lower performance, entirely insufficient for general-purpose computing. But the mobile market was already well in the hands of ARM chips, so Intel ended up with warehouses full of Silverthorne CPUs that nobody wanted. And so it was that they enacted license restrictions that forced manufacturers to use Silverthorne CPUs for devices with screens wider than 9 inches, scamming the public into buying laptops whose abysmal performance infuriated anyone who bought them, turning many off the concept of the netbook as a whole.
    • Averted wonderfully with Bay Trail, which managed to defeat VIA chips and be equal to AMD low-tier chips (which had a very awful moment with Kabini and Temash) while having decent GPU performance.
    • And then there's Intel SoFIA. They have success in the mobile area with Moorefield (Bay Trail chips with Power VR GPU) and people were expecting to continue with that path, but they decided to use Mali GPU instead with constrained x86 chips in order to reduce cost. Sadly, their initial chips were as fast as the slowest ARM chip available at the time (which was the ARM A7) and even worse. That ARM's slowest chips were being replaced by A53/A35 chips as the new low tier, making Intel far behind. No wonder why they cancelled SoFIA.
  • While Intel's CPU designers have mostly been able to avoid any crippling hardware-level bugs since the infamous FDIV bug in 1993 (say what you will about the Pentium 4, but at least it could divide numbers correctly), their chipset designers seem much more prone to making screw-ups:
    • Firstly there was the optional Memory Translator Hub (MTH) component of the 820 chipset, which was supposed to allow the usage of more reasonably-priced SDRAM instead of the uber-expensive RDRAM that the baseline 820 was only compatible with. Unfortunately the MTH basically didn't work at all in this role (causing abysmally poor performance and system instability) and was rapidly discontinued, eventually forcing Intel to create the completely new 815 chipset to provide a more free video converter download full version - Free Activators alternative for consumers.
    • Then there were the 915 and 925 chipsets; both had serious design flaws in their first production run, which required a respin to correct, and ultimately forced Intel to ditch the versions they had planned with Wi-Fi chips integrated into the chipset itself.
    • The P67 and H67 chipsets were found to have a design error that supplied too much power to the SATA 3Gbps controllers, which would cause them to burn out over time (though the 6 GBps controllers were unaffected, oddly enough).
    • The high-end X79 chipset was planned to have a ton of storage features available, such as up to a dozen Serial SCSI ports along with a dedicated secondary DMI link for storage functions. only for it to turn out that none of said features actually worked, meaning that it ended up being released with less features than its consumer counterparts.
    • A less severe problem afflicts the initial runs of the Z87 and H87 chipsets, in which USB 3.0 devices can fail to wake up when the system comes out of standby, and have to be physically disconnected and reconnected for the system to pick them up again.
    • Speaking of the 820 chipset, anyone remember RDRAM? It was touted by Intel and Rambus as a high-performance RAM for the Pentium III to be used in conjunction with the 820. But implementation-wise, it was not up to snuff (in fact, benchmarks revealed that applications ran slower with RDRAM than with the older SDRAM!), not to mention very expensive, and third-party chipset makers (such as SiS, who gained some fame during this era) went to cheaper DDR RAM instead (and begrudgingly, so did Intel, leaving Rambus with egg on its PELock .NetShrink Crack, which ultimately became the de facto industry standard. RDRAM still found use in other applications, though, like the Nintendo 64 and PlayStation 2. where it turned out to be one of the biggest performance bottlenecks on both systems — the N64 had twice the memory (and twice the bandwidth on it) of the PlayStation, but such high latency on it, combined with a ridiculously small buffer for textures loaded into memory to be applied, that it negated those advantages entirely, while the PS2's memory, though having twice the clock speed of the Xbox's older SDRAM, could only afford half as much memory and half the bandwidth on it, contributing to it having the longest load times of its generation.
      • A small explanation of what happened: Rambus RDRAM memory is more serial in nature than more-traditional memory like SDRAM (which is parallel). The idea was that RDRAM could use a high clock rate to compensate for the narrow bit width (RDRAM also used a neat innovation: dual data rate, using both halves of the clock signal to send data; however, two could play that game, and DDR SDRAM soon followed). But there was two problems. First, all this conversion required additional complex (and patented) hardware which raised the cost. Second, and more critically, this kind of electrical maneuvering involves conversions and so on, which adds latency.and memory is one of the areas where latency is a key metric: the lower the better. SDRAM, for all its faults, operated more on a "keep it simple stupid" principle, and it worked, and later versions of the technology introduced necessary complexities at a gradual pace (such as the DDR2/3 preference for matched pairs/trios of modules), making them more tolerable.
    • Another particularly egregious chipset screw-up was eset nod32 antivirus crack 2019 - Activators Patch the integrated versions on the aforementioned Silvermont and Airmont/Braswell Atom chips. In late 2016, Intel revealed that the clock for the LPC bus on server models could fail, shutting down the bus and cutting off access to a host of essential and not-so-essential components. More often than not, an affected device would turn into a brick, not even able to boot. To their credit, Intel eventually managed to release a new series of server chips which corrected the problem.only to find out months later that many of their consumer-grade Silvermont chips could experience the same problem, only worse. With the consumer chips, it wasn't just the LPC bus that tended to break - the USB and SD card controllers often fried themselves as well. Once again, Intel rushed out a new "stepping" of the affected Atom products, this time alongside updated firmware that coddled the earlier, broken versions into working as long as possible. Think that's the end of this little story? Think again. When Intel moved to the succeeding Airmont series of Atom processors, they somehow managed to screw up the design even more: the USB controller was fixed, but now the real-time clock (which holds the time and date) would wear out early instead. At that point, the team at Intel just went "to Hell with it" and left Airmont as-is.
  • Intel's SSDs have a particular failure mode that rubs people the wrong way: After the drive determines that it's lifespan is up from a certain amount of writes, the drive goes into read-only mode. This is great and all until you consider that the number of writes is often lower compared to other SSDs of similar technology (up to about 500 terabytes versus 5 petabytes) and that you only have one chance to read the data off the drive. If you reboot (and chances are, you would because guess what happens when the OS drive suddenly becomes read-only and the system could no longer write to it's swap file? Yep, Windows spazzes out and starts intermittently freezing and would eventually BSOD), the drive then goes to an unusable state, regardless of whether or not the data on the drive is still good. Worst of all is that Intel's head of storage division simply brushes it off, claiming that "the data on the disk is unreliable after it's life is up" and that "people should be making regular backups nightly".
  • In early 2018, a hardware bug across all x86-based Intel processors (except the pre-2013 Atoms) released since 1995 known as Meltdown caused speculative code (that is, machine code that the CPU predicts that it will need to run and tries while it waits for the "actual" instructions to arrive) to be run before any checks that the code was allowed to run at the required privilege level. This could cause ring-3 code (user-level) to access ring-0 (kernel-level) data. The result? Any kernel developers developing for Intel needed to scramble to patch their page tables so they would do extra babysitting on affected processors. This could cause a 7%-30% performance reduction on every single Intel chip in the hands of anyone who had updated their hardware in the last decade, with performance loss depending on multiple factors. Linux kernel developers considered nicknaming their fix for the bug "Forcefully Unmap Complete Kernel With Interrupt Trampolines" (FUCKWIT), which is surely the adjective they thought would best describe Intel hardware designers at that time. It subsequently turned out that Intel's weren't the only CPUs to be vulnerable to this form of attack, but of the major manufacturers, theirs are by far the most severely affected (AMD's current Ryzen line-up is almost totally immune to the exploits, and while ARM processors are also vulnerable they tend to operate in much more locked-down environments than x86 processors, making it harder to push the exploit through). The performance penalties that the fix required ended up ensuring that when AMD released their second-generation Ryzen processors later that year, it turned what would likely have been a fairly even match-up into one where AMD was able to score some very definite victories. It also forced Intel to basically redesign their future chipsets from the ground up to incorporate the fixes into their future processor lines.
    • It's worth noting that after the subsequent updates and fixes, the actual performance loss caused by the Meltdown fix is quite variable, and some people with Intel chips may not notice a difference - for example, the performance loss in gaming desktops/in-game benchmarks is negligible at best (with the modern Coffee Lake chipset in particular being virtually unaffected), while performance loss in server Intel chips is much more pronounced. It's still an utterly ridiculous oversight on Intel's part, though.
    • Meltdown later turned out to be just one member of a much larger family of hardware flaws called the transient execution CPU vulnerabilities, and they of leaking secure data across multiple protection boundaries, including those which were supposed to stop Meltdown. Researchers have concluded that the only way to fix the flaws permanently without incurring colossal slowdowns is to completely redesign the offending chips to a much greater extent than was first thought to be needed.
    • As for why Intel processors were designed processors this way, a Stack Exchange post offers an answer: the conditions that allow the Meltodwn exploit to happen in the first place are a rare case in practice, and in the name of keeping the hardware as simple as possible, which is practical for a variety of reasons, nothing was done to address this edge case. Not to mention, along with most other security issues, unless there's a practical use for an vulnerability and the effort to exploit it is low enough, it may not be addressed since the chances of it happening are not worth the incoveniences it comes with. As an anology, you can make your home as secure as Fort Knox, but why would you if your home isn't under the same conditions (i.e., holding something valuable and people are aware of it)?
  • In the early '90s, to replace the aging 8259 programmable interrupt controller, Intel created what they called the Advanced Programmable Interrupt Controller, or APIC. Configuring the APIC typically required writing to some address space and it was configurable. Since the APIC was backwards-compatible with the 8259 and the 8259 had a fixed location, older software would break if the APIC wasn't located somewhere the software was expecting. So Intel allowed the memory address window of the APIC to be moved. This wouldn't be so much of a problem until they introduced the Intel Management Engine (IME), a standalone processor designed to manage the PC such as cooling and remote access. The problem with the IME is it's basically a master system that can control the CPU so care needs to be taken that it can't be taken over. But security research in 2013 found out that in earlier systems with IME, you could slide the APIC address window over where the address space for IME is located, inject code into it, and do whatever you want with the compromised computer and nothing in the computer can stop this because the IME has the highest level of access of anything in the computer. Intel independently found this around the same time, and it has since been fixed by basically denying the APIC address window from sliding over the IME one.
  • The 80286 introduced "protected mode," the first memory management for x86 processors. The only problem is that it was impossible to switch back to "real mode," which many MS-DOS programs required to run. This is why Bill Gates called the chip "brain-damaged." The chip was still popular, powering the IBM PC AT and many clones, but mainly as just a fast 8088 processor. The 286 was popular for running multiuser, multitasking systems with the Unix variant XENIX, where the need to switch back to real mode was not an issue. The 80386 fixed this issue, being able to switch between modes.
  • In early 2021, with Intel getting completely crushed by AMD's Zen 3 architecture thanks to having not been able to produce anything more than higher-core variants of their 2015-era Skylake core due to their 10nm process for years being an utter disaster which couldn't produce anything more than a four-core mobile chip (and it took until late 2019 just to be able to produce that), they took the desperate move of trying to back-port one of their planned 10nm designs onto the 14nm process used by Skylake, producing the Rocket Lake core. The end result of trying to port a core onto a process that had far higher power demands than it was designed for was an incredibly power-hungry, thermally-constrained chip that, in a near-repeat of Prescott, ended up more often than not performing worse than its predecessor, thanks to Intel having to reduce it from 10 cores to 8 to keep the power consumption under control. Adding insult to injury, later that year finally saw the release of Intel's first mainline 10nm processor (on the fourth major revision of the process), Alder Lake, which finally brought some much-needed performance advances, to the point where even the mid-range Core i5s based on Alder Lake outperformed the entire Rocket Lake line-up.


  • AMD's wildly successful Athlon Thunderbird ran at high speeds and for a while obliterated everything else on the market, but it was also the hottest CPU ever made up until that point. This wouldn't be so bad in and of itself - even hotter CPUs were made by both AMD and Intel in later years - but the Thunderbird was special in that it had no heat-management features whatsoever. If you ran one without the heatsink - or, more plausibly, if the heavy chunk of aluminium sitting on the processor broke the mounting clips through its sheer weight and dropped to the floor of the case - the processor would insta-barbecue itself.
  • In late 2006 it was obvious that Intel were determined to pay AMD back for the years of ass-kickings it had endured at the hands of the Athlon 64, by releasing the Core 2 Quad only five months after the Core 2 Duo had turned the performance tables. The Phenom was still Hotspot Shield VPN 10.21.2 Crack With Product Key Free Download 2021 ways off, so AMD responded with the Quad FX, a consumer-oriented dual-processor platform that could mount two dual-core chips (branded as Athlon 64s, but actually rebadged Opteron server chips). While repurposing Opterons for desktop use was something that had worked magnificently three years prior, this time it became obvious that AMD Didn't Think This Through - not only was this set-up more expensive than a Core 2 Quad (the CPUs and motherboard worked out to about the same price, but you needed twice the memory modules, a more powerful PSU, and a copy of Windows XP Professional), but it generally wasn't any faster, and in anything that didn't use all four cores actually tended to be far slower, as Windows XP had no idea how to deal with the two memory pools created by the dual-CPU set-up (Vista was a lot more adept in that department, but had its own set of problems).
  • Amazingly enough, things got worse when the Phenom eventually did arrive on the scene. In addition to being clocked far too slow to compete with the Core 2 Quad - which wasn't really due to any particular design flaw, other than its native quad-core design being a little Awesome, but Impractical - it turned out that there was a major problem with the chip's translation lookaside buffer (TLB), which could lead to crashes and/or data corruption in certain rare circumstances. Instead of either initiating a full recall or banking on the fact that 98% of users would never encounter this bug, AMD chose a somewhat odd third option and issued a BIOS patch that disabled the TLB altogether, crippling the chip's performance. They soon released Phenoms that didn't have the problem at all, but any slim hope of it succeeding went up in smoke after this fiasco.
    • Things got better with Phenom II, which improved dramatically the performance, going near Intel once again and even more, their 6-core chips were good enough to get some buyers (and even defeating in some uses the first generation of Core i7), indicating that the original Phenom was an otherwise-sound design brought down by poor clock speeds, the TLB glitch, and not enough cache. Which is still more than can be said for the next major design.
  • AMD's Bulldozer was something that may make people wonder why they went this route. On the surface, AMD made two integer cores share a floating point unit. This makes some sense, as most operations are integer-based. Except those cores share an instruction decoder and scheduler, effectively making a single core with two disjointed pools of execution units. Also, each integer core was weaker than the Phenom II's core. To make matters worse, they also adopted a deep pipeline and high clock frequencies. If anyone paid attention to processor history, those two reasons were the root cause in why the Pentium 4 failed. Still, it was forgivable since they used more cores (up to 8 threads in 4 modules) and higher clock speeds than Intel in order to compensate, making it at least useful in some occasions (like video editing or virtual machines).
    • However, it went downhill with the Carrizo, the last major family based on the Bulldozer lineage. It cut the L2 cache which gives enough performance to not to be outmatched by Intel Haswell and they got stuck in 28 nm process, making it worse. Even worse? Builders of laptops (which the Carrizo was intended for) decided to use the worst designs for them, taking their performance to near Intel Nehalem levels, which was outdated by six years. One could get the impression that AMD simply didn't care about the Bulldozer family by this point anymore, and just quickly shoved Carrizo out the door so as not to waste the R&D money, while also establishing the Socket AM4 infrastructure that their next family, Ryzen (which got them back on track and then some), would use.
  • The initial batch of the RX 480 graphics cards had a total board power target of 150W, 75 of which could be sourced from the slot itself which is part of the PCI-Express spec. The problem came about when some of the cards began drawing more power than the spec allowed due to board manufacturers factory overclocking the things. This caused in some cases, cards to burn the slot out in motherboards that weren't overbuilt. A driver fix came out later to limit how much power the card uses to avoid drawing too much power from the slot.
  • When AMD was ready to release the RX 5600 and RX 5600 XT graphics cards, NVIDIA had just price cut their midrange RTX 2060 card. In response, AMD at the last minute bumped up the official clock speeds for the card. While this sounds like a good idea, in reality the board manufacturers were a little more than upset because this meant that not only did they have to figure out how to reflash the firmware on cards potentially already out for sale (otherwise they'd run at the slower speeds), but they may have needed time to re-verify their designs to make sure the new clock speeds actually worked well.
  • Back when Ryzen was anounced, AMD promised that the new socket to go with the CPU line, Socket AM4, would be supported until 2020. Originally AMD planned on having Zen 3, the third generation of the architecture Ryzen was based off of, be the forerunner of a new socket and chipset with a planned launch time of 2020. However, people took "until 2020" to mean "AM4 will support Zen 3 because it's being released in 2020." This caused a slew of issues of which AM4 boards could support the new chips. To make matters worse, older AM4 boards had a firmware space of 16MB due to a limitation in the first and second generation Ryzen processors. Newer AM4 boards typically came with 32MB or more for firmware. This meant that in order to support Zen 3, older AM4 boards had to drop support for older Zen based processors. To make matters worse, AMD's firmware has a one-way upgrade system. If the firmware is upgraded past a certain point, the firmware can't be rolled back. So if someone updated an older AM4 board, it won't be compatible with older Zen processors which would be a problem if that person wants to recycle the board by pairing it with a (presumably) cheaper older Zen part.

Multiple companies:

    Computers and smartphones 

  • On older laptops, doing things like adjusting volume or screen brightness would require you to hold the "fn" key and press a certain function key at the same time. Since the "fn" key is normally at the bottom of the keyboard and the function keys are normally at the top, this could get annoying or uncomfortable, so most companies now do the opposite: pressing a function key on its own will adjust volume or brightness, and users who actually want to press the function key can do so by holding down the "fn" key. Since most people adjust the volume or brightness much more often than they need to press F6, this is nice. However, the buttons do different things depending on the brand (controlling volume might be F2 and F3 on one brand, and F4 and D5 on another). Additionally, most desktop keyboards don't do this at all, so switching computers means that an entire row of the keyboard works differently. Disabling this on laptops requires changing a setting in the UEFI, which doesn't support screen readers or other accessibility features.
  • The Coleco Adam, a 1983 computer based on the fairly successful ColecoVision console, suffered from a host of problems and baffling design decisions. Among the faults were the use of a proprietary tape drive which was prone to failure, locating the whole system's power supply in the printer of all places (meaning the very limited daisy-wheel printer couldn't be replaced, and if it broke down or was absent, the whole computer was rendered unusable), and poor electromagnetic shielding which could lead to tapes and disks being erased at startup. Even after revised models ironed out the worst bugs, the system was discontinued after less than 2 years and sales of 100,000 units.
  • The Samsung Galaxy Note 7, released in August 2016 and discontinued just two months later. On the surface, it was a great cell phone that competed with any number of comparable phablets. The problem? It was rushed to market to beat Apple's upcoming iPhone 7 (which came out the following month), and this left it with a serious problem: namely, that it had a habit of spontaneously combusting. Samsung hastily recalled the phone in September once it started causing dozens of fires (to the point where aviation safety authorities were telling people not to bring them onto planes), and gave buyers replacements with batteries from a different supplier. When those phones started catching fire as well, it became obvious that the problems had nothing to do with quality control and ran to the heart of the phone's design note (the phone's power draw was greater than any battery that size can handle, leading them to overvolt, overheat, and experience a catastrophic chemical reaction that lithium-ion batteries are prone to). By the time that Samsung discontinued the Galaxy Note 7, it had already become the Ford Pinto of smartphones and a worldwide joke, with every major wireless carrier in the US having already pulled them from sale. Samsung especially doesn't want to be reminded of it, to the point that they ordered YouTube to take down any video showing a mod for Grand Theft Auto V that reskins the Sticky Bombs into the Galaxy Note 7.
  • The Google Nexus 6P, made by Huawei, has multiple major design flaws that make accidental damage from sitting on it potentially catastrophic: the back isn't screwed into the structure of the phone even though it's not intended to be removable, leaving the thin aluminum on the sides and a slab of Gorilla Glass 4 not designed for structural integrity to hold the phone together; there's a gap between the battery and motherboard right by the power button that creates a weak point; and the plastic and metal are held together with dovetail joints, which are intended for woodworking. note Dovetail joints are very strong, and are also used in non-wood applications like attaching blades to rotors in jet engines, or joining sliding elements in metalworking presses and machine tools, but that strength is dependent of the material used; plastic is obviously a bad idea. Zack Nelson, testing the phone for his YouTube channel JerryRigEverything, was able to destroyboth Nexus 6Ps he tested immediately.
  • The 2011 Samsung Galaxy Ace S5830 attracted a good few customers due to its low price and decent specs for the time; however, widespread dissatisfaction followed due to a cripplingly tiny 158 megabytes of internal storage. Users would find that just installing the most widely-used apps - Whatsapp, Facebook, and Messenger - would fill up all available storage. Samsung bundled a 2GB microSD card with the phone and you could move some application data to it using third-party hacks, but you couldn't move all storage to it, so it was a temporary fix that might let you install an app or two more - then you'd run out again. Fixing it properly was most definitely dvdfab full version free download - Crack Key For U a newbie-friendly operation: it entailed rooting and flashing a special hack that would integrate the SD card's filesystem to the phone's, making Android think they were one and the same. This worked to make the phone usable, but at the price of speed and complete dependence on the SD card, which, if it got corrupted or lost, would render the phone unusable without further hacking. It was one of Samsung's most hated models and occasionally suffers ridicule even now.
  • The Dell A to z crack software - Activators Patch line was somewhat known for having very faulty speakers. These usually boil down to two issues:
    • The ribbon cable that connects the speakers to the motherboard is very frail, and often comes loose if you move your device too much (the device in question being a laptop designed for portability).
    • The headphone jack has a physical switch that turns off the speakers. If you plug something into the jack, the speakers turn off; unplug it, and they turn on. Simple, right? Well, this switch is bound to get stuck at one point or another, and the only way to even get to it is to disassemble the damn thing, or by spraying contact cleaner in the port and hoping that the air pressure flips the switch.
  • The Dell XPS line has also been known for its fair share of design Avira System Speedup Pro with Crack + License Key [Latest] The Dell XPS 13 9350/9360 has 4 NVME lanes going to the m.2 Slot and 2 going to the Thunderbolt 3 port- which means it sacrificed Thunderbolt bandwidth for better speed on the SSD. This would be a fair tradeoff had Dell not decided to put the M.2 lanes in Power Saving mode, crippling its performance. The user cannot do anything about this.
  • The Dell XPS 13 2-in-1 looked good on the surface- until people realized that in the pursuit of thinness, Dell had soldered the SSD down to the board, rendering the laptop a brick if it ever failed.
  • The 2020 XPS lineup suffered from a laundry list of issues, ranging from premature GPU Failure, screen bleeding to inexplicable trackpad problems. Other issues include review units arriving with dead webcams, several reports of dead audio jacks, broken keyboards out of the box- it got so bad people began posting to celebrate the fact that their $1000+ laptop had arrived without any major QC Failures.
  • Many XPSes arrived with loose trackpads. The solution was to dismantle the laptop and tighten a few screws.
  • Some models of the Acer Aspire One had the right speaker mounted in such a way that its vibrations would cause the hard disk at best to almost halt and at worst bad sectors and corrupt partitions.
  • The Samsung Galaxy Fold would have been released in April 2019 had catastrophic teething problems not come to light just days before release. On the surface, it was revolutionary: a smartphone that could be folded up like the flip phones of the '90s and 2000s, allowing a pocket-sized device to have a 7.3-inch screen like a small tablet computer. Unfortunately, reviewers' $1,980 Galaxy Note phones started breaking just a few days after they got them, in what was possibly the worst possible first impression for foldable smartphones. Many of the problems could be traced to people removing the protective film on the screen - a film that, in a true case of this trope, looked almost exactly like the thin plastic screen protectors that normally ship on the screens of other smartphones and tablets to keep them from getting scratched or accumulating dust during transport, leaving many to wonder just why Samsung not only made a necessary part of the phone so easy to remove, but made it look so similar to a part of other phones that is designed to be removed before use.
  • VIA processors of years past are almost worth a place on this list due solely to their absolutely abysmal performance - at the time they competed with Pentium IIIs, and routinely lost to them despite having 2-3 times as many MHz - but what truly sets the VIA C3 apart is that there is a second, completely undocumented, non-x86 core that has complete control over the security system. It has never been actually used by any known appliance and no official instructions exist on how to access it - making one wonder why exactly is it there in the first place - but in 2018 a curious hacker found out about it in VIA's patents. He investigated, managed to activate it, and thus gave the VIA C3 the dubious prize of being the first processor ever that lets any unauthorised user take complete control of the system without using any bugs or exploits, simply by utilising resources put there by the manufacturer. To compound the issue, the C3 was often used in point-of-sale terminals and ATMs, juicy targets for exactly this sort of manipulation. The only reason this didn't turn into a worldwide scandal is that the processor is so old it's been superseded everywhere that matters.
  • The Toshiba Satellite A205 was a mess. While it was one of the few laptops that could competently run Windows Vista, it had its own issues on the hardware side. Firstly, both its battery and AC adapter were prone to going bad after just a few months - either the battery stopped holding a charge altogether, or the AC adapter stopped working all of sudden. The other problem it had was the ISA slot for the hard drive. If you were planning on swapping it out, better hope you got one that's exactly the right size, because if it's too small, it'll just slide off if you tilt the device ever so slightly.
  • Older power supply units for PCs often had an external switch that would toggle the unit between 220 (European) and 120 (US) volts. This switch could be accidentally bumped during maintenance, which resulted in the power unit blowing out and potentially frying other hardware in your PC. Thankfully, modern PSUs don't have this switch any more.
  •     Computer Hardware and Peripherals 

    • Famously, the "PC LOAD LETTER" message you'd get on early HP Laserjets has been elevated as an example of confusion in user interfaces. Anyone without prior knowledge would assume something is wrong with the connection to the PC, or something is off in the transfer of data ("load" being interpreted as "upload"), and that the printer is refusing the "letter" they're trying to print. What it actually means is "load letter-sized paper into paper cassette"; why the printer wasn't simply programmed to say "OUT OF PAPER" is a Riddle for the Ages.
    • Some HP computers come with batteries or power supply units that are known to explode. Literally, with no exaggeration, they release sparks and smoke (and this is a "known issue"). Others overheatand burstinto flames. And there have been multiplerecalls, proving that they obviously didn't learn from the first one.
    • The infamous A20 line. Due to the quirk in how its addressing system worked note (basically, they've skipped on the bounds check there), Intel's 8088/86 CPUs could theoretically address slightly more than their advertised 1 MB. But because they physically still had only 20 address pins, the resulting address just wrapped over, so the last 64K of memory actually was the same as the first. Some early programmers note (among them, Microsoft; the CALL 5 entry point in MS-DOS relies on this behavior) were, unsurprisingly, stupid enough to use this almost-not-a-bug as a feature. So, when the 24-bit 80286 rolled in, a problem arose - nothing wrapped anymore. In a truly stellar example of a "compatibility is God" thinking, IBM engineers couldn't think up anything better than to simply block the offending 21st pin (the aforementioned A20 line) on the motherboard side, making the 286 unable to use a solid chunk of its memory above 1 meg until this switch was turned on. This might have been an acceptable (if very clumsy) solution had IBM defaulted to having the A20 line enabled and provided an option to disable it when needed, but instead they decided to have it always turned off unless the OS specifically enables it. By the 386 times, no sane programmer used that "wrapping up" trick any more, but turning the A20 line on is still among the very first things any PC OS has to do. It wasn't until Intel introduced the Core i7 in 2008 that they finally decided "screw it" and locked the A20 line into being permanently enabled.
    • Qualcomm had their own share of failure: The Snapdragon 808 and 810 were very powerful chips at the time (2015) since they were based on the high performance ARM A57 design, but it had a very important disadvantage: it overheats to the point to make it throttle and lose performance! And three terminals got hit hard with this: the LG G4 (with Snapdragon 808), becoming infamous since it dies after just one year; the HTC M9 (with Snapdragon 810), which became infamous for overheating a lot; and the Sony Xperia Z5, for the same reasons as the M9. No wonder why the rest of the competition (Hisilicon and Mediatek) avoided the ARM A57 design.
    • The iRex Digital Reader 1000 had a truly beautiful full-A4 eInk display. but was otherwise completely useless as a digital reader. It could take more than a minute to boot up, between 5 and 30 seconds to change between pages of a PDF document, and could damage the memory card inserted into it. Also, if the battery drained all the way to nothing, starting to charge it again would cause such a current draw that it would fail to charge (and cause power faults) on any device other than a direct USB-to-mains connector, which was not supplied with the hardware.
    • Motorola is one of the most ubiquitous producers of commercial two-way radios, so you'd think they'd ironed out issues. Nope, there's a bunch.
      • The MTX 9000 line (the "brick" radios) were generally made of Nokiamantium, but they had a huge flaw in the battery clips. The battery was held at the bottom by two flimsy plastic claws and the clips at the top were just slightly thicker than cellophane, meaning that the batteries quickly became impossible to hold in without buying a very tight-fitting holster or wrapping rubber bands around it.
      • The software to program virtually any Motorola radio, even newer ones, is absolutely ancient. You can only connect via serial port. An actual serial port - USB to serial adapter generally won't work. And the system it's running on has to be basically stone age (Pentium Is from 1993 are generally too fast), meaning that in most radio shops there's a 486 in the corner just for programming them. Even the new XPR line can't generally be programmed with a computer made after 2005 or so.
        • If you can't find a 486 computer, there's a build of DOSBox floating around ham circles with beefed-up code to slow down the environment even more than is possible by default. MTXs were very popular for 900MHz work because, aside from the battery issue, they were tough and cheap to get because of all the public agencies and companies that sold them off in bulk.
    • VESA Local Bus. Cards were very long and hard to insert because they needed two ports: the standard ISA and an additional 32-bit bus hardwired to the 486 processor, which caused huge instability and incompatibility problems. Things could get worse if a non-graphic expansion card (usually IO ports) was installed next to windows 7 loader - Free Activators video card, which could result in crashes when games using SVGA graphics accessed the hard drive. The multiple clock frequencies involved imposed high standards on the construction of the cards in order to avoid further issues. All these problems eventually caused the 486-bus-dependent VLB to be replaced by PCI, starting from late-development 486 boards onwards into the Pentium era.
      • Proving that lightning could in fact strike the same place twice, however, was the invention of PCI-X (PCI Extended) almost decade later. Which has the same idiot design as VLB - namely, a standard PCI 2.3 slot and an additional second slot behind it. Needless to say, PCI-X cards were bulky and huge and has its own myriad of issues, including one that states that the bus shall run at the speed of the slowest card on the motherboard. Thankfully the competing standard, PCI Express (PCIe), won.
    • The Radio Shack TRS-80 (model 1) had its share of hardware defects:
      • The timing loop constant in the keyboard debounce routine was too small. This caused the keys to "bounce" - one keypress would sometimes result in 2 of that character being input.
      • The timing loop constant in the tape input routine was wrong. This made the volume setting on the cassette player extremely critical. This problem could somewhat be alleviated by placing an AM radio next to the computer and tuning it to the RFI generated by the tape input circuit, then adjusting the volume control on the tape player for the purest tone from the radio. Radio Shack eventually offered a free hardware modification that conditioned the signal from the tape player to make the volume setting less critical.
      • Instead of using an off-the-shelf Character Generator chip in the video circuit, RS had a custom CG chip programmed, with arrow characters instead of 4 of the least-used ASCII characters. But they made a mistake and positioned the lowercase "a" at the top of the character cell instead of at the baseline. Instead of wasting the initial production run of chips and ordering new chips, they eliminated one of the video-memory chips, added some gates to "fold" the lowercase characters into the uppercase characters, and modified the video driver software to accommodate this. Hobbyists with electronics skills were able to add the missing video memory chip, disconnect the added gates, and patch the video driver software to properly display lowercase, albeit with "flying a's". The software patch would have to be reloaded every time the computer was booted. Radio Shack eventually came out with an "official" version of this mod which included a correctly-programmed CG chip.
      • The biggest flaw in the Model 1 was the lack of gold plating on the edge connector for the Expansion Interface. Two-thirds of the RAM in a fully-expanded TRS-80 was in the EI, and the bare copper contact fingers on the edge connector oxidized readily, resulting in very unreliable operation. It was often necessary to shut off the computer and clean the contacts several times per day. At least one vendor offered a "gold plug", which was a properly gold-plated edge connector which could be soldered onto the original edge connector, eliminating this problem.
      • In addition, the motherboard-to-EI cable was very sensitive to noise and signal degradation, which also tended to cause random crashes and reboots. RS attempted to fix this by using a "buffered cable" to connect the EI to the computer. It helped some, but not enough. They then tried separating the 3 critical memory-timing signals into a separate shielded cable (the "DIN plug" cable), but this still wasn't enough. They eventually redesigned the EI circuit board to use only 1 memory timing signal, but that caused problems for some of the unofficial "speed-up" mods that were becoming popular with hobbyists.
      • The Floppy Disk Controller chip used in the Model I EI could only read and write Single Density disks. Soon afterwards a new FDC chip became available which could read and write Double Density (a more efficient encoding method that packs 80% more data in the same space). The new FDC chip was almost pin-compatible with the old one, but not quite. One of the values written to the header of each data sector on the disk was a 2-bit value called the "Data Address Mark". 2 pins on the single-density FDC chip were used to specify this value. As there were no spare pins available on the DD FDC chip, one of these pins was reassigned as the "density select" pin. Therefore the DD FDC chip could only write the first 2 of the 4 possible DAM values. Guess which value TRS-DOS used? Several companies (starting with Percom, and eventually even Radio Shack themselves) offered "doubler" adapters - a small circuit board containing sockets for both FDC chips! To install the doubler, you had to remove the SD FDC chip from the EI, plug it into the empty socket on the doubler PCB, then plug the doubler into the vacated FDC socket in the EI. Logic on the doubler board would select the correct FDC chip.
    • The TRS-80 model II (a "business" computer using 8-inch floppy disks) had a built-in video monitor with a truly fatal flaw: the sweep signals used to deflect the electron beam in the CRT were generated from a programmable timer chip. When the computer booted, one of the first things it would do is write the correct timer constants to the CRTC chip. However, an errant program could accidentally write any other values to the CRTC chip, which would throw the sweep frequencies way off. The horizontal sweep circuit was designed to operate properly at just one frequency and will "send up smoke signals" if operated at a frequency significantly different than what it was designed to operate at. If your screen goes blank and you hear a loud high-pitched whine from the computer, shut the power off immediately, as it only takes a few seconds to destroy some rather expensive components in the monitor.
    • NVIDIA has had a checkered history:
      • Nvidia's early history is interesting - in the same way a train wreck is. There's a reason why their first 3D chipset, the NV1, barely gets a passing note in the official company history page. See, the NV1 was a weird chip which they put on an oddball - even for the time - hybrid card meant to let you play games ported from the Sega Saturn on the PC; this was no coincidence, as the Saturn itself had a related but earlier video adapter. The chip's weirdness came from its use of quadrilateralnote four-pointed primitives; the rest of the 3D world used triangle primitives, which are so much easier to handle that nobody else has deviated from them to this day. Developing for the quad-supporting chip was complicated, unintuitive, and time-consuming, as was porting triangle-based games from other platforms, so the NV1 was wildly unpopular from the start. Additionally, the hybrid Nvidia cards integrated a sound card with full MIDI playback capability and a pair of gameports that converted Saturn controllers to the PC, and that increased cost and complexity. Also, the board's sound codec was no better than a SoundBlaster (the then-standard for PC audio) clone, and the sound portion of the card overall could not work reliably in MS-DOS. While MS-DOS games were still a thing, CD-ROMs often contained both the DOS and Windows 9x version of a game, and many people were actively booting back to DOS because if there were two versions of the game, the DOS version oftentimes just ran better than the Windows version for various reasons. When Microsoft came out with Direct3D it effectively killed the NV1, as it was all but incompatible with it. Nvidia stubbornly went on to design the NV2, still with quad mapping, intending to put it in the Dreamcast - but then Sega saw the writing on the wall, told Nvidia "thanks but no thanks" and went on to also evaluate GPUs with triangle polygonsnote a SGI part and NEC PowerVR part, the latter was chosen for the final specifications. Nvidia finally saw the light, dropped quads altogether and came out with the triangle-primitive-based Riva 128, which was a decent hit and propelled them back onto the scene - probably with great sighs of relief from the shareholders.
      • When it came time to launch the GeForce 4, NVIDIA wanted to cater to both the high-end and mainstream/budget markets like they did with the GeForce 2 series. So they launched the flagship GeForce 4 Ti series and the mainstream GeForce 4 MX series. The problem was that the GeForce 4 MX series were nothing more than souped up GeForce 2 MX GPUs, which at the time was an aging budget GPU line. Since both the Ti and MX were called GeForce 4, understandably consumers were upset to find the MX series was really phototheca giveaway. NVIDIA decided from here on out to not do this again (at least to such a noticeable degree), except their first attempt at this was. well, lacking.
      • NVIDIA's entry into the DirectX 9 API, the GeForce FX was rife with a slew of problems. The first was its design wasn't as fundamentally good as the competing ATi GPU at the time, the Radeon R300 series, which meant that the GPU had to run faster to make up for the loss in raw performance. The second was that NVIDIA optimized the architecture for 16-bit floating point, rather than 24-bit that the DirectX 9 standard required at the time. And lastly, there were issues with the 130nm process being used, resulting in lower yields and less than expected performance. The overall result was a GPU that couldn't really compete at the same level as the R300 and was less efficient at doing it. Adding insult to injury, to avoid the disjointed feature set fiasco of the GeForce 4 and GeForce 4 MX, the entire Geforce FX product stack had the same feature set. Which is fine and all, until someone tried to run a DirectX 9 game on a FX 5200 and ended up with seconds-per-frame performance.
    • Improvements in low-power processor manufacture by Intel - namely the Bay Trail-T system-on-a-chip architecture - have now made it possible to manufacture an honest-to-goodness x86 computer running full-blown Windows 8.1 and with moderate gaming capabilities in a box the size of a book. Cue a whole lot of confounded Chinese manufacturers using the same design standards they used on ARM systems-on-a-chip to build Intel ones, sometimes using cases with nary a single air hole and often emphasizing the lack of need for bulky heatsinks and noisy fans. Problem: You do actually need heat sinking on Intel SoCs, especially if you're going to pump them for all the performance they're capable of (which you will, if you use them for gaming or high-res video playback). Without a finned heatsink and/or fan moving air around, they'll just throttle down to crawling speed and frustrate the users.
    • Back in the early days of 3D Graphics cards, when they were called 3D Accelerators and even 3Dfx hadn't found their stride, there was the S3 Virge. The card had good 2D performance, but such a weak 3D chip that at least one reviewer called it, with good reason, the world's first 3D Decelerator. That epithet is pretty much Exactly What It Says on the Tin, as 3D games performed worse on PCs with an S3 Virge installed than they did in software mode, i.e. with no 3D acceleration at all.
    • The "Home Hub" series of routers provided by UK telecom giant BT are fairly capable devices for the most part, especially considering that they usually come free to new customers. Unfortunately, they suffer from a serious flaw in that they expect to be able to use Wi-Fi channels 1, 5, or 11, which are naturally very crowded considering the ubiquity of home Wi-Fi, and BT's routers in particular. And when that happens, the routers will endlessly rescan in an effort to get better speeds, knocking out your internet connection for 10-30 seconds every 20 minutes or so. Sure, you can manually force the router into using another, uncongested channel. except that it'll keep rescanning based on how congested channels 1, 5, and 11 are, even if there are no devices whatsoever on the channel that you set manually. Even BT's own advice is to use ethernet (and a powerline adapter if needed) for anything that you actually need a rock-solid connection on.
    • Wireless mice still seem to have certain design flaws nobody seems particularly willing to fix. One particular wide-spread issue is that the power switch for a wireless mouse is, without exception, on the bottom of the mouse body - the part that is always grinding against the surface you use the mouse on, and as such unless it is recessed far enough into the mouse will constantly jiggle the power switch, thus messing with your mouse movement; especially ironic if the mouse advertises itself as a "gaming" device, then interferes with your attempts to actually play games with it. Rechargeable ones can get even worse, as most insist on setting up the full assembly in a way that makes it impossible to use the mouse while it's charging, such as the already-mentioned Apple Magic Mouse 2. Then you get to some models, like Microsoft's Rechargeable Laser Mouse 7000, which get even worse. On top of both of the aforementioned issues, it's designed in such a way that the battery has to depress a small button in the battery compartment for the charger to actually supply power to it. As it turns out, the proprietary rechargeable battery that comes with the mouse, for some reason, is slightly thinner in diameter than a regular AAA battery, meaning it doesn't depress the button, requiring you to either wrap some sort of material around the battery at the contact point to get it to actually charge or eschew the "rechargeable" bit and just use a regular AAA battery, replacing it as necessary.
    • The Ion Party Float speaker had a subjectively good audio for its price range and good portability, but it had issues with audio breaking up/lagging in recordings with silences in them. This could fortunately be circumvented by using the 3.5mm audio jack. However, multiple users who used it as an actual pool float reported that the unit could start to malfunction and actually using in this way can be somewhat of a hassle as when the battery is drained, it needs to be dried well before recharging according to the manufacturer. There were also reports of the battery failing prematurely, from the system refusing to allow it to charge. Fortunately, their successor products corrected issues such as the audio lag, while the Party Float will work fine if kept out of water and only used in dry places which seems to be what damages the battery system.

        Mass-Storage Devices 

    • The Commodore 64, one of the most popular computers of all-time, wasn't without its share of problems. Perhaps the most widely-known is its extreme slowness at loading programs. This couldn't really be helped with a storage medium like tape, which remained slow even after various clever solutions to speed it up, but floppy disks really ought to have been faster. What happened was that Commodore had devised a hardware-accelerated system for transferring data that worked fairly well, but then also found a hardware bug in the input/output chip that made it not work at all. Replacing the buggy chips was economically unfeasible, so the whole thing was revised to work entirely in software. This slowed down drive access immensely and caused the birth of a cottage industry for speeder carts, replacement ROM chips, and fastloaders, most of which sped things up at least fivefold. Additionally, the drive itself had a CPU and some RAM to spare - effectively a secondary computer dedicated to the sole task of feeding data to the primary computer (hence its phenomenal cost) - so it was programmable, and people came up with their own ways to improve things further. Eventually, non-standard formats were developed that loaded programs 25 times faster than normal.
    • Why, after the introduction of integrated controllers into every other storage device, does the floppy have to be controlled by the motherboard? Sure, it makes the floppy drive simpler to manufacture, but you're left with a motherboard that only knows how to operate a spinning mass of magnetic material. Try making a floppy "emulator" that actually uses flash storage, and you'll run into this nigh-impassible obstacle.
      • The floppy drive interface design made sense when it was designed (the first PC hard drives also used a similar interface) and was later kept for backwards-compatibility. However, a lot of motherboards also support IDE floppy drives (there may not have been any actual IDE floppy drives, but a LS120 drive identifies itself as a floppy drive and can read regular 3.5" floppy disks), a SCSI or USB device can also identify as floppy drive. On the other hand, the floppy interface is quite simple if you want to make your own floppy drive emulator - such as the Gotek Floppy Emulator.
    • Sony's HiFD "floptical" drive system. Airflow wiki - Crack Key For U Zip Drive and the LS-120 Superdrive had already attempted to displace the aging 1.44MB floppy, but many predicted that the HiFD would be the real deal. At least until it turned out that Sony had utterly screwed up the HiFD's write head design, which caused performance degradation, hard crashes, data corruption, and all sorts of other nasty problems. They took the drive off the market, then bought it back a year later. in a new 200MB version that was totally incompatible with disks used by the original 150MB version (and 720KB floppies as well), since the original HiFD design was so badly messed up that they couldn't maintain compatibility and make the succeeding version actually work. Sony has made a lot of weird, proprietary formats that have failed to take off for whatever reason, but the HiFD has to go down as the worst of the lot.
    • The IBM Deskstar 75GXP, nicknamed the Death Star. While it was a large drive at the time (2000), it had a disturbing habit of suddenly failing, taking your data airflow wiki - Crack Key For U it. The magnetic coating was of subpar reliability and came loose easily, causing head crashing that easily strips the magnetic layer off clean. One user with a RAID server setup reported to their RAID controller manufacturer; supposedly, this user was replacing their IBM Deskstars at a rate of 600-800 drives per day. There have been many hard drives that have been criticized for various reasons, but the "Death Star" was something truly spectacular for all the wrong reasons.
      • There is anecdotal evidence that IBM was engaging in deception, knowingly selling faulty products, and then spewing out rhetoric about the industry-standard failure rates of hard drives. This denial strategy started a chain reaction that led to a demise in customer confidence. Class-action lawsuits helped convince IBM to sell their hard drive division to Hitachi in 2002. (See "Top 25 Worst Tech Products of All Time" for this and more.)
    • The Iomega Zip Disk was a big success undeniably, but user confidence in the drives' reliability was terrorized by the "Click-of-death". Though tens of millions of the drives were sold, there were thousands of drives WinUtilities Professional Edition 15.74 License Key - Crack Key For U would suffer misalignment and damage the medium injected into the drive. This would not be horrible by itself necessarily, but Iomega made a big mistake in downplaying the users who complained about drive failures and failing to be sensitive about their lost data.

      The Zip's worst problem wasn't even the fact that it could fail and potentially ruin a disk, but that such a ruined disk would go on to ruin whatever drive it was then inserted into. Which would then ruin more disks, which would ruin more drives, etc. Effectively a sort of hardware virus, it turned one of the best selling points of the platform (inter-drive compatibility) into its worst point of failure.

      The biggest kicker? The entire issue was due to the removal of a foam O-ring from the design by a marketer, to save a few pennies. When the head could not read the data on the disk, it would eject out of the disk to return to starting position and then attempt to read the disk again. The O-ring was to prevent the head from knocking against the edge of the mechanism and becoming malformed, thus damaging the disk the next time it tries to read once it has knocked against the edge of the track a few more times.

      After a class-action lawsuit in 1998, Iomega issued a free replacement programand further rebates in 2001 for future products. It was too little, too late, and CD-R disks were now more popular for mass storage and perceived as more reliable. The New Zealand site for PC World has the original article still available. Surprisingly however, Iomega would soldier on making two more generations of ZIP disk drives before leaving the market in the late 2000s.
      • Iomega's previous magnetic storage product, Bernoulli Box, was designed to avert this disaster by using a specific law of physics that makes it physically impossible for the drive head to make contact with the medium. Yes, Iomega already had a disk format that was designed to prevent the failures the Zip drives suffered. When they designed the Zip disk specification, the Bernoulli effect was overlooked, likely to save costs.
      • One more idiot move - Iomega decided that "if you can't beat them, join them" in the early 2000s and released the Zip CD line of CD burners. However, due to bad luck, they unknowingly sourced batches of bad drives from Philips. This resulted in more coasters than you could've gotten over several years' worth of AOL free trial discs in your mailbox - apparently their QC department weren't doing their jobs. Another scathing lawsuit and product replacement program later, they quickly flipped distributors to Plextor. Except that by then, CD technology was improving and newer CD-RWs could store 700MB (and even later, 800MB) of data. On those Plextor drives, the extra 50MB-150MB is walled off and you can still only write 650MB of data using their drives when you could use that sweet extra space (150MB was a lot even in 2007) on other drives. This eventually caused them to be bought out by EMC Corp. Which later was restructured into a JV with conglomerate Lenovo.
    • Maxtor, now defunct, once sold a line of external hard drives under the OneTouch label. However, the USB 2.0 interface would often malfunction and corrupt the filesystem on the drive, rendering the data hard to recover. You were better off removing the drive enclosure and installing the disk on a spare SATA connection on a motherboard. Not surprisingly, Maxtor was having financial troubles already, before Seagate acquired them.
    • The 3M Superdisk and its proprietary 120MB "floptical" media were intended as direct competition to the Iomega Zip, but in order to penetrate a market that Iomega owned pretty tightly, the Superdisk needed a special feature to push it ahead. That feature was the possibility to write up to 32 megabytes on a bog-standard 1.44MB floppy, using lasers for alignment of the heads. Back then 32MB was significant storage, and people really liked the idea of recycling existing floppy stock - of which everybody had large amounts - into high-capacity media. The feature might just have given the Superdisk the edge it needed; unfortunately what wasn't immediately clear, nor explicitly stated, was that the drive was only able to do random writes on its specific 120MB disks. It could indeed write 32MB on floppies, but only if you rewrote all the data every time a change, no matter how small, was made - basically like a CD-RW disk with no packet-writing system. This took a relatively long time, and transformed the feature into an annoying gimmick. Disappointment ensued, and the format didn't even dent Iomega's empire before disappearing.
    • The Caleb UHD-144 was an attempt to gain a foothold in the floppy-replacement market. Unfortunately, it was ill-timed, the company not taking a hint from the failures of Sony and 3M - if anything, it was an example of a "good" idea being rushed to market without checking what it was being marketed against - so there was no chance to see the product in action. Inexpensive CD-R media and the Zip-250 (itself quickly marginalized by the cost-effectiveness of CD-R discs, which were designed to be read in optical drives that were already present in numerous computers) caused the technology to be dead on arrival.
    • Some DVD players, especially some off-brand models, seem to occasionally decide that the disc that you have inserted is not valid. The user ejects the disc and then injects it again and hopefully the DVD player decides to cooperate. This can be a headache if the machine is finicky about disc defects due to copy protection, or can't deal with your brand of DVD -/+ recordable disc that you use for your custom films. Bonus points if you have to crack a copy-protected disc to burn it onto a blank DVD because you can't watch the master copy. The inverse situation is also possible, where you have a DVD player made by a "reputable" brand that won't allow you to watch the locked-down DVD you just spent money for.
      • Some DVD players are overly cautious about the discs they're willing to play because of regional lockout. Live in Australia and have a legally-purchased Region 4 DVD? Turns out it was an NTSC disc, and your DVD player is only willing to play PAL discs. Oops.
    • After solid-state drives started taking over from mechanical hard drives as the storage device of choice for high-end users, it quickly became obvious that the transfer speeds would soon be bottlenecked by the speed of the Serial ATA standard, and that PCI Express was the obvious solution. Using it in the form of full-sized cards wasn't exactly optimal, though, and the smaller M.2 form factor is thermally limited and can be fiddly to install cards in. The chipset industry's answer was SATA Express, a clunky solution which required manufacturers to synchronise data transfers over two lanes of PCI Express and two SATA ports, standards with completely different ways of working. Just to make it even worse, the cable was an ugly mess consisting of four separate wires (two SATA, one PCI-E, and a SATA power connector that hung off the end of the cable). The end result was one of the most resounding failures of an industry standard in computing history, as a grand total of zero storage products made use of it (albeit a couple of manufacturers jury-rigged it into a way of connecting front-panel USB3.1 ports), with SSD manufacturers instead flocking to the SFF-8639 (later renamed U.2) connector, essentially just four PCI-E lanes crammed into a simple cable.
    • To call the Kingston HyperX Fury RGB SSD a perfect example of form over function would be a lie by omission, as with this SSD form actively affects function. Kingston thought it would be a good idea to cram 75 LEDs into a 2.5-inch enclosure without insulating the storage aspect or, apparently, adequately testing the thermals, and the result is catastrophic. The heat from the LEDs - potentially over 70 degrees celsius - causes extreme thermal throttling that, as shown in this video, causes performance issues that can prevent programs from starting and even cause the computer to hang on boot; the uploader also speculated that it could corrupt data. The thermal throttling can get so bad that a gigantic fan is needed to cool the drive enough to be able to turn the LED array off in software, at which point you might as well buy a normal SSD and leave the gimmicky RGB lighting separate from anything where performance is important. And before you ask "Well, why can't I just unplug the LEDs?", that just causes the thermonuclear reaction happening in your primary storage device to default to red and removes any control you have over it.

        Game Consoles 

    • Sony's PlayStation line has had its fair share of baffling design choices:
      • The Series 1000 and Series 3000 units (which converted the 1000's A/V RCA ports to a proprietary A/V port) of the original PlayStation had the laser reader array at 9 o'clock on the tray. This put it directly adjacent to the power supply, which ran exceptionally hot. Result: the reader lens would warp, causing the system to fail spectacularly and requiring a new unit. Sony admitted this design flaw existed. after all warranties on the 1000 and 3000 units were up and the Series 5000 with the reader array at 2 o'clock was on the market.
      • The first batch of PS2s were known for starting to produce a "Disc Read Error" after some time, eventually refusing to read any disc at all. The cause? The gear for the CD drive's laser tracking had absolutely nothing to prevent it from slipping, so the laser would gradually go out of alignment.
      • The original model of the PSP had buttons too close to the screen, so the Einsteins at Sony moved over the switch for the Square button without moving the location of the button itself. Thus every PSP had an unresponsive Square button that would also often stick. Note that the Square button is the second-most important face button on the controller, right before X; in other words, it's used constantly during the action in most games. Sony president Ken Kutaragi confirmed that this was intentional, conflating this basic technical flaw with the concept of artistic expression.

        Ken Kutaragi: I believe we made the most beautiful thing in the world. Nobody would criticize a renowned architect's blueprint that the position of a gate is wrong. It's the same as that.

      • And before you ask, yes, that's a real quote sourced by dozens of trusted publications. The man actually went there.
      • Another PSP-related issue was that if you held the original model a certain way, the disc would spontaneously eject. It was common enough to be a meme on YTMND and among the early Garry's Mod community.
      • The usage of an optical disc format on the PSP can qualify. On paper, it made perfect sense to choose optical discs over cartridges because of the former's storage size advantages and relative low manufacturing expense, not to mention that it enabled the release of high-quality video on the PSP. Putting this into practice however reveals the technology's shortcomings on a handheld system: Sony's Universal Media Disc (UMD) was fragile, as there have been many cases of the outer plastic shell which protected the actual data disc cracking and breaking, rendering the disc useless until the user buys an aftermarket replacement shell. In addition, it wasn't uncommon for UMD drives to fail in the PSP due to wear of the moving parts. Then, the UMD quickly lost popularity as a video format due to them being expensive to produce compared to a DVD due to the former being proprietary, and thus were priced higher than DVDs. This drove away consumers, who would rather purchase a portable DVD player and have access to a cheaper media library, while the more tech-savvy can rip their DVDs and put them on Memory Sticks to watch on PSP without a separate disc. In addition, UMD load times were long, compared to that of a standard Nintendo DS cartridge, which Sony themselves tried to fix by doubling the memory of the PSP in later models to use as a UMD cache. By 2009, Sony themselves were trying to phase out the UMD with the PSP Go, which did not have a UMD drive and relied on digital downloads from the PlayStation Store, but it was too late; most games were already released on UMD while very few were actually made available digitally, and so the Go blocked off a major portion of PSP games, which led to consumers ignoring the Go. Sony officially abandoned UMDs with the PlayStation Vita, instead opting for regular cartridges.
      • Like the Xbox 360, the PlayStation 3 suffered from some growing pains. It also used the same lead-free solder which was prone to breakage, but while Sony designed the PS3 for quiet operation and overall had a better cooling system than the Xbox 360, there was one major problem: that Sony had used low-quality thermal paste for the Cell and RSX processors that were prone to drying up, and they dried up quickly. The result? PS3s would begin running loud mere months after being built, and since the processors were no longer making proper contact with the heatsinks, this made them prone to overheating, shortening the chips' lifespan significantly, especially the RSX, and potentially disrupting connections between the chips and the motherboard due to extreme heat. Worse is that Sony connected the chip dies to their integrated heat spreaders with that same thermal paste instead of solder, requiring a delidding of the chips to fully correct the problem, which could potentially brick the system if not performed correctly. But that wasn't all: Sony also used NEC/TOLKIN capacitors in the phat model PS3s, which while less expensive and more compact than traditional capacitors, they also turned out to be less reliable and were prone to failure, especially under the excessive heat created by the thermal paste drying out, or under the stress of running more demanding titles from late in the system's life like Gran Turismo 6 or The Last of Us. Sony corrected these problems with the Slim and Super Slim models.
      • Reliability issues aside, the PS3's actual hardware wasn't exactly a winner either, and depending on who you ask, the PS3 was either a well-designed if misunderstood piece of tech or the worst console internally since the Sega Saturn. Ken Kutaragi envisioned the PlayStation 3 as "a supercomputer for the home", and as a result Sony implemented their Cell Broadband Engine processor, co-developed by IBM and Toshiba for supercomputer applications, into the console. While this in theory made the console much more powerful than the Xbox 360, in practice this made the system exponentially more difficult to program for as the CPU was not designed with video games in mind. In layman's terms, it featured eight individually programable "cores", one general-purpose, but the others much more specialized and had limited access to the rest of the system. Contrast to, say, the Xbox 360's Xenon processor, which used a much more conventional three-general purpose core architecture that was much easier to program, and that was exactly the PS3's downfall from a hardware standpoint. The Cell processor's unconventional architecture meant that it was notoriously difficult to write efficient code for (for comparison, a program that only consists of a few lines of code could easily consist of hundreds of lines if converted to Cell code), and good luck rewriting code designed for conventional processors into code for the Cell processor, which explains why many multi-platform games ran better on the 360 but worse on PS3: many developers weren't so keen on spending development resources rewriting an entire game to run properly on the PS3, so what they would do instead is run the game on the general-purpose core and ignore the rest, effectively using only a fraction of the system's power. While developers would later put out some visually stunning games for the system, Sony saw the writing on the wall that the industry had moved towards favoring ease of porting across platforms over individual power brought by architecture that is highly-bespoke but hard to work with, and Sony abandoned weird, proprietary chipsets in favor of off-the-shelf, easier to program for AMD processors for their PS4 and onward.
      • A common criticism of the Playstation Vita is that managing your games and saves is a tremendous hassle: for some reason, deleting a Vita game will also delete its save files, meaning that if you want to make room for a new game you'll have to kiss your progress goodbye. This can be circumvented by transferring the files to a PC or uploading them to the cloud, but the latter requires a PlayStation Plus subscription to use. One wonders why they don't allow you to simply keep the save file like the PS1 and PSP games do. This is made all the more annoying by the Vita's notoriously small and overpriced proprietary memory cards (itself possibly based on Sony's failed Memory Stick Micro M2 format, not to be confused with M.2 solid state drives, as they have very similar form factors, but of course the M2 is not compatible with the Vita), which means that if you buy a lot of games in digital format, you probably won't be able to hold your whole collection at the same time, even if you shell out big money for a 32GB (the biggest widely-available format, about $60) or 64GB (must be imported from Japan, can cost over $100, and is reported to sometimes suffer issues such as slow loading, game crashes, and data loss) card.
      • And speaking of the Vita, the usage of proprietary memory cards can count as this: rumor has it that the Vita was designed with SD cards in mind, but greedy executives forced Sony engineers to use a proprietary memory card format, crippling the system's multimedia capabilities if the biggest memory card you can buy for the system is only 32GB (64GB in Japan) when a sizable MP3 library can easily take up half of that. Worse is that the Vita came with no memory card out of the box and had no flash memory, so any unsuspecting customer might be greeted with a useless slab of plastic until they shell out extra cash for a memory card. Sony's short-sighted greed over the memory cards is cited as one of the major contributing factors of the console's early demise. The PCH-2000 models (often nicknamed the PS Vita Slim) come with internal flash memory, but the damage was already done, not to mention that if you insert a memory card, you cannot use the flash memory.
        • Another negative side-effect of Sony using proprietary memory cards for the Vita is how user-unfriendly it is to store media on the console. Yes, the PSP used Sony's proprietary Memory Stick Duo, but at least it was widely adopted by Sony (and some third parties) outside the PSP and thus memory card readers for the Memory Stick Duo are readily available to this day, not to mention that with the PSP, you can plug it into a computer and simply drag and drop media files onto the system. The Vita doesn't do that: in what was possibly an effort to lock down the Vita in wake of the rampant hacking and piracy on the PSP (which may have also influenced the decision to use proprietary memory cards), Sony made it so that the Vita needed to interface with special software installed on the user's PC called the Content Manager Assistant to transfer data. In addition, the user needed to select a directory for the Vita to copy from and select which files to copy from the Vita, which is much less convenient than simply dragging and dropping files directly onto the system like you would with a smartphone or the PSP. Also, you need to be logged into the PlayStation Network to do any of this. Finally, this was all rendered moot when hackers found an exploit that allowed Vita users to install unauthorized software that enabled the running of homebrew to the system. This was accomplished via, you guessed it, the Content Manager Assistant.
      • The way the Vita handles connecting to cellular networks. If implemented correctly, the Vita could've been wildly innovative in this regard. However, that's not what Sony did. Sony's biggest mistake was opting to have the Vita connect to 3G in a period where 4G had already overtaken 3G in popularity, meaning customers likely could not use their existing data plans to connect their Vitas to the internet over cellular. But that wasn't all: 3G connectivity was exclusive to AT&T subscribers, meaning that even if you were still on 3G, if you were subscribed to a carrier other CleanMyMac 4.6.12 Features AT&T, you still had to purchase an entirely separate data plan just to connect your Vita to the network, which was $30 monthly for a mid-tier data limit. Even still, 3G functionality was extremely limited, only allowing the user to view messages, browse the internet, download games under 20MB, and play asynchronous (i.e. turn-based) games online. It was such a hassle for such a restricted feature (not to mention that many smartphones allowed users to tether Wi-Fi devices to connect to the cellular network, which while not as convenient, essentially allowed users to use their Vita as if it was connected to standard Wi-Fi) that it made it not worth the extra $50 for the 3G-enabled model. The implementation of 3G was so bad that Sony scrapped it altogether for the PS Vita Slim.
      • While the PlayStation 4 is mostly a well-built console, it has an Achilles' Heel in that the heat exhaust vents on the back are too large. The heat produced by the system invites insects to crawl inside the console, which can then short-circuit the console if they step on the wrong things. If you live in an area where insects are hard to avoid or get rid of, owning a PS4 becomes a major crapshoot.
      • Another, more minor flaw of the PS4 (one that persists across all three variations of the console, no less) is that the USB ports on the front are in a narrow recession which makes it impossible to use larger USB drives or cables with it.
      • The original run of PS4 consoles used capacitive touch sensors for the power and eject buttons. Unfortunately, the eject button had a known fault where it would activate spuriously, causing the console to spit out disks in the middle of games or even to resist them being inserted. Later versions replaced the capacitive sensors with physical buttons, but nothing was done for owners of the older PS4s - especially insulting given that disks could be ejected in software, so simply offering the user a menu option to disable the button would instantly work around the problem.
      • The PS4's hard drive is connected to the rest of the console using an internal SATA-to-USB interface. While this isn't a problem with the stock HDD, it will bottleneck an SSD should you choose to upgrade to one, keeping the upgraded load times from being as fast as they could be.
        • Another case of questionable conversions in the PS4: The HDMI output comes via a DisplayPort-to-HDMI converter chip, when the APU has a perfectly good HDMI output that goes completely unused. Not a performance problem, but just plain weird.
    • Microsoft's Xbox consoles aren't exempt from these, either:
      • Most revisions of the original Xbox used a very cheap clock capacitor with such a high failure rate that it's basically guaranteed to break and leak all over the motherboard after a few years of normal use, far shorter than the normal lifetime of this type of component. Making this more annoying is that the clock capacitor is not an important part: it does not save time information if the system is unplugged for more than 30 minutes and the console works fine without it. The last major revision (1.6) of the system uses a different, better brand and is exempt from this issue.
      • The infamous "Red Ring of Death" that occurs in some Xbox 360 units. It was a consequence of three factors: the introduction of lead-free solder, which is toxicologically safer but harder to properly solder with; inconsistent quality of the solder itself, which got better in later years but was prone to cracking under stress in early revisions; and bad thermal design, where clearance issues with the DVD drive caused Microsoft to use a dinky little heatsink for chips that were known to run hot. Result: the chips would overheat, the defective and improperly-applied solder would crack from the heat expansion, and the connections would break.
      • Microsoft released official numbers stating that 51.4% of all early 360 units were or would eventually be affected by this issue. Unfortunately, the problem got blown out of proportion by the media, so much so that people were afraid of encountering the issue on later versions that weren't affected. So afraid, in fact, that they'd often send in consoles that had a different and easily solvable issue: only "three segments of a red ring" mean "I'm broken, talk to my makers"; other red-ring codes could be as simple as "Mind pushing my cables in a bit more?", something easy to figure out if you Read the Freaking Manual.
      • The 360 has another design flaw that makes it very easy for the console to scratch your game discs if the system is moved while the game disc is still spinning inside the tray. The problem is apparently so insignificant amongst most Xbox 360 owners (though ironically Microsoft themselves are fully aware of this problem) that when they made the Slim model of the system they fixed the Red Ring issues (somewhat) but not the disc scratching issue.
        • Most mechanical drives can tolerate movement while active, at least. It's not recommended (especially for hard drives, where the head is just nanometers away from the platter), but not accounting for some movement is just bad. Anyone that has worked in a game-trading industry (such as Gamestop/EB Games) can tell you that not a day goes by without someone trying to get a game fixed or traded in as defective due to the evil Halo Scratch.
        • Microsoft recommends to not have the original Xbox One model in any position other than horizontal because the optical drive isn't designed for any orientation other than that. Note that every 360 model was rated to work in vertical orientation, even with the aforementioned scratching problem, and Microsoft quickly restored support for vertical orientation with the updated Xbox One S model.
      • Most of the 360's problems stem from the inexplicable decision to use a full-sized desktop DVD drive, which even in the larger original consoles took almost a quarter of their internal volume. Early models also had four rather large chips on the motherboard, due to the 90 nm manufacturing process, which also made them run quite hot (especially the GPU-VRAM combo that doubled as a northbridge). But the relative positions of the GPU and the drive (and the latter's bulk) meant that there simply wasn't any room to put any practical heatsink. Microsoft tried to address this problem in two separate motherboard redesigns, the first of which finally added at least some heatsink, but it was only a third, when the chipset was shrunk to just two components, which allowed designers to completely reshuffle the board and even add a little fan atop the new, large heatsink, which finally did away with the problem somewhat. However, even the Slim version still uses that hugeass desktop DVD drive, which still has no support for the disk, perpetuating the scratching problem.
      • The circular D-Pad on the 360's controller (likewise for the Microsoft SideWinder Freestyle Pro gamepad), which is clearly designed to look cool first and actually function second. Anyone who's used it will tell you how hard it is to reliably hit a direction on the pad without hitting the sensors next to it. The oft-derided U.S. patent system might be partially responsible for this, as some of the good ideas (Nintendo's + pad, Sony's cross pad) were "taken". Still, there are plenty of PC pads that don't have this issue to the same degree. at least until the 360 became successful and every third-party pad started ripping off its controller wholesale, unusable D-Pad and all, with acceptable D-pad designs only finally making a comeback about fifteen years later. Some even go as far as to otherwise perfectly emulate an entirely different controller's design, then replace whatever D-Pad design the original used with a 360-style one for no reason whatsoever, often packaging it in such a way that you can't tell the D-pad is of that design until you've opened it.
      • Early in the life of the 360, many gamers used the console's optional VGA cable to play their games with HD graphics, as true HDTVs tended to be rare and expensive back then. PC monitors at the time usually had a 4:3 aspect ratio, which most game engines were smart enough to handle by simply sticking black bars at the top and bottom of the screen, with a few even rendering natively at the right resolution. However, some engines (including the one used for Need for Speed Most Wanted and Carbon) instead rendered the game in 480p - likely the only 4:3 resolution they supported - and upscaled the output. Needless to say, playing a 480p game stretched to a higher resolution note (1280×1024 being the most common resolution for mid-range monitors at the time - which you may notice is actually a 5:4 aspect ratio instead of 4:3, meaning that you had pixel distortion to deal airflow wiki - Crack Key For U on top of other things) looked awful, and arguably even worse than just playing it on an SDTV.
      • The original 360's Optical Audio port was built into the analog video connector. If you wanted to utilize both HDMI video and Optical audio, the hardware supported both simultaneously. The ports, however, were placed too close together and the bulky analog connector prevented inserting an HDMI cord. Removing the plastic shroud on the analog connector allows you to use both at the same time.
    • Nintendo has made their fair share of blunders over the years as well:
      • When Nintendo of America's engineers redesigned the Famicom into the Nintendo Entertainment System, they removed the pins which allowed for cartridges to include add-on audio chips and rerouted them to the expansion slot on the bottom of the system in order to facilitate the western counterpart to the in-development Famicom Disk System. Unfortunately, not only was said counterpart never released, there was no real reason airflow wiki - Crack Key For U couldn't have run audio expansion pins to both the cartridge slot and expansion port, other than the engineers wanting to save a few cents on the necessary IC. This meant that not only could no western NES game ever have any additional audio chips, it also disincentivised Japanese developers from using them, as it would entail reprogramming the entire soundtrack for a western release.

        Additional, while the front-loader design of the original NES is well recognized and iconic, the VCR-like design isn't very helpful for seating cartridges firmly into the reader without causing wear and tear on the pins which leads to the connector pins being bent out of shape over time. This was not helped by the choice of brass-plated nickel connectors that are prone to oxidation and therefore require cleaning.
      • The Virtual Boy was a poorly-designed console in general, but perhaps the strangest design flaw was the complete absence of a headstrap. While this was ostensibly because of fears that the weight of the device could cause neck strain for younger players, for one thing pre-teens weren't officially supposed to be playing the device anyway, and for another thing the solution they came up with was a fixed 18-inch-tall stand that attached to the underside of the system. This meant that if you didn't have a table and chair that were the exact right height, you'd likely end up straining your neck and/or back anyway, in addition to the eye strain that the system was notorious for. Even the R-Zone, a notoriously poor Shoddy Knock Off Product of the system, managed to make room for a headstrap in the design.
      • The Game Boy Color is designed such that electrical interference from the system-on-a-chip causes slight distortions to the system's sound output.
      • The GameCube was able to play games in 480p resolution if the game supported it. However, the GameCube itself didn't output an analog 480p signal. It would only output 480p through a digital signal, where it would be converted back into an analog signal through system's component cables, which contained a special DAC in the plug. Nintendo quietly discontinued production of the cables since less than 1% of consumers bought them and the cables were too expensive to make without recouping costs. Because the 480p signal can't be achieved without Nintendo's component cables, it was, for a time, impossible for a consumer to simply use third-party component cables. Luckily, the component cables' internal DAC was eventually reverse-engineered and cheaper aftermarket cables began hitting the market. Not only that, it was discovered that the digital signal coming from the GameCube's Digital AV port was compatible with the HDMI standard and HDMI adapters began hitting the market as well, or you could just rip out the Digital AV port entirely and replace it with a regular HDMI port. In addition, Nintendo made the Wii (which plays GameCube discs) output the analog 480p signal directly from the console rather than processing a digital signal through the cables themselves (the component cables are still needed, however), thus making the Wii a cheaper option to play GameCube games in 480p compared to buying the GameCube cables secondhand at a premium price.
      • The Wii literally has no crash handler. So if you manage to crash your system, you open it up to Arbitrary Code Execution, and a whole load of security vulnerabilities await you. Do you have an SD card inserted? Well, crash any game that reads and writes to it and even more vulnerabilities open up. They'll tell you that they fixed these vulnerabilities though system updates, but in reality, they never did. In fact, the only thing these updates did on that matter was simply remove anything that was installed with these vulnerabilities - nothing's stopping you from using these vulnerabilities again to re-install them. Of course, all of this is a good thing if you like modding your console.
      • While the Wii U ultimately proved a failure for several reasons, poor component choices helped contribute to its near-total lack of third-party support. It'd only be a slight exaggeration to say that the system's CPU was essentially just three heavily overclocked Wii CPUs — the Wii's own CPU in turn being just a higher-clocked version of the CPU that had been used a decade earlier in the Nintendo GameCube — slapped together on the same die, with performance that was abysmally poor by 2012 standards. Its Webstorm download - Crack Key For U, while not as slow, wasn't all that much faster than those of the PS3 and Xbox 360,note in fact, on paper the Wii U's GPU was actually slower than the GPUs of either of those consoles, but due to advances in technology was about twice as fast in practice. unless you offloaded code to the GPU to offset the lack of CPU grunt, which would bring it back down to, if not below, PS3/360 levels and used a shader model in-between those of the older consoles and their successors, meaning that ported PS3/360 games didn't take advantage of the newer hardware, while games designed for the PS4 and Xbox One wouldn't even work to begin with due to the lack of necessary feature support. While Nintendo likely stuck with the PowerPC architecture for Backwards Compatibility reasons, the system would likely have fared much better if Nintendo had just grabbed an off-the-shelf AMD laptop APU - which had enough power even in 2012 to brute-force emulate the Wii, eliminating the main reason to keep with the PowerPC line - stuffed it into a Wii case and called it a day. Fortunately, Nintendo seems to have learned from this, basing the Nintendo Switch on an existing nVidia mobile chip which thus far has proven surprisingly capable of punching above its weight.
      • Speaking of the Nintendo Switch, don't buy a screen protector, or else whatever adhesive that's on it will melt off due to the console's methods of cooling. Not that you'd really need one anyway due to how durable it is.
        • Another issue with the Nintendo Switch is its implementation of USB-C. When using such standards, the point is that anything designed for the standard is supposed to be able to work with any other device that uses it. However, this is the first time a Nintendo console supports a USB standard for their powering, and it shows. For whatever reason, especially after the 5.0 update, there have been reports of Switches bricking due to using third-party docks. It apparently has to do with not following the USB-C standard properly. This issue has become prevalent enough to force Nintendo to respond on the situation. It was later found that the reason why certain third party docks would brick Switches was because Nintendo wanted to make taking the Switch in and out of the dock a smooth action, and so tweaked with the mechanical design of the USB-C on the dock so that the plug was just ever so slightly smaller. Cheaper third party docks like those from Nyko would try to emulate this smooth action, but did so by way of a "just do something and see if it works" approach. This caused an issue where some pins made contact with others. This isn't necessarily a problem on its own, but the real problem is these cheaper docks don't implement USB-C power delivery correctly. The controller chip on the dock was sending 9V to another pin on the Switch that was expecting 5V. You can imagine that sending almost twice the necessary voltage is a bad thing.
        • When homebrewers were poking at the Switch for anything they can use to effectively jailbreak the system, they found out that NVIDIA's own programming guide tells you how to disable the security so you can effectively run unsigned code. Which is fine, because programming guides are meant for developers and disabling the security is useful for faster iterations in testing. But what didn't happen is Nintendo disabling this feature. They corrected this issue on future hardware revisions.
        • Another problem with the Nintendo Switch: the Joy-Con joysticks. The contacts inside them were made out of a cheap material, causing them to be worn down really quickly by only a few months of play and "drift" (accepting more inputs than those that are currently being submitted, causing the game to move on its own and screwing you up). The situation got bad enough that a class-action lawsuit was filed, because in a disturbingly out of character moment Nintendo refused to comment or release any sort of troubleshooting guide for the issue.
        • The Switch also has a problem with the heat it generates. Because of the way the Switch's innards were designed, the system can become quite warm. Over time, the constant heat can cause the Switch to physically bend out of shape. Nintendo would later make a revised version of the Switch as well as the Switch Lite that addressed the problem.
        • One particular design oddity is that the USB 3.0 port located on the back of the dock is limited by software to USB 2.0 speeds. Rumors of a patch to "unlock" the port to USB 3.0 speeds circulated but no such patch has been released. It turns out that USB 3.0 can interfere with 2.4GHz wireless transmitters if not properly shielded and if placed too close to the transmitter, as was the case with the USB 3.0 port on the Nintendo Switch dock. Nintendo likely noticed the problem during QA, and instead of replacing it with a USB 2.0 port or even investing money into properly shielding the circuit board in the dock, Nintendo simply decided to disable USB 3.0 functionality altogether. Indeed, hacking in USB 3.0 support causes issues with wireless controller functionality, and the port was replaced with an ethernet port for the Nintendo Switch (OLED Model) dock.
    • After insulting the childishness of the GBA through PR, Nokia created the complete joke of a design that was the original N-Gage. As a phone, the only way you could speak or hear anything effectively is if the user held the thin side of the unit to his/her ear (earning it the derisive nickname "taco phone" and the infamous "sidetalking"). From a gaming point of view it was even worse, as the screen was oriented vertically instead of horizontally like most handhelds, limiting the player's ability to see the game field (very problematic with games like the N-Gage port of Sonic Advance). Worst of all, however, is the fact that in order to change games one had to remove the casing and the battery every single time.
      • During the development of the N-Gage, Nokia held a conference where they invited representatives from various game developers to test a prototype model and give feedback. After receiving numerous suggestions on how to improve the N-Gage, Nokia promptly ignored most of them on the grounds that they were making the machines through the same assembly lines as their regular phones and they were not going to alter that.
      • In what was an early precusror to always-online DRM, the N-Gage required users to be connected to a cellular network to even play games, making the system virtually useless if you didn't either transfer your existing plan over to the N-Gage or buy an entirely different cellular plan if you wanted to keep your old phone and have the N-Gage as a separate system. This was unfortunately the norm for many cell-phones at the time. Luckily, inserting a dummy SIM card can trick the N-Gage into thinking it's connected to a working cellular network and run games offline.
    • Atari:
      • While the Atari 5200 wasn't that poorly-designed of a system in general — at worst, its absurdly huge size and power/RF combo switchbox could be annoying to deal with, but Atari eventually did away with the latter and were working on a smaller revision when the market microsoft office 2018 crack - Crack Key For U, forcing them to discontinue the system — its controllers were a different matter entirely. In many ways they were ahead of their time, with analogue movement along with start and pause buttons. Unfortunately, Atari cheaped out and didn't bother providing them with an auto-centring mechanism, along with building them out of such cheap materials that they usually tended to fail after a few months, if not weeks. The poor-quality controllers subsequently played a major part in dooming the system.
      • Likewise, the Atari 7800 was an overall reasonably well-designed system, whose primary flaw was that it wasn't suited to the direction that the NES was pushing console game development innote (the 7800 was designed to push huge amounts of sprites on static backgrounds, whereas the NES and later Master System were designed around smaller numbers of sprites on more complex, scrolling backgrounds). One design decision did stand out as particularly baffling, however, namely the designers apparently deciding that they could save a few bucks by not bothering with a dedicated audio chip, and instead using the primitive sound hardware in the Atari 2600 graphics processor that was included for back-compatibility purposes. By the time the 7800 was widely released, however, console games were widely expected to have in-game music, meaning that 7800 games were either noticeably lacking in this regard or, worse still, tried to use the 2600 audio hardware to render both music and sound effects, usually with horribly shrill and beepy results, such as in the system's port of Donkey Kong. Yes, the 7800's cartridge port had support for audio expansion via an optional POKEY sound chip on the cartridge, but since that meant the cost to give the 7800 proper sound capabilities suddenly fell on the developer, only two games ever included a POKEY chip, with all other games not bothering to include one due to increased manufacturing costs.
      • The Atari Jaguar suffered from this in spades:
        • The main hardware seemed to be designed with little foresight or consideration to developers. The "Tom" GPU could do texture-mapping, but it couldn't do it well (even the official documentation admits that texture-mapping slows the system to a crawl) thanks to VRAM access not being fast enough. This is the reason behind the flat, untextured look of many 3D Jaguar games and meant that the system could not stand up graphically to even the 3DO which came out around the same time, let alone the Nintendo 64, SonyPlayStation, or even the Sega Saturn, basically dooming the system to obsolescence right out of the gate. Yes, texture-mapping in video games was a fairly new thing in 1993 with the release of games like Ridge Racer, but the 3DO came out a month prior to the Jaguar with full texture-mapping capabilities, so one would think someone at Atari would catch on and realize that texture-mapped graphics were the future.
        • On the audio side, the system lacked a dedicated sound chip. Instead, it came with a "Jerry" DSP that was supposed to handle audio capabilities, except said audio capabilities were limited and the chip was capable of math calculations as well (and it couldn't do both without heavily taxing the system), so instead of using the DSP as a sound chip, many developers opted to use it as a math co-processor to make up for the "Tom" counterpart GPU chip's shortcomings when used as a "main" CPU instead. The result was that many Jaguar games lacked music, most infamously the Jaguar port of Doom.
        • Finally, there was the inclusion of the Motorola 68000 CPU. It was intended to manage the functions of the "Tom" and "Jerry" chips, but since it just so happened to be the exact same chip used in the Sega Genesis, developers were more familiar with it as opposed to the poorly documented "Tom" and "Jerry" chips, and chose to use the 68000 as the system's main CPU instead of bothering to figure out the "Tom" and "Jerry" chips. The end result of all of this was a very difficult and cumbersome system to program for that was technically underwhelming, "64-bit"note We say 64-bit in quotes because it's debatable if the Jaguar was even a 64-bit console in the first place. The machine had a 64-bit object processor and blitter, but the two "Tom" and "Jerry" processors were 32-bit, meaning that all calculations were 32-bit, so most of the claims of being 64-bit were from Atari thinking two 32-bit processors "mathed up" to being a 64-bit system. Not that it would have a meaningful impact on the system's graphical fidelity anyway. capabilities be darned.
        • The controller only included three main action buttons, a configuration which was already causing issues for the Sega Genesis at the time. In a baffling move, the controller also featured a numeric keypad, something that Atari had last done on the 5200. On that occasion the keypad was pretty superfluous and generally ignored by developers, but it was only taking up what would probably have been unused space on the controller, so it didn't do any harm by being there. The Jaguar's keypad, on the other hand, was far bigger, turning the controller into an ungodly monstrosity that has often been ranked as the absolute worst videogame controller of all-time.note Its main competition coming ironically from the 5200 controller, though that one's more often given a pass on the grounds that it would have been decent if Atari hadn't cut so many corners, and that by 1993 the company definitely should have known better. Atari later saw sense and produced a revised controller that added in three more command buttons and shoulder buttons, but for compatibility reasons they couldn't ditch the keypad, meaning that the newer version was similarly uncomfortable. Note that the Jaguar's controller was in fact designed originally for the Atari Panther, their unreleased 32-bit console that was scheduled to come out in 1991 before it became obvious that the Genesis' 3-button configuration wasn't very future-proof. They evidently figured that the keypad gave them more than enough buttons and didn't bother creating a new controller for the Jaguar, a decision that would prove costly.
        • Things were turned Up to Eleven by the Atari Jaguar CD add-on. Aside from the crappy overall production quality of the add-on (the Jaguar itself wasn't too hot in this department, either) and poor aesthetics which manypeople have likened to a toilet seat, the CD sat on top of the Jaguar and often failed to connect properly to the cartridge slot, as opposed to the similar add-ons for the NES and Genesis which used the console's own weight to secure a good connection. Moreover, the disc lid was badly designed and tended to squash the CD against the bottom of the console, which in turn would cause the already low-quality disc motor to break apart internally from its fruitless attempts to spin the disc. Even inserting the Memory Track cartridge wrong can cause the main Jaguar unit to return a connection error, due to cartridges in the main console taking precedence over CDs in the addon, so if the Memory Track cartridge isn't inserted properly it's simply read as a regular game cartridge that isn't inserted properly and cause a failure to boot. All of this was compounded by Atari's decision to ditch any form of error protection code so as to increase the disc capacity to 800 megabytes, which caused software errors aplenty, and the fact that the parts themselves tended to be defective.
        • Of note, it was not rare for the device to come fresh from the box in such a state of disrepair that highly trained specialists couldn't get it working - for example, it could be soldered directly to the cartridge port and stilldisplay a connection error. This, by the way, is exactly what happened when James Rolfe tried to review the system.
        • As the Angry Video Game Nerd pointed out in his review of the console, the Jaguar is a top-loading console that lacks a door to protect the pin connectors from dust and moisture. This means you have to keep a game cartridge in the console at all times to protect it from damage. The Jaguar CD fixes the problem by having a door handle, but if you have a broken one the cartridge component of the add-on won't work!
    • The Sega Saturn is, despite its admitted strong points on the player end, seen as one of the worst major consoles internally. It was originally intended to be the best 2D gaming system out there (which it was), so its design was basically just a 32X with higher clockspeeds, more memory, and CD storage. However, partway through development Sega learned of Sony's and Nintendo's upcoming systems (the PlayStation and Nintendo 64 respectively) which were both designed with 3D games in mind, and realized the market - especially in their North America stronghold - was about to shift under their feet; they wouldn't have a prayer of competing. So, in an effort to try to bring more and more power to the console, Sega added an extra CPU and GPU to the system, which sounds great at first. until you consider that there were also six other processors that couldn't interface too well. This also made the motherboard prohibitively complex, being the most expensive console at the time. And lastly, much like the infamous Nvidia NV1 which has its own example in this very page, the GPU worked on four-sided basic primitives while the industry standard was three sides, a significant hurdle for multiplatform games as those developed with triangular primitives would require extensive porting work to adapt them to quads. All this piled-on complication made development on the Saturn a nightmare. Ironically, consoles with multiple CPU cores would become commonplace two generations later with the Xbox 360 and PlayStation 3; like a lot of Sega's various other products of that era, they had attempted to push new features before game developers were really ready to make use of them.
    • The Kickstarter-funded Ouya console has gone down in history as having a huge raft of bad ideas:
      • As with many console systems, Ouya gave the user the option of funding their account by buying funding cards at retail, which provided codes the user can type in to add money to their account. Unfortunately, the Ouya will not proceed beyond boot unless a credit card number is entered, making the funding cards a pointless option.
      • When an app offered an in-app purchase, a dialog was displayed asking the user to confirm the purchase - but no password entry or similar was required, and the OK button was the default. This means that if you pressed buttons too quickly while an app offered a purchase, you could confirm it accidentally and be charged for an in-app purchase.
      • The system was touted from the beginning as open and friendly to modification and hacking. This sparked considerable interest, and it became obvious that a sizable part of the supporting community didn't really give two hoots about the Ouya's intended purpose as a gaming console; rather, they just wanted one to hack and make an Android or preferably Linux computer out of. The Ouya people - who, like every other console manufacturer, counted to make profit more from selling the games than the hardware - promptly reneged on the whole openness thing and locked the Ouya down tight. Airflow wiki - Crack Key For U end result was a single-purpose gadget that had a slow, unintuitive, and lag-prone interface, couldn't run most of the already-available Android software despite being an Android system, and didn't have many games that gamers actually wanted to buy.
      • Also, the HDMI output was perpetually DRMed with HDCP. There wasn't a switch to disable it, not even turning on developer mode. People who were expecting the openness promised during the campaign were understandably angry for being lied to, as were those hoping to livestream and record Let's Plays of the games.
      • Even in its intended use, the Ouya disappointed its users. The main complaint is that the controllers are laggy; on a console with mostly action-packed casual games, this is very bad. It wasn't even a fault of the console itself, as a controller which exhibits this on an Ouya will have the same input lag when paired to a computer. Apparently, not everyone's controllers have this issue, so opinions differ on whether it was just a large batch of faulty controllers or a design flaw that came out during beta testing but was knowingly ignored and quietly corrected in subsequent batches.
      • The fan used to prevent overheating isn't pointed at either of the two vents. Never mind that the console uses a mobile processor, which doesn't even need a fan. In theory, the fan would allow the processor to run at a higher sustained speed. In practice, it blows hot air and dust directly against the wall of the casing, artificially creating frequent issues due to overheating.
    • Much like the Atari 5200, the Intellivision wasn't a too badly-designed console in general - the only major issue was that its non-standard CPU design meant development wasn't quite as straightforward as on its contemporaries - but the controllers were a big issue. Instead of a conventional joystick, they used a flat disc that you had to press down on, which rapidly became tiring and didn't allow for very precise control. The action buttons on the side were also rather small and squat, making them difficult to push when you really needed to. However, by far the biggest issue was that Mattel for some reason decided that the controllers should be hard-wired to the console, making it impossible to swap them out for third-party alternatives or buy extension cables for players who preferred to sit further away from their TV set. The controller issues have been ascribed as one of the major issues why the Intellivision "only" managed to carve a niche out as the main alternative to the Atari 2600 in its early years, while the Colecovision - which was more powerful, easier to develop for, and despite having a controller that was just as bad, if not worse than the Intellivision's, could actually be swapped for third-party alternatives - started thoroughly clobbering the 2600 in sales when it arrived on the scene a few years later.
    • While it is fully in What Could Have Been territory, Active Enterprises, the developers of the (in)famous Action 52 had plans to develop a console, the Action Gamemaster, that besides its own cartridges would have been able to play cartridges of other consoles as well as CD-ROM games besides having a TV tuner. Now try to imagine the weight and autonomy of such a device with The '90s technology, not to mention ergonomics. And then look at the concept art and realize how bizarrely proportioned everything is, that there's no obvious place to put cartridges, CDs, or required accessories, and how vulnerable that screen is. The phrases "pipe dream" and "ahead of its time" barely even begin to describe this idea, and the fact Active Enterprises head Vince Perri thought it would be anything other than Awesome, but Impractical just goes to show how overambitious and out of touch with not only the video game market but technology in general the man was.
      miiyouandmii2: It doesn't even seem like it would be portable to begin with; if the screen was 3.2 inches big, overall, it was 15 inches wide!text on screen That's about the size of your laptop screen!It's not really surprising, is it, that no-one tried to save Active Enterprises?

        Video Games 

    Sometimes, bad design decision can ruin a game even if it doesn't suffer from Idiot Programming.
    • Power Gig: Rise of the SixString was an attempt to copy the success of Guitar Hero and Rock Band. However, the game's poorly-designed peripherals, among other issues, caused it to fail and be mostly forgotten. Of note is its drum kit, which attempted to solve one of the main problems with its competitors' drums: playing drums in these games is very noisy, which makes the game impractical when living with other people or in an apartment. Power Gig's "AirStrike" drum kit gets around this by not having you hit anything: instead of hitting physical drum pads, you swing specially-made drumsticks above motion sensors, allowing you to drum silently. The downside is that since you're not hitting anything, it's hard to tell where you're supposed to swing, and whether that note you missed was because you didn't hit the right pad or the drum just failed to detect your movement. The lack of feedback made using these drums more frustrating than fun. Engadget's hands-on preview had few positives to say about it, which is particularly notable considering how such articles are meant to drum up hype for the game.
    • The drums that initially came with Rock Band 2 had a battery casing that wasn't tight enough, which would cause the batteries to come loose if it was hit too hard. Naturally, this being a drum set, of course the set was going to be hit repeatedly and harshly. The proposed solution from the developers was to stuff a folded paper towel into the battery case along with the batteries and hope that made everything stay in place. Later versions of drum sets wouldn't have such a problem, but it leaves one to wonder how this got missed in playtesting.
    • The Rock Revolution drumkit is seen by many as a monstrosity with an overcomplicated layout that doesn't make any sense. Konami were so focused on making "the most realistic drum peripheral on the market" - yet keeping the "cymbals" as pads - that they completely disregarded common sense and good design practices. The result is six pads scattered around a slab of plastic in a way that doesn't line up with the on-screen notes, making it extremely difficult to play, especially with gray notes, which none of Rock Revolution's competitors used and which are difficult to see on-screen. There's a reason Guitar Hero and Rock Band drumkits don't have realistic layouts, even with cymbals - realistic layouts only work when user-customised. One wonders why they didn't just use the same type of drumkit as Drum Mania.
    • At Quakecon 2019, Bethesda revealed and released a brand new set of ports for Doom, Doom II, and Doom 3 on current consoles (PS4, Xbox One, and Nintendo Switch) and, in the case of the first two, smartphones. While people initially rejoiced, the ports for the first two games quickly came under major scrutiny - both for a variety of technical shortcomingsnote Namely, music that ran slower than it was supposed to, a stretched aspect ratio and broken lighting that could likely be attributed to a rushed release date, and for the fact that the port inexplicably required players to sign-in to their Bethesda.net account to access the game at all, despite the fact that the port launched with no online features whatsoever, with even the multiplayer being local only. Outrage and wide-spread mockery quickly erupted across the internet due to the idea of a game originally released in 1993 requiring an any kind of account log-in. Bethesda quickly apologised, claimed it was an accident, and would make the log-in optional in a future patch, with updates for the aforementioned technical problems also coming down the road. It turned out that the purpose of the log-in was to enable an Old Save Bonus for the then-upcoming DOOM Eternal that would give the player Retraux costumes for the Doom Slayer - fair enough, but the fact that nobody realised that making the log-in mandatory would just piss people off is baffling.


    • Despite being a cherished and well-loved franchise, Transformers has made numerous mistakes throughout the years:
      • Gold Plastic Syndrome.dslr remote pro crack - Crack Key For U A number of Transformers toys made in the late 1980s and early 1990s were, in part or in whole, constructed with a kind of swirly plastic that crumbled quite quickly, especially on moving parts. Certain toys (like the reissue of Slingshot, various Pretenders, and the Japan-exclusive Black Zarak) are known to shatter before they're taken out of the box. There are pictures of the effects of GPS in the article linked above, and it isn't pretty. Thankfully, the issue hasn't cropped up since the Protoform Starscream toy was released in 2007, meaning Hasbro and TakaraTomy finally caught on.
        • Note that GPS isn't limited to either gold-colored plastics or the Transformers line. Ultra Magnus' original Diaclone toy (Powered Convoy, specifically the chrome version) had what is termed "Blue Plastic Syndrome" (which was thankfully fixed for the Ultra Magnus release, which uses white instead of blue), and over in the GI Joe line the original Serpentor figure had GPS in his waist.
      • Besides the GPS plastic, some translucent plastic variants are also known to break very easily. The Deluxe-class 2007 movie Brawl figure had its inner gear mechanics made out of such plastic, which tended to shatter right at the figure's first transformation. On top of that, the posts that held its arms in place didn't match the shape of the holes they were supposed to peg into. Thankfully, the toy was released some time later in new colors, which fixed all of these issues.
      • Unposeable "brick" Transformers. The Generation 1 toys can get away with it (mainly because balljoints weren't widely used until Beast Wars a decade later - though they were used as early as 1985 on Astrotrain - and safety was more important that poseability), but in later series, like most Armada and some Energon toys (especially the Powerlinked modes), they are atrocious - Energon Wing Saber is literally a Flying Brick, and not in the good way. With today's toy technology, there just isn't an excuse for something with all the poseability of a cinderblock and whose transformation basically consists of lying the figure down, especially the larger and more expensive ones. Toylines aimed at younger audiences (such as Rescue Bots and Robots in Disguise 2015) are a little more understandable, but for the lines aimed at general audiences or older fans (such as Generations), it's inexcusable.
      • Toys over-laden with intrusive gimmicks, "affectionately" nicknamed "Gimmickformers", are generally detested. While these are meant to cater to a younger crowd, when a figure has so many things going on that these detract from the transformation, articulation, and aesthetics, even they may repelled by it. Such a figure is the infamous Transformers Armada Side Swipe - featuring a boring (though passable) car-mode, a Mini-Con "catapult" that doesn't normally work, and a hideous robot-mode with excess vehicle-bits hanging off everywhere (including the aforementioned catapult on his butt), the posability of a brick, and the exciting Mini-Con activated action-feature of raising its right arm, which you can do manually. Toy-reviewer TJ Omega once did a breakdown on the figure, coming to the conclusion that its head was the only part not to have any detracting design faults.
    • Cracked has an article called "The 5 Least Surprising Toy Recalls of All Time", listing variously dangerous toys. Amongst them:
      • Sky Dancers, the wicked offspring of a spinning top, a helicopter, and a Barbie doll. It came out looking like a beautiful fairy with propeller wings - and a launcher. When those little dolls went spinning. well, let's just say that there's a good reason why nowadays, most flying toys like this have rings encircling the protruding, rotating wings. Their foam wings became blades of doom that could seriously mess up a kid's face with cuts and slashes. There's no way to control those beauties once they are launched, and it's hard to predict where they will go - which is why they're "Dancers"!
        • There was also a boys' version called Dragon Flyz. There are also imitators. They could be quite enjoyable - it's just that they were also surprisingly dangerous.
        • Surprisingly, the Sky Dancers toy design has been brought back by Mattel for a DC Super Hero Girls tie-in. Let's hope they learned from Galoob's mistakes.
      • Lawn Darts. Feathered Javelins! They came out in the early 1960s and were only recalled when the first injuries were reported. in 1988.
        • Charlie Murphy (Eddie's brother, best known for writing for Chappelle's Show) appeared on an episode of 1000 Ways to Die that had the story of a coked-up guy from the 1970s having a barbecue with his other drugged-out buddies (with the coked-up guy getting impaled in the head with a lawn dart after getting sidelined by a woman who just went topless) to comment on how the 1970s was a decade full of wall-to-wall health hazards, from people eating fatty foods to abusing drugs to playing with lawn darts (which most people did while under the influence).
        • "Impaled by a stray lawn dart" is also one of the "Terrible Misfortunes" that can befall your bunnies in Killer Bunnies and the Quest for the Magic Carrot.
        • If you want to be technical, lawn darts were really invented around about 500 BCE. as Roman weaponry.
      • Snacktime Cabbage Patch Dolls, a 1996 Cabbage Patch doll sold with the gimmick that its mouth moved as it appeared to "eat" the plastic carrots and cookies sold with it. The problem was, once it started chewing, it didn't stop until the plastic food was sucked in. and little fingers and hair set it off just as well as plastic food. The only way to turn it off was to remove the toy's backpack. something buried so deeply in the instructions, nobody saw it until it was announced publicly.
        • An episode of The X-Files took the idea and ran with it. There was also a Dexter's Laboratory episode where Dexter and Dee Dee find a "Mr. Chewy Bitems" in the city dump; Dex tries to recall why they discontinued the toy as Dee Dee runs around in the background screaming with the bear chewing on one of her ponytails.
        • The obscure comic book series Robotboy (not to be confused with the popular animated series of the same name) had an album in which the titular robotboy takes exaggerated versions of one of these to its home, after which they bring havoc and try to destroy the house. The quote from the corporate executive that ordered those toys to be destroyed sums the thing up:

        The idea was to give toys to kids so that they never had to clear away their stuff. What the manufacturer did not tell us however was that the toys cleared it away by eating them.

    • Easy-Bake Ovens have been around since the 1950s and are, as the name suggests, easy to use.but a 2006 redesign made the opening small enough to put a tiny hand in, but not take it out. Next to a newly-designed heating element. Ouch.
    • Aqua Dots (Bindeez in its native Australia) is (or was) a fun little collection of interlocking beads designed for the creation of multidimensional shapes, as seen on TV. You had to get them wet before they would stick together, but the coating released one ingredient it shouldn't have when exposed to water - a form of the date-rape drug GHB. Should someone put that in their mouths. This wasn't the fault of the company that made them, but rather the Chinese plant that manufactured the toys. Essentially, they found out that some chemical was much less expensive than the one they were supposed to be using, but still worked. They didn't do the research that said chemical metabolizes into GHB, or else they didn't care (and also didn't tell the company that they made the swap). And yet, for all the Chinese toy manufacturer chaos that was going on in the media at the time, the blame fell squarely on the toy company for this. They still exist, though thankfully with a non-GHB formulation. They were renamed to Pixos (Beados in Australia) and marketed as "safety tested". In fact, they were marketed the same way Aqua Dots were, with the same announcer and background music (compare and contrast). Now, they are marketed in America under the name of Beados.
    • Chilly Bang! Bang! was a chilled juice-drink toy released in 1989 by Mackie International consisting of a gun-shaped packet of juice. To drink it, you had to stick the barrel in your mouth and pull the trigger. And if you thought Persona 3 was controversial.
      • My Name Is Earl had a minor character have a similar gun. Given that he also had a real gun. And take two guesses how said character wound up dead in a later episode.

      Chubby Jr: Well, dad did say never to trust a doctor. But then again, dad now has a bullet hole where vodka should be.

    • The Dark Knight tie-in "hidden blade" katana toy has a hard plastic, spring-loaded blade in the handle that shot out with such force that it could cause blunt force trauma if the kids weren't expecting it and that can be activated by an easily-hit trigger in the handle. Essentially, they were marketing an oversized blunt switchblade.
    • The DigiDraw promised to make tracing, an already simple act, even easier by placing the thing to be traced between a light and a suspended glass pane, projecting its image onto a blank piece of paper. Its ridiculously poor design meant that even if you could assemble it, the resulting projection was faint at best, and it would screw with your focus to the point where you couldn't do a perfect trace, assuming you hadn't already ruined it by nudging the paper even slightly. And trust us, we're not alone in this belief.
    • In a similar case to the Transformers GPS above, LEGO also fumbled up their own plastic around 2007, which resulted in nearly all of the lime-green pieces becoming ridiculously fragile. This affected the BIONICLE sets of that era greatly, which were already prone to breaking due to the faulty sculpting of the ball-socket joints. Since that line of sets had more lime-colored pieces than usual, it is needless to say that fans were not amused with the ordeal, as it meant that they couldn't take apart and rebuild their LEGO sets. Reportedly, some of these lime pieces broke right at the figures' first assembly.
      • In 2008, LEGO reacted to the fragile sockets by introducing a rectangular design and phasing out most of the old, rounded sockets. The problem only got worse.
    Источник: https://tvtropes.org/pmwiki/pmwiki.php/DarthWiki/IdiotDesign


    Why does a window pop up and close immediately?

    I am a complete noob, what can I do for getting started?

    The best way to get started with software from hashcat.net is to use the wiki. Furthermore, you can use the forum to search for your specific questions (forum search function).

    Please do not immediately start a new forum thread, first use the built-in search function and/or a web search engine to see if the question was already posted/answered

    There are how long does norton power eraser take - Crack Key For U some tutorials listed under Howtos, videos, papers, articles etc in the wild to learn the very basics. Note these resources can be outdated

    I know an online username. How can I use hashcat to crack it?

    You can't. That's not the way hashcat works.

    hashcat cannot help you if you only have a username for some online service. hashcat can only attack back-end password hashes.

    Hashes are a special way that passwords are stored on the server side. it's like cracking open a shell to get the nut inside - hence hash “cracking”. If you don't have the password hash, there's nothing for hashcat to attack.

    Why are there different versions of *hashcat?

    • hashcat: A cracker for your GPU(s) and CPU(s) using OpenCL. It supports Nvidia, AMD and other OpenCL compatible devices

    • hashcat legacy: A cracker for your CPU(s), it does not need, nor use your GPUs

    Why are there so many binaries, which one should I use?

    First, you need to know the details about your operating system:

    • 32-bit operating system or 64-bit?

    • Windows, Linux, or macOS?

    Starting from this information, the selection of the correct binary goes like this:

    • .bin are for Linux operating systems

    • .exe are for Windows operating systems

    For hashcat, the CPU usage should be very low for these binaries (if you do not utilize a OpenCL compatible CPU).

    How do I verify the PGP signatures?


    Start by downloading the signing key:

    gpg --keyserver keys.gnupg.net --recv 8A16544F

    Download the latest version of hashcat and its corresponding signature. For our example, we're going to use wget to download version 6.1.1:

    wget https://hashcat.net/files/hashcat- wget https://hashcat.net/files/hashcat-

    Verify the signature by running:

    gpg --verify hashcat- hashcat-

    Your output will look like this:

    gpg: Signature made Wed 29 Jul 2020 12:25:34 PM CEST gpg: using RSA key A70833229D040B4199CC00523C17DA8B8A16544F gpg: Good signature from "Hashcat signing key <signing@hashcat.net>" [unknown] gpg: WARNING: This key is not certified with a trusted signature! gpg: There is no indication that the signature belongs to the owner. Primary key fingerprint: A708 3322 9D04 0B41 99CC 0052 3C17 DA8B 8A16 544F

    Manually inspect the key fingerprint to assure that it matches what's on the website.


    1. Download GPG4Win. You want the top download, which will give you a graphical front-end named Kleopatra.

    2. Click on Settings, then Configure Kleopatra. You want to add a keyserver. If Kleopatra doesn't automatically fill everything in for you, use the following settings:

      • Scheme: hkp

      • Server Name: keys.gnupg.net

      • Server Port 11371

      • Check the box labeled “OpenPGP”

    3. Click Apply and close that window.

    4. Click “Lookup Certificates on Server” and in the new window search for “signing@hashcat.net”

    5. Look to the Key-ID field and make sure it says “8A16544F.” Click on that entry once and then click “Import.”

    6. Back at the main Kleopatra window, right-click on the new key entry and select “Change Owner Trust…”

    7. Download hashcat and the corresponding signature.

    8. Open up Windows Explorer and navigate to your downloads directory. Right-click on the hashcat archive and mouse over “More GgpEX options,” then click “Verify.” A new window will pop up. Verify that the input file is the .asc signature you downloaded and that “Input file is a detached signature” is checked. If it all looks good, click on “Decrypt/verify.” Once the scare warning and focus on the Key ID. If it says “0x8A16544F” then congratulations, you just verified the signature correctly.

    Is there a hashcat GUI?

    There are third-party graphical and web-based user interfaces available. The most up-to-date one is this: http://www.hashkiller.co.uk/hashcat-gui.aspx and https://github.com/s77rt/hashcat.launcher

    We neither develop nor maintain these tools, so we can not offer support for them. Please ask the authors of the software for support or post questions on the forums you FlixGrab Premium Free Activate the software from.

    The main reason why there is no GUI developed by hashcat.net is because we believe in the power and flexibility of command line tools and well… *hashcat is an advanced password recovery tool (and being able to use the command line should be a bare minimum requirement to use this software).

    How do I install hashcat?

    There is no need to really install hashcat or hashcat legacy (CPU only version). You only need to extract the archive you have downloaded.

    Please note, your GPU must be supported and the driver must be correctly installed to use this software.

    If your operating system or linux distribution does have some pre-build installation package for hashcat, you may be able to install it using those facilities. For example, you can use the following under Kali Linux:

    $ sudo apt-get update && sudo apt-get install hashcat

    and update it with:

    $ sudo apt-get update && sudo apt-get upgrade

    Even if this is supported by some distributions, we do not directly support this here since it depends on the package maintainers to update the packages, install the correct dependencies (some packages may add wrappers, etc), and use reasonable paths.

    In case something isn't working with the packages you download via your package manager, we encourage you to just download the hashcat archive directly, enter the folder, and run hashcat. This is the preferred and only supported method to “install” hashcat.

    How does one install the correct driver for the GPU(s)?

    Always make sure you have downloaded and extracted the newest version of hashcat first.

    If you have already a different driver installed than the recommended from the before mentioned download page, Wise JetSearch 3.18.156 Download - Crack Key For U sure to uninstall it cleanly (see I may have the wrong driver installed. What should I do?).

    At this time you need to install the proprietary drivers for hashcat from nvidia.com and amd.com respectively. Do not use the version from your package manager or the pre-installed one on your system.

    There is a detailed installation guide for linux servers. You should prefer to use this specific operating system and driver version because it is always thoroughly tested and proven to work.

    If you prefer to use a different operating system or distribution, you may encounter some problems with driver installation, etc. In these instances, you may not be able to receive support. Please, always double-check if AMD or NVidia do officially support the specific operating system you want to use. You may be surprised to learn that your favorite Linux distribution is not officially supported by the driver, and often for good reasons.

    GPU device not found, why?

    • Ensure you have the precise driver version recommended on https://hashcat.net/hashcat/

    • Only hashcat supports cracking with GPU(s) (and OpenCL compatible CPU). hashcat legacy uses CPU but does not use your GPU, so there is no driver requirement for hashcat legacy

    • Install the drivers directly from nvidia.com or amd.com for hashcat. Never use drivers provided by an OEM, Windows Update, or your distribution's package manager

    • Make sure you download the correct driver: double check that version number and architecture (32 vs 64bit) match anytoiso pro gratis - Crack Key For U your setup

    • Make sure to stick exactly to the version noted on the hashcat page. It is ok to use a newer driver only if the hashcat page explicitly says “or higher.”

    • Development tools like CUDA-SDK or AMD-APP-SDK conflict with the drivers. Do not install them unless you know what you are doing!

    • If you already have a conflicting driver installed, see I may have the wrong driver installed. What should I do?

    • On AMD + Linux you have to configure xorg.conf and add all the GPU devices by hand. Alternatively, just run: amdconfig --adapter=all --initial -f

      and reboot. It is recommended to generate an xorg.conf for Nvidia GPUs on a linux based system as well, in order to apply the kernel timeout patch and enable fan control

    I may have the wrong driver installed, what should I do?

    (short URL: https://hashcat.net/faq/wrongdriver)

    1. Completely uninstall the current driver

      • Windows: use software center

      • Linux:

        • NVIDIA: nvidia-uninstall

        • AMD: amdconfig --uninstall=force

        • If you installed the driver via a package manager (Linux), then you need to remove these packages too

        • Make sure to purge those package, not to just uninstall them

    2. Reboot

    3. For Windows only: download and start Driver Fusion (free version is enough; select “Display”, AMD/NVidia/Intel, ignore the warning about Premium version), then Reboot

    4. Make sure that no Intel OpenCL SDK, AMD-APP-SDK or CUDA-SDK framework is installed – if it is installed, uninstall it!

    5. For Windows only: manually delete remaining OpenCL.dll, OpenCL32.dll, OpenCL64.dll files on all folders. You should find at least 2. They usually reside in “c:\windows\syswow64” and “c:\windows\system32”. This step is very important!

    6. For Linux only:

      • dpkg -S libOpenCL to find all packages installed that provide a libOpenCL, then purge them

      • find / -name libOpenCL\* -print0 mask ./hashcat.bin -m 2500 test.hccapx

        Note: pipes work in Windows the same as they do in Linux.

        Those attack modes are usually already built into Hashcat, so why should we use a pipe? The reason is, as explained above, masks are split in half internally in Hashcat, with one half being processed in the base loop, and the other half processed in the mod loop, in order to make use of the amplification technique. But this reduces the number of base words, and for small keyspaces, reduces our parallelism, thus resulting in reduced performance.

    Is piping a wordlist slower than reading from file?

    No, piping is usually equally fast.

    However, most candidate generators are not fast enough for hashcat. For fast hashes such as MD5, it is crucial to expand the candidates on the GPU with rules or masks in order to achieve full acceleration. However be aware that different rulesets are not producing constant speeds. Especially big rulesets can lead to a significant speed decrease. The increase from using rules as amplifier can therefor cancel itself out depending how complicated the rules are.

    Why is my attack so slow?

    • To find out about what maximum speeds you can expect from your system, run a benchmark How can I perform a benchmark? Note: Benchmarks are a “best case” scenario, i.e. single hash brute force. Real-world speed can vary depending on the number of hashes and attack mode.

    • In most of the cases of “slow speeds” you simply did not create enough work for hashcat. Read How to create more work for full speed?

    • You can add more pressure on the GPU using the -w 3 parameter. Note: this will cause your desktop to lag because the GPU is so busy it can not compute desktop changes like mouse movement.

    • Your GPUs are overheating. If this happens (typically around 90c) the GPU bios automatically downclocks the GPU = slower speed

    • The more hashes are in your hashlist, the slower the speed gets. The biggest difference is between one or more hashes because for single hashes hashcat can use special optimitations which only can be used when cracking just a single hash

    • Some hashes are designed to run slow, like bcrypt, scrypt or bitcoin wallet. Deal with it.

    Why does hashcat says it has only 2% GPU utilization?

    How is it possible that hashcat does not utilize all GPUs?

    If the number of base-words is so small that it is smaller than the GPU power of a GPU, then there is simply no work left that a second, or a third, or a fourth GPU could handle.

    Read How to create more work for full speed?

    Why does hashcat sometimes get very slow at the end of an attack?

    First we need to define “what is the end of an attack”. oclHashat defines this for the following case:

    If the number of base-words is less than the sum of all GPU power values of all GPU. Read What is it that you call "GPU power"?

    This happens when you see this message:

    INFO: approaching final keyspace, workload adjusted

    If this happens, hashcat tries to balance the remaining base-words to all GPU. To do this, it divides the remaining base-words with the sum of all GPU power of all GPUs which will be a number greater than 0 but less than 1. It then multiplies each GPU power count with this number. This way each GPU gets the same percentage of reduction of parallel workload assigned, resulting in slower speed.

    Note that if you have GPUs of different speed it can occur that some GPU finish sooner than others, leading to a situation when some GPU end up in 0 H/s.

    Why is hashcat taking so long to report progress?

    (short URL: https://hashcat.net/faq/slowprogress)

    This is a problem related to (a) how GPU parallelization works in general in combination with (b) an algorithm with a very iteration count.

    When it comes to modern hashing algorithms they are typically designed in a way that they are not parallelizable and that the calculation has to be done in serial. You can not start computing iteration 2 if you have not computed iteration 1 before. They depend on each other. This means for slow algorithms like 7-Zip (if we want to make use of the parallelization power of a gpu) we have to place a single password candidate on a single shader (which a gpu has many) and compute the entire hash on a it. This can take a very long time, depending on the iteration count of the algorithm. We're talking about times up to a minute here for a single hash computation. But what we got for doing it is that we're able to run a few 100k at the same time and make use of the parallelization power of the gpu in that way. That's why it takes so long for hashcat to report any progress, because it actually takes that long to compute a single hash with a high iteration count.

    In the past hashcat did not report any speed for such extreme cases, resulting in hashing speed of 0H/s. Some users may remember such cases and wondering “why isn't spotify premium 2019 - Free Activators doing anything”. From a technical perspective nothing changed. In the past and also today the GPU just need that much time. The only difference is in newer hashcat versions is that it creates an extrapolation based on the current progress of the iterations. For example it knows that the shader processed like 10000 of 10000000 iterations in X time and therefore it can tell how much it will (eventually) take to process the full iteration count and recomputes this into a more or less valid hashing speed, which is in that case not the real one. This is what you are shown in the speed counter.

    But that's the theoretical part. When it comes to GPGPU it's actually not enough to feed as many password candidates to the GPU as it has shaders. There's a lot of context switching going on the GPU which we have no control over. To keep all the shaders busy for the entire time we have to feed it with password candidates many times the number of shaders.

    (See this forum post for an illustration with examples)

    Can I restore a hashcat session?

    The command line switch you are looking for is --restore.

    The only parameters allowed when restoring a session are:

    • --restore (required): tell hashcat that it should restore a previous session

    • --session (optional): specify the session name of the previous session that hashcat should restore

    • --restore-file-path (optional): use specific restore file path

    Note: if you did use --session when starting the cracking job, you also need to use --session with the same session name to restore it.

    Further parameters and switches are currently not allowed, e.g. you can't simply add -w 3 when restoring (i.e. --restore -w 3) because it will be ignored. If you really know what you are doing and want to change some parameters in your .restore file, you might want to use some third-party tool like analyze_hc_restore

    Also see restore for more details about the .restore file format.

    Can I restart hashcat on a different PC or is it possible to add a new GPU to my system?

    Yes! All you need to ensure is that no files have been modified.

    The most important file here is the .restore file (the file name depends on the session name used, see --session parameter, so it is $session.restore). You need to copy at least the original hash list and the .restore file to the new computer.

    Therefore, if you move to a different PC make sure all the paths are the same and all files exist.

    To get more information about which files we mean you can use this utility to find out: https://github.com/philsmd/analyze_hc_restore

    How can I distribute the work on different computers / nodes?

    If you want to make use of multiple computers on a network, you can use a distributed wrapper.

    There are some free tools:

    1. Hashtopolis (even works over internet connections), original code from Hashtopus, renamed (was Hashtopussy)

    2. Disthc

    There are also some proprietary commercial solutions:

    1. Hashstack

    We do neither develop nor maintain, nor directly support, any of these third-party tools. Please contact the authors of these tools directly if you have any questions.

    I read somewhere to use VCL for distributed cracking, is this still a thing?

    Can hashcat send an email once a hash has been found?

    No. In order to achieve this, you will need to wrap your hashcat attack in a script that sends an email when hashcat is finished.

    Why is my script unable to communicate with the hashcat / hashcat legacy prompt?

    The reason behind is that hashcat and hashcat legacy have this prompt:

    [s]tatus [p]ause [r]esume [b]ypass [q]uit =>

    The problem with Linux and Windows in this case is that if a user would press “s” it would be buffered until the users also hits enter.

    To avoid this, we have to put hashcat into the canonical mode and set the buffersize to 1.

    You can still communicate with the process, but you have to spawn your own PTY before you call hashcat to do so.

    I got a hash cracked on a different computer, can I tell hashcat about that while it is running?

    The answer is yes - but before we explain how to do it, let's answer the question of why you want to do it. The answer is simple, especially when you're cracking salted hashes.

    Imagine that you have a large hashlist with 100 salts. This will reduce your guessing speed by a factor of 100. Once all hashes bound to a given salt are cracked, hashcat notices this and skips over that specific salt. This immediately increases the overall performance, because now the guessing speed is only divided by 99. If you crack another salt, the speed is divided by 98, and so on. That's why it's useful to tell hashcat about cracked hashes while it's still running.

    You may have already noticed that when you start hashcat, a 'hashcat.outfiles' directory is automatically created (more correctly the *.outfiles directory depends on the session name, see --session, so it is $session.outfiles/).

    This directory can be used to tell hashcat that a specific hash was cracked on a different computer/node or with another cracker (such as hashcat-legacy). The expected file format is not just plain (which sometimes confuses people), but instead the full hash[:salt]:plain.

    For instance, you could simply output the cracks from hashcat-legacy (with the --outfile option) to the *.outfiles directory, and hashcat will notice this immediately (depending on --outfile-check-timer).

    The parameters that you can use to modify the default settings/behavior are:

    --outfile-check-dir=FOLDER Specify the outfile directory which should be monitored, default is $session.outfiles --outfile-check-timer=NUM Seconds between outfile checks

    hashcat will continuously check this directory for new cracks (and modified/new files). The synchronization between the computers is open for almost any implementation. Most commonly, this will be an NFS export or CIFS share. But in theory it could be also synced via something like rsync, etc.

    Note: some users confuse the induction (--induction-dir) and loopback (--loopback) feature with the feature mentioned above, but they are (very) different:

    • outfile check: as described above in detail, this is used when you already exactly know some hash[:salt]:plain combinations, because a subset or all of the hash(es) were already cracked on other computer/nodes or with other crackers

    • induction: in the induction directory you can add some (new) plains that hashcat should load/use after the current dictionary is finished

    • loopback: re-use the plains/passwords Oxygen XML Editor For Windows did crack a hash, e.g. apply some rules - after the first run - to the modified and matching plains. This kind of looping will only stop if no more plains match.

    Please use the python script office2hashcat.py to extract the required information from an office file.

    After you have extracted the “hashes” with the script linked above, you need to either know the office version number or compare the hashes directly with the example_hashes. Depending on the version number/signature of the hashes you select the corresponding hash mode and start hashcat with the -m value you got.

    You should use the pdf2hashcat.py tool to extract the required information of the .pdf files. The output “hashes” could have different signatures depending on the pdf version. For some example hashes see: example hashes (-m 10400, -m 10500, -m 10600 or -m 10700).

    pdf “hashes” with different hash types (-m values) need to be cracked separately, i.e. you need to have different cracking jobs for each hash type and specify the correct -m value. But if several hashes were generated by the same PDF software version, they can be cracked together and the hash file would look like any other multi-hash file (one hash per line).

    In order to crack TrueCrypt volumes, you will need to feed hashcat with the correct binary data file. Where this data lives depends on the type of volume you are dealing with.

    The rules are as follows:

    1. for a TrueCrypt boot volume (i.e. the computer starts with the TrueCrypt Boot Loader) you need to extract 512 bytes starting with offset 31744 (62 * 512 bytes). This is true for TrueCrypt 7.0 or later. For TrueCrypt versions before 7.0 there might be different offsets.

      Explanation for this is that the volume header (which stores the hash info) is located at the last sector of the first track of the system drive. Since a track is usually 63 sectors long (1 sector is 512 bytes), the volume header is at sector 63 - 1 (62).

    2. if TrueCrypt uses a hidden partition or volume, you need to skip the first 64K bytes (65536) and extract the next 512 bytes.dd if=hashcat_ripemd160_AES_hidden.raw of=hashcat_ripemd160_AES_hidden.tc bs=1 skip=65536 count=512
    3. in all other cases (files, non-booting partitions) you need the first 512 Bytes of the file or partition.

    You can extract the binary data from the raw disk, for example, with the Unix utility dd (e.g. use a block size of 512 and a count of 1).

    You need to save this hash data into a file and simply use it as your hashlist with hashcat.

    The hashcat wiki lists some TrueCrypt example hashes (e.g. -m 6211, -m 6221, -m 6231 or -m 6241 depending on the exact TrueCrypt settings that were used when setting up the TrueCrypt volume). If you want to test/crack those example “hashes”, as always, use the password “hashcat” (without quotes).

    The same procedure should also work for VeraCrypt volumes (but you need to adapt the hash mode to -m 137XY - see the --help output for all the supported hash modes for VeraCrypt and the correct values for X and Y).

    The procedure to extract the important information from data encrypted with VeraCrypt follows the same steps/rules as for TrueCrypt: see How do I extract the hashes from TrueCrypt volumes?

    It's important that you do not forget to adapt the hash mode (-m). For all supported hash modes for data encrypted with VeraCrypt, please have a glance at the --help output.

    How can I crack passwords from htpasswd?

    The format of Apache htpasswd password files does support several hashing algorithms, for instance Apache MD5 (“$apr1”), raw sha1 (“{SHA}”), DEScrypt, etc

    Depending on the signature, you need to select the correct hash type (-m value). See example hashes for some examples.

    The format of htpasswd lines is:


    You do not need to remove the username at all, you can just simply use the --username switch.

    An example of the (still) most-widely used format found is -m 1500 = DEScrypt:


    (the password here is “hashcat”)

    How can I crack SL3?

    How can I crack multiple WPA handshakes at once?

    The .hccapx file format allows to have multiple networks within the same .hccapx file.

    This means that a single .hccapx file can also consist of multiple individual .hccapx structures concatenated one to each other.

    For Linux / OSX systems you should use a command similar to this one:

    $ cat single_hccapxs/*.hccapx > all_in_one/multi.hccapx

    and for windows systems this:

    $ copy /b single_hccapxs\*.hccapx all_in_one\multi.hccapx

    The file multi.hccapx (in this particular case) would then consist of all the networks within the single_hccapxs/ folder.

    hashcat is able to load this multi.hccapx file and crack all networks at the same time. Since several different networks have different “salts” the cracking speed would be reduced depending on the amount of networks in the .hccapx file. This is not a problem at all, but normal. The main advantage is that you do not need to run several attacks repeatably for each and every single network/capture.

    cap2hccapx is also able to convert a .cap file with several network captures to a single (“multi”) .hccapx file.

    There are also some third-party tools, like analyze_hccap / craft_hccap / hccap2cap, which could help you to understand and modify the content of a .hccap file.

    Note: the concatenated networks do not need to origin from the same .cap capture file, there is no such limitation on where the captures should come from, but they must be valid/complete captures of course.

    What means "rejected" in the status view?

    There are 2 possible reasons why some password candidates are being rejected:

    • the algorithm itself has some limitations: minimum and/or maximum password length

    • hashcat has some upper limits of password length depending on the attack mode (-a value)

    Some hashing algorithms, like -m 1500 = DEScrypt, do have some limits. In case of DEScrypt the limit is: any password can not be longer than 8. hashcat and hashcat legacy do know these password length restrictions and will automatically filter the password candidates accordingly, i.e. they will be ignored and the number of rejected password candidates will be increased.

    This can also be seen in the status screen:

    . Rejected.: 1/4 (25.00%) .

    In this particular case 1 out of 4 password candidates (25%) were rejected by hashcat.

    Also entire masks can be rejected by hashcat (e.g. if you have several of them in a .hcmask hypersnap license, but it is not limited to .hcmask files). You will see a warning like this one:

    WARNING: skipping mask '?l?l?l?l?l?l?l?l?l' because it is larger than the maximum password length

    It is possible to use some rules to avoid that password candidates will be rejected, for instance see I don't want hashcat to reject words from my wordlist if they are too long, can it truncate them instead?.

    This also brings up an important point, if we apply some rules (-j/-k/-r) or combine several words (-a 1), it is not always possible to reject password candidates immediately by the host (CPU). Therefore, it is possible that the password candidates or words already “reached” the GPU (they were copied to the GPU) but can't and won't be rejected by the host and be counted as rejected, since only the GPU can decide if they should be rejected. This is because hashcat uses a rule engine directly on GPU and can combine plains on your graphics cards too.

    If you want to avoid this behavior, you can just pipe the password candidates to hashcat (and thus avoid that -a 1 or rules are used by hashcat at all). If this pipe method is used and thus hashcat uses a “Dictionary-Attack” -a 0, all password candidates will be rejected as soon as possible because the built-in filter can already reject the plains that do not match the limitation on the host (CPU). It depends from case to case which method is faster, i.e. either using -a 1 (or -r) on GPU or use the piping method to filter some plains as soon as possible.

    What is the maximum supported password length?

    What is the maximum supported salt length?

    The maximum supported salt length is 256 characters/bytes. This is only true for pure kernels, for optimized kernels (i.e. if you are using the -O option or if there are only optimized kernels for the hash type you are using) the maximum salt length is lower and follows the rules mentioned in What is the maximum supported salt length for optimized kernels?

    What is the maximum supported password length for optimized kernels?

    There's no easy or general answer. Thing is, it depends on many factors.

    First let's try to answer why is there such a limitation at all? The answer to this one is more simple: Because of performance! We're not talking here about a few percent. It can make a difference between 0% - 300% so we have to be very careful when we decide to support longer passwords. For example when we dropped the limitation of 16 characters in oclHashcat-plus v0.15 it had the following effect on fast-hashes:

    • Zero-based optimizations: Many algorithms can be optimized based on the fact that zero values in arithmetic or logic operations do not change the input value. With a password limit of less than 16 characters, it was guaranteed that values for positions 16-63 were zero, allowing us to omit dozens of operations from each step. These optimizations can no longer be used. See Passwords13 presentation: http://hashcat.net/p13/js-ocohaaaa.pdf

    • Register pressure: If a password is 15 characters or less, we only need four 32-bit registers to hold it. But as we increase the length, more registers are required. This can slow down the entire process if more registers are required than accessible, as the compiler has to swap out data to global memory. Supporting passwords longer than 15 characters increases register pressure.

    • Wordlist caching: hashcat handles wordlist data in a very unique way. The words are not simply pushed to GPU from start to finish; they are first sorted by length. This is done because many algorithms can be further optimized when all of the input data is the same length. This required a lot of host memory. Depending on the number of GPUs we have and the specified -n value, oclHashcat-plus easily allocated 16GB of host memory or more. This buffer would have been increased 4x since we wanted to increase from a maximum length of 16 to a maximum length of 64. In other words, our host system would request 64GB of RAM!

    • Branching: Many (nearly all) hash algorithm support any password length as input. To do this, the password is split into blocks of a specific size, for example 64 byte for MD5. The hash computes the first 64 byte and then uses the resulting digest as initialization value for the next 64 byte, and so on… To be able to do this, it has to branch (means using if() statement) and GPU's hate branching

    Now what are the real maximum password lengths? This is something that we change from time to time. For each hash-type you can say the following: Whenever we find an optimization that allows us to increase the support, we will do it. Generally speaking, the new maximum length is 55 characters, but there are exceptions:

    • Limitation from the hash itself:

      • 1500: 8

      • 3000: 7

      • 9710: 5

      • 9810: 5

      • 10410: 5

    • For slow hashes:

      • 400: 40

      • 500: 16

      • 1600: 16

      • 1800: 16

      • 2100: 16

      • 5200: 24

      • 5300: 16

      • 5800: 16

      • 6300: 16

      • 7400: 16

      • 7900: 48

      • 8500: 8

      • 8600: 16

      • 10300: 40

      • 10500: 40

      • 10700: 16

      • 11300: 40

    • For fast hashes, the important factor is the attack mode:

      • attack-mode 0, the maximum length is 31

      • attack-mode 1, the maximum size of the words of both dictionaries is 31

      • attack-mode 6 and 7, the maximum size of the words of the dictionary is 31

    Just to make this clear: We can crack passwords up to length 55, but in case we're doing a combinator attack, the words from both dictionaries can not be longer than 31 characters. But if the word from the left dictionary has the length 24 and the word from the right dictionary is 28, it will be cracked, because together they have length 52.

    Also note that algorithms based on unicode, from plaintext view, only support a maximum of 27. This is because unicode uses two bytes per character, making it 27 * 2 = 54.

    What is the maximum supported salt length for optimized kernels?

    The maximum supported salt-length, in general, for the generic hash-types is 31.

    If you came here you are probably looking for the maximum salt-length for the generic hash-types like MD5($pass.$salt) or HMAC-SHA256 (key = $salt). This is because of all the other special (named) hash-type like Drupal7 we set the salt length according to the hash-type specification of the application using it. This means you wouldn't ask for it because you will not run into a problem with it.

    What you cannot do is increase this limit. But you can request a new specific hash-type to be added that has different default limits. This makes sense if the application is somehow prominent enough to be added as a special named hash-type. The correct way of asking for a new hash-type to be added is described here: I want to request some new algorithms or features, how can I accomplish this?

    I do not want hashcat to reject words from my wordlist if they are too long, can it truncate them instead?

    That's indeed possible and very simple. For example, if you're going to crack DEScrypt hashes, they have a maximum length of 8. If you run a typical wordlist on it, for example “rockyou.txt” there are many password of length 9 and more.

    That means hashcat will reject them.

    There's a simple way to avoid this. If you truncate all words from the wordlist to length 8 it will not skip them. This can be done on-the-fly using the -j rule.


    The ' rule means truncate. This has some negative effects, too. For example imagine your wordlist contains something like this:


    Truncating them at position 8 means that all of them will result in simply “password”. This will create unneccesary double checks.

    How can I perform a combinator attack with three wordlists (triple combinator, 3-way combinator)?

    hashcat-utils ships with an command line utility called combinator3. This tool allows one to specify 3 (different or identical) wordlists as command line parameters and it will combine each word within the first wordlist, with each word from the second one and each word from the third wordlist.

    $ ./combinator3.bin dict1.txt dict2.txt dict3.txt

    Note: the total number of resulting password candidates will be determined by words_in_dict1 * words_in_dict2 * word_in_dict3. From this formula it should be clear, that this total number of combinations and resulting words will be very high depending on the number of lines of the 3 files.

    In some (rare) cases it could make more sense to use -a 1 (combinator attack) with -j / -k rules to prepend/append a static plain or pipe combinator2 to hashcat and apply some rules with the -r argument. It depends from case to case which method is faster and/or easier.

    Can I load multiple hashlists at once?

    This is not supported.

    If all the hashes in your hashlists are of the same hash-type it is safe to copy them all into a single hashlist.

    If they are not of the same hash-type you can still copy them all into a single hashlist but note that if you use the --remove parameter then all valid hashes that could be successfully parsed with the hash type specified are dropped and only the “matching” uncracked hashes will remain in the list.

    I want to skip password candidates that have repeating characters. Is this possible?

    Well, it's not supported built-in. But maskprocessor supports this feature through it's -q option. You could simply pipe the output of maskprocessor to hashcat (or use fifos with hashcat legacy).

    That looks like the following:

    $ ./mp64.bin -q 3 ?d?d?d?d?d?d?d?d sponge hashlist.txt

    Since hashcat automatically removes such duplicate hashes on startup you don't have to worry about this.

    Why does hashcat not work with my Kali operating system?

    In theory, it should. The only problems we can imagine are that either Kali is simply using an invalid driver or that you did not download hashcat directly from https://hashcat.net/hashcat and that the hashcat version used is not up to date.

    In the past, there was a problem where Kali still used a very old glibc that was incompatible with the one from Ubuntu. When we compiled new hashcat or hashcat-legacy binaries, the compiler used the glibc from the host system. To work around the problem, we switched to a hashcat-legacy-specific toolchain, which uses an older glibc that is compatible with the one used in Kali. So this specific problem should not exist anymore.

    Can I use JtR rules with hashcat?

    Most of them, yes. There are some functions that are not supported by hashcat / hashcat legacy. The rule syntax documentation shows which rules are compatible with JtR.

    However, in case you use such an unsupported rule, both hashcat and hashcat legacy simply skip over them and gives you a warning, but they are not applied. This means you can simply use them and the ones that are fully compatible are applied.

    The preprocessor “[” and “]” from JtR is not supported. Please use maskprocessor to generate those rules.

    Which wordlist are recommended for WPA cracking?

    This is a typical error. There can't be specific wordlist for specific hash-type targets. One can argue that WPA does not allow words < length 8 but for this case hshcat has a built-in filter. That means, hashcat knows all the different minimum and maximum limits of a specific hash-type and filters non-matching words from your wordlist on-the-fly. Don't worry about such cases!

    I want to request some new algorithms or features, how can I accomplish this?

    The preferred method is to use github issues.

    Please make sure that the feature/problem was not already reported by using the search function.

    A short reminder about the important information a github issue needs:

    • Problem/bug:

      • detailed description what exactly does not work, e.g. KMSAuto Lite Activator a clear description of the problem

      • description when exactly the problem occurs (and when it doesn't)

      • full command (but reduced to the bare minimum - of parameters etc - needed)

      • example input (if needed also word lists / hash lists)

      • further details when you first saw this problem (e.g. which hashcat version was the first to have this bug)

      • tell us if it can be reliably reproduce or it is kind of random

      • if possible test with different operating systems / setups (or at least mention the details of your system)

    Источник: https://hashcat.net/wiki/doku.php?id=frequently_asked_questions

    Advanced daylighting, electric lighting, and conceptual thermal analysis.


    ClimateStudio is the fastest and most accurate environmental performance analysis software for the Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) sector. Its simulation workflows help designers and consultants optimize buildings for energy efficiency, daylight access, electric lighting performance, visual and thermal comfort, and other measures of occupant health. ClimateStudio is a plugin for Rhinoceros 3D and requires the latest service release of version 6 or 7.

    Screen Shot 2020-10-02 at 2.15.46 PM.png
    Источник: https://www.solemma.com/climatestudio

    P0172 – Meaning, Causes, Symptoms, & Fixes

    Code P0172 Definition

    Bank 1 has more fuel then it should or not enough air.

    What Does P0172 Mean?

    Combustion engines run most efficiently when they maintain an air-fuel mixture ratio of 14.7 parts air to 1 part fuel. When the upstream oxygen sensor detects there are less than 14.7 parts air to 1 part fuel in the air-fuel mixture, a rich condition exists. To keep the engine running properly, the powertrain control module (PCM) tries to compensate for the rich condition by injecting less fuel to the mixture in an effort to maintain the proper 14.7:1 air-fuel ratio. When these adjustments become too large, code P0172 is triggered.

    What Are the Symptoms Of P0172?

    • Check Engine Light is on
    • Lack of power from the engine
    • Rough idle
    • Engine hesitating
    • Engine misfiring
    • Strong fuel smell from exhaust

    What Is The Cause Of P0172?

    • Dirty or faulty Mass Air Flow (MAF) sensor
    • Faulty oxygen sensor
    • Faulty air-fuel ratio Sensor
    • Leaky fuel injectors allowing too much fuel into the combustion cylinders
    • Worn spark plugs
    • Stuck fuel pressure regulator
    • Faulty coolant temperature sensor
    • Faulty coolant thermostat

    How Serious Is Code P0172? – Moderate 

    It is okay to drive a vehicle with P0172 for a short period of time, but driving with this code for an extended period of time can cause internal engine damage and failure of the catalytic converter.

    Code P0172 Common Diagnosis Mistakes

    It is important to complete the entire diagnostic process when diagnosing P0172. Many airflow wiki - Crack Key For U will replace the air-fuel sensor or O2 sensor as soon as they get a bad reading, but the root cause is often a dirty or faulty Mass Air Flow (MAF) Sensor or vacuum leak, thus causing the O2 or A/F sensor to read differently to compensate. Reading and analyzing airflow wiki - Crack Key For U trims and the freeze frame data is the key to properly diagnosing P0172.

    Tools Needed to Diagnosis Code P0172:

    How To Diagnosis Code P0172?

    Difficulty of Diagnosis and Repair – 3 out of 5

    1. Use FIXD to scan your vehicle to verify P0172 is the only code present. If other codes are present, they must be addressed first.
    2. Inspect your air intake box and air intake pipe for any obstructions that would prevent sufficient airflow in the engine. Inspect your air filter to ensure it is not dirty and it is seated properly.
    3. Remove the Mass Air Flow (MAF) Sensor and clean the sensor using mass air flow cleaner. Reinstall the Mass Air Flow (MAF) Sensor and clear the check engine light using FIXD. If the check engine light comes back on with code P0172 continue the diagnostic process.
    4. If check engine light code P0172 persists after you have inspected the air intake system and cleaned the Mass Air Flow (MAF) Sensor, perform a fuel pressure test. If any components in the fuel system are failing, replace them as necessary. Pay special attention to the fuel pressure regulator and the fuel injectors. If the fuel pressure regulator is stuck, it can cause a rich condition due to the high pressure. If the fuel injectors are faulty, they could leak fuel into the cylinders rather than delivering the precise amount needed for the air-fuel ratio.
    5. Check that your coolant temperature sensor and coolant thermostat are functioning properly (see steps 3 and 4 of P0128). If either of these is not functioning properly, the vehicle will stay in an “open-loop” operation and continue to deliver a fixed rich mixture.
    6. If the check engine light persists after this diagnostic process, it is most likely time to change the oxygen sensor(s) and/or A/F sensor. You can test the oxygen sensor to verify this is the fix. Here is a great video that clearly explains this process!

    Estimated Cost of Repair

    For error code P0172, one or more of the below repairs may be needed to solve the underlying issue. For each possible repair, the estimated cost of repair includes the cost of the relevant parts and the cost of labor required to make the repair.

    • Air filter $20
    • Clean MAF $100
    • Fuel pressure regulator $200-$400
    • Air fuel sensor or oxygen sensor $200-$300
    • Thermostat $200-$300
    • Engine coolant temperature sensor $150-$200
    Источник: https://www.fixdapp.com/blog/p0172-code/

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    Posted inCrack Key For

    1 thoughts on “Airflow wiki - Crack Key For U”

    • Cycro the large planet / Windows 11 says:

      Oh. Yeah! I thought the professor was so smart and God Damn right.

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